Ubukungu bw'Afurika

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Inyandiko y'umwimerere: Economy Ubukungu bw'Afurika

Ubukungu bwa Afrika bugizwe nubucuruzi, inganda, ubuhinzi, hamwe n'abakozi . Mu mwaka wi 2019, ibihugu 54 bigize umugabane wa Afurika byari bituwe n'abantu bagera kuri miliyari 1,3 [1] . Afurika ni umugabane ukungahaye ku mutungo kamere. Iterambere ryo muri iyi myaka ryatewe no kwiyongera mu kugurisha ibicuruzwa, muri serivisi, ndetse n'umusaruro w'inganda. Biteganijwe ko umwaka wa 2050 uzagera Afurika y'Iburengerazuba, Afurika y'Iburasirazuba, Afurika yo hagati na Afurika y'Epfo by'umwihariko, bigeze kuri GDP ingana na tiriyari 29 z'amadorari y'Amerika.

Muri Werurwe 2013, Afurika yagaragaye nk'umugabane ukennye cyane ku isi: Umusaruro rusange wa Afurika wose hamwe ni kimwe cya gatatu cy'umusaruro rusange w'Amerika; ariko, Banki y'Isi iteganya ko niba umuvuduko w'ubwiyongere ukomeje, mu 2025 ibihugu byinshi by'Afurika bizagera ku "rwego rwo hagati" rudakennye kandi rudakize (nukuvuga nibura amafaranga 1.000 y'amadolari y'Amerika ku muntu ku mwaka).

Impamvu zituma ubukungu bwifashe nabi muri Afurika ninyinshi: mu mateka, Afurika yari ifite ingoma nyinshi zikize zicuruza mu bice byinshi byisi; ariko, ubukoloni bw’ibihugu by’i Burayi hamwe n’ibibazo byakurikiyeho byatewe n'ubwigenge n’intambara y'ubutita, byateje ihungabana mu bukungu no mu mibereho y'abaturage. Icyakora, guhera mu mwaka wa 2013 Afurika yabaye umugabane w’iterambere ryihuse ku isi ku kigero cya 5,6% ku mwaka, kandi biteganijwe ko GDP iziyongera ku kigereranyo cya 6% ku mwaka hagati ya 2013 na 2023.[2] Muri 2017, Banki y'Afurika itsura amajyambere yatangaje ko Afurika ari iya kabiri ku isi ifite ubukungu bwihuta cyane, inavuga ko ubukungu buziyongera kugera kuri 3,4% muri 2017, mu gihe biteganijwe ko izamuka rizagera kuri 4.3% muri 2018.[3] Iterambere ryagaragaye ku mugabane wa Afurika, aho kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibihugu bya Afurika byagaragaje kwiyongera kw' iterambere ku kigereranyo cya 6% kuzamura, naho 40% byiyongera hagati ya 4% kugeza 6% kumwaka. Indorerezi mpuzamahanga z’ubucuruzi nazo zagereranije Afurika nk’imoteri izamura ubukungu ku isi.[4]

Amateka[edit | edit source]

ibipimo fatizo bya Misiri Ya kera byanakoreshwaga nkifaranga ryabo

Ubukungu bwa Afurika bwari bugiye butandukanye, ahanini bwari bushingiye ku nzira nini z'ubucuruzi zari zarakozwe hagati y'imijyi niyindi no hagati yubwami nubundi . Inzira zimwe z'ubucuruzi zanyuraga ku butaka, izindi zikanyura mu nzuzi, izindi zo mu bihugu byateye imbere zanyuraga ku byambu bikikije imigi. Ubwami bunini bw'Afurika bwagiye bukira kubera imiyoboro y’ubucuruzi bwari bufite, twavuga nka Misiri ya kera, Nubiya, Mali, Ashanti, n’ubwami bwa Oyo .

Soltanate yifaranga rya Mogadishu .

Bimwe mu bice bya Afurika byari bifitanye umubano w’ubucuruzi n’ubwami bw’abarabu, kandi mu gihe cy’ingoma ya Ottoman, Abanyafurika batangiye kwinjira mu idini rya Isilamu ari benshi. Iri terambere, hamwe no gushakisha inzira yubucuruzi ku nyanja yu Buhinde, byazanye Abanyaportigale muri Afrika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara nkingabo zifite ingufu. Kubw'Inyungu zabakoloni bashizeho inganda nshya zo kugaburira ibyifuzo by’i Burayi ku bicuruzwa nk’amavuta y’amamesa, reberi, ipamba, ibyuma byagaciro, ibirungo, ibihingwa ngengabukungu ibindi bicuruzwa, cyane cyane ku turere two ku nkombe yubukungu ya Atlantike.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge bw’ibihugu bya Afurika mu kinyejana cya 20, imidugararo mu bukungu, muri politiki ndetse no mu mibereho yabaturage byahungabanije cyane umugabane. Ariko mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe ubukungu bwarazamutse bigaragara, mu myaka yashize. 

Izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’Afurika ( kuva mu myaka ya za 2000) ryagereranijwe n’ubukungu bw’Ubushinwa bwazamutse bigaragara muri Aziya kuva mu mpera za 70. Muri 2013, Afurika yari ifite ibihugu birindwi kurutonde rwibihugu byihuta cyane mu bukungu ku isi .

Mu mwaka w' 2018, Nijeriya niyo yari ifite ubukungu bukomeye mubijyanye na GDP nominal, igakurikirwa n' Afrika yepfo ukurikije PPP, Misiri ni iya kabiri mubijyanye na GDP nominal nyuma ya Nijeriya. Gineya Ekwatoriyali niyo yari ifite GDP ya mbere muri Afurika nubwo yarangwaga nihohoterwa no kutubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu. Ibihugu bikungahaye kuri peteroli nka Alijeriya, Libiya na Gabon,n'ibikungahaye ku bucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro nka Botswana byagaragaye mubihugu bifite ubukungu bwa mbere kuva mu kinyejana cya 21, mu gihe Zimbabwe na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, byashobokaga ko byaba mu bihugu bikize ku isi, nyamara bikaba biri mu rutonde rw'ibihugu bikennye cyane ku isi kubera ruswa ikabije, politiki mbi, intambara ndetse n'umusaruro muke w'abakozi. Botswana yesheje imihigo muri Afurika ndetse no ku isi mukugira ubukungu bwihuta mu myaka ya 1966–1999. 

Ibihe byubu[edit | edit source]

Isosiyete y'igihugu isaranganya sima yo muri Etiyopiya uruganda rushya muri Dire Dawa

Umuryango w’abibumbye wateganyaga ko ubukungu bw’Afurika buzagera kuri 3.5% muri 2018 na 3,7% muri 2019. Kugeza mu 2007, iterambere muri Afurika ryari imbere yirya Aziya y'Uburasirazuba . Amakuru yerekana ko bimwe mu bice by'uyu mugabane bifite ubukungu buri kwihuta cyane, bitewe n'umutungo kamere wabyo no kongera umutekano wa politiki ndetse no kubungabunga amahoro byashyizwemo ingufu kuva 2007'. Banki y'isi ivuga ko ubukungu bw’ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara bwazamutse ku gipimo kingana cyangwa kirenga igipimo cyo kurwego rw’isi. Ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku bukungu n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage rivuga ko iterambere ry' umugabane muri rusange riterwa ahanini n’ubukungu bw' igihugu cya Misiri, Nijeriya na Afurika yepfo, bitatu mu bihugu bifite ubukungu bukomeye muri Afurika.

Ibihugu by’Afurika byihuta mu bukungu byateye imbere cyane ku kigereranyo cy’isi. Ibihugu byambere mu 2007 birimo Moritaniyayiyongereyeho 19.8%, Angola 17,6%, Sudani 9,6%, Mozambike kuri 7.9% na Malawi kuri 7.8%. Ibindi bihugu byateye imbere byihuse harimo u Rwanda, Mozambike, cade, Nijeri, Burkina Faso, Etiyopiya Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko, iterambere ryabaye ribi, riranadindira mu bice byinshi bya Afurika harimo Zimbabwe, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, Repubulika ya Kongo n'Uburundi . Inzego mpuzamahanga nyinshi zishishikajwe no gushora imari mu bukungu bwa Afurika bugenda buzamuka, cyane cyane ko Afurika ikomeje kuzamuka mu bukungu nubwo ubukungu bwifashe nabi ku isi . Igipimo cy’inyungu ku ishoramari muri Afurika kuri ubu nicyo kiri hejuru mu bihugu biri mu nzira y'amajyambere.

Kugabanya imyenda bikemurwa n’ibigo bimwe na bimwe mpuzamahanga hagamijwe gushyigikira iterambere ry’ubukungu muri Afurika. Mu 1996, Umuryango w'abibumbye wateye inkunga gahunda y'ibihugu bikennye cyane (HIPC), nyuma iyo gahunda ifatwa na IMF, Banki y'Isi ndetse n'Ikigega Nyafurika gishinzwe iterambere ( AfDF) mu buryo bwo gurangiza amadeni menshi (MDRI). Kugeza mu mwaka wa 2013, iki gikorwa cyakuyeho kimwe cya kabiri cyimyenda ku bihugu 30 bya Afurika.

Ubwiyongere bw'ubucuruzi[edit | edit source]

Ubucuruzi bwateje imbere cyane ubukungu bwa Afurika mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 21. Ubushinwa n'Ubuhinde nibo bafatanyabikorwa b'ingenzi mu bucuruzi; 12.5% by'ibituruka muri Afurika byoherezwa mu Bushinwa, naho 4% byoherezwa mu Buhinde, ibingana na 5% by'ibicuruzwa bitumizwa mu Bushinwa naho 8% mu buhinde. Itsinda ry'ibihugu bitanu ( Indoneziya, Maleziya, Arabiya Sawudite, Tayilande, na Leta zunze ubumwe z'Abarabu ) na ryo ni soko rikomeye cyane ku byo Afurika yohereza mu mahanga.

Ejo hazaza[edit | edit source]

Amatangazo yamamaza ya terefone igendanwa, ashushanyije ku modoka, Kampala, Uganda .

Ubukungu bwa Afurika, kwagura ubucuruzi, ubumenyi bw’icyongereza (ururimi rukoreshwa cyane mu bihugu byinshi byo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara), guteza imbere gusoma no kwandika, kubona aho abaturage bakura amafaranga, ndetse n’abakozi bahendutse - biteganijwe ko bizakomeza gushyirwamo ingufu mu bihe biri imbere. Ubucuruzi hagati ya Afurika n'Ubushinwa bwageze kuri miliyari 166 z'amadolari ya Amerika mu 2011.

Afurika izagira "inyungu zishingiye ku mubare wabaturage" mu 2035, igihe abakozi bayo bakiri bato bo munzego zitandukanye bazaba bafite abana bake ndetse n’umubare wabari mukiruhuko kizabukuru ari bake ugereranije n' Amerika n'Uburayi . Umubare w'abakozi bize nawo uri kuzamuka, hafi kimwe cya kabiri biteganijwe ko bazaba bafite amashuri yisumbuye mu 2020. Abaguzi nabo bakomeje kwiyongera muri Afurika kandi biteganijwe ko bizakomeza. Afurika ifite abantu bagera kuri miliyoni 90 bafite amafaranga yinjira mu rugo arenga amadorali y'Amerika 5,000 , bivuze ko bashobora gukoresha igice kirenga kimwe cya kabiri cy’amafaranga binjiza mu mu kugura ibirenze ibikenewe. Uyu mubare biteganijwe ko ushobora kugera kuri miliyoni 128 muri 2020.

Mu ruzinduko Perezida wa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika Barack Obama yagiriye muri Afurika muri Nyakanga 2013, yatanze miliyari 7 z'amadolari ya Amerika yo kurushaho guteza imbere ibikorwa remezo no gukorana cyane n'abakuru b'ibihugu by'Afurika. Gahunda nshya yiswe Ubucuruzi bwafurika, igamije kuzamura ubucuruzi ku mugabane wa Afurika ndetse no hagati ya Afurika na Amerika, nayo yatangijwe na Obama.

Gahunda nshya y’iterambere ry’ubukungu yatangijwe n’abanyamuryango b’umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika bagera kuri 27 bagize bimwe mu bihugu byateye imbere ku mugabane w’Afurika, izarushaho guteza imbere ubukungu, imibereho myiza y'abaturage na politiki by’umugabane. Agace kigenga k’ubucuruzi nyafurika kazazamura ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi hagati mu bihugu bigize umuryango w'ubumwe bw'Afurika ndetse no ku mugabane wa Afurika . Ibi bizagabanya cyane gutegereza ibyo Afurika itumiza mu mahanga birimo ibikoresho fatizo. [5]

Ikinyuranyo hagati y’ibihugu bikize n’ibikennye biteganijwe ko kizakomeza kwiyongera mu myaka icumi iri imbere. [6]

Kwihangira imirimo[edit | edit source]

Kwihangira imirimo ni urufunguzo rw'iterambere. Guverinoma zakagombye kwita kugushyiraho mategeko meza agenga ubucuruzi kugira ngo zishyigikire guteza imbere guhanga udushya. Muri 2019, inkunga yo gutangiza ishoramari yariyongereye igera kuri miliyari 1,3 z'amadolari. [7]

Impamvu z'idindira ryubukungu mu myaka yashize[edit | edit source]

Imiterere ku budakemwa bw'ubukene bwa Afurika bwateje impaka ku mvano zabyo. Intambara n’imyivumbagatanyo, ruswa ikabije, n’ubutegetsi bubi nizo mpamvu z'ingenzi zitera idindira ry'ubukungu bw'Afurika. Ubukoloni bwa Afurika bwateye umutekano muke kubera intambara n'imyivuvagatanyo yaburangaga. Kuva mu kinyejana cya 20 rwagati, Intambara y'ubutita no kwiyongera kwa ruswa no kwiheba kwabaturage nabyo byagize uruhare mu ihungabana ry' ubukungu bwa Afurika. 

Nk’uko ikinyamakuru The Economist kibitangaza ngo ibintu by'ingenzi byateye ihungabana ry'ubukungu ni ruswa muri guverinoma, ihungabana rya politiki, ubukungu bw’abasosiyalisiti, na politiki ikumira ubucuruzi. [8]

Ibikorwa Remezo[edit | edit source]

Umuhanda uhuza ibihugu by'Afurika

Nk’uko abashakashatsi bo mu kigo gishinzwe iterambere ry’amahanga babitangaza, kubura ibikorwa remezo mu bihugu byinshi bikiri mu nzira y'amajyambere n'imwe mu mbogamizi zikomeye zituma ubukungu budindira ndetse bigakerereza no kugera ku ntego z'ikinyagihumbi (MDGs). Ishoramari ry'ibikorwa remezo no kubibungabunga birahenze, cyane cyane mu bihugu bidakora ku nyanja, ibyaro ndetse n’ibihugu bituwe cyane muri Afurika .

Byaganiriweho ko ishoramari mu bikorwa remezo ryagize uruhare rurenga kimwe cya kabiri cy’iterambere rya Afurika hagati ya 1990 na 2005 kandi ko kongera ishoramari ari ngombwa kugira ngo iterambere ryiyongere kandi rikemure ubukene. Inyungu ku ishoramari mu bikorwa remezo ni ingirakamaro cyane, ugereranije 30-40% by'ubukungu byinjirira mu ishoramari ryitumanaho (ICT), hejuru ya 40% mu mamashanyarazi, na 80% kumihanda .

Muri Afurika, havugwa ko kugira ngo intego zikinyagihumbi (MDGs) zigerweho bitarenze 2015, ishoramari ry'ibikorwa remezo ryakenera kugera kuri 15% bya GDP (hafi miliyari 93 z'amadolari y'Amerika ku mwaka). Kugeza ubu, inkomoko yinkunga igenda itandukana cyane bitewe ninzego. Inzego zimwe ziganjemo amafaranga ya leta, izindi ziganjemo inkunga ziva mumahanga (ODA) naho izindi n'abashoramari bigenga. Muri Afurika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara, Leta imwe ikoresha hafi miliyari 9.4 z'amadolari muri miliyari 24.9 z'amadorari.

Mu kuhira ibihingwa, mu bihugu byo munsi y'ubutayu bwa sahara, amafaranga hafi ya yose akoreshwa ava mu ngengo yimari ya leta; mu bijyanye nubwikorezi namashanyarazi igice kinini cy'ishoramari kiva mumafaranga ya leta ; mu ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho, amazi n’isuku, igice kinini cy’ingengo yimari kiva mu bikorera no mu bigo byigenga. Inkunga yo hanze yavuye kuri miliyari 7 z'amadolari (2002) igera kuri miliyari 27 z'amadolari (2009). By'umwihariko, Ubushinwa bwagaragaye nk'umushoramari w'ingenzi.

Ubukoloni[edit | edit source]

Ikarita ya gari ya moshi ya Afurika, harimo inzira zateganijwe kandi zirimo kubakwa, Igitabo cy’umwaka wa Leta, 1899.

Ingaruka ku bukungu zatewe no gukoloniza Afurika zaganiriweho. Muri iki kibazo, ibitekerezo byatanzwe n’abashakashatsi, bamwe muri bo batekereza ko Abanyaburayi bagize ingaruka nziza kuri Afurika; abandi bemeza ko iterambere rya Afurika ryadindijwe n'ubutegetsi bw'abakoloni. Igitekerezo kivuga ko idindira ry'ubukungu bwAfurika muri iki gihe riterwa ahanini n’ibikorwa byakomeje gukorwa n’ibihugu by’abakoloni kugira ngo umugabane ukomeze ukene. [9]

Intego nyamukuru yubutegetsi bwabakoloni muri Afrika n’ibihugu by’abakoloni by’Uburayi kwari ugukoresha umutungo kamere wumugabane wa Afurika ku giciro gito. Bamwe mu banditsi nka Walter Rodney mu gitabo cye kivuga ngo uko Uburayi bwakenesheje Afurika, bavuga ko politiki ya gikoroni ari yo nyirabayazana w'ibibazo byinshi muri Afurika.  Abatavugarumwe nubukoloni bashinja abakoloni kuba barashyizeho amategeko akandandamiza abanyafurika, akabasuzuguza, akabatesha agaciro kandi agatuma batigirira ikizere. Abandi bahanga bize nyuma y’abakoloni , twavuga nka Frantz Fanon , nabo bashimangiye icyo gitekerezo; bavuze ko ingaruka nyazo z’ubukoloni ari imitekerereze yo hasi kandi ko gutegekwa n’ibihugu by’amahanga bitera imyumvire irambye yo kumva ko uri hasi kandi ko kugandukira ibihugu byuburayi bitera inzitizi mu gutera imbere no guhanga udushya. Gihamya yizo ngingo nuko ubu hari kuvuka igisekuru gishya cy’Abanyafurika kidafite ibyo ibitekerezo abakoloni bari barashyize mubanyafurika ba kera akaba ariyo mpamvu hari kuboneka impinduka mu bukungu muri iyi myaka. [10]

Abahanga mu by'amateka LH Gann na Peter Duignan bavuze icyo Afurika ishobora kuba yarungukiye kubukoloni ari imyumvire y' uburinganire. Ubukoroni nubwo bwari bufite ibibi byinshi ariko bufatwa nkimwe mu moteri zakoreshejwe cyane mu gukwirakwiza umuco mu mateka y'isi". [11] Ibi bitekerezo ariko, ntibivugwaho rumwe kandi byanzwe na bamwe babona ko nta kiza cy'ubukoloni. Umuhanga mu by'amateka yubukungu David Kenneth Fieldhouse yanze kugira aho abogamira, avuga ko ingaruka z’ubukoloni zari nke kandi ko intege nke nyamukuru zabakoloni zitari mu kudindiza iterambere nkana ahubwo intege nke zabo ziri mubyo bananiwe gukora. [12] Niall Ferguson yemera ingingo ye ya nyuma, avuga ko intege nke z’abakoloni ari uko bananiwe kuzuza inshingano zabo. [13] Isesengura ry’ubukungu bw’ibihugu bya Afurika risanga ibihugu byigengaga nka Liberiya na Etiyopiya bitaragize ubukungu bwiza kurusha bagenzi babo bakoronijwe . By'umwihariko urwego rwubukungu kubahoze bakolonijwe n’abongereza rwari rwiza kuruta ibihugu byigengaga ndetse n’abahoze bakolonijwe n’Abafaransa. [14]

Ubukene bwo muri Afurika bwabayeho na mbere y'ubukoloni. Jared Diamond avuga ko Afurika yahoze ikennye kubera ibintu byinshi byagize ingaruka mu mateka yiterambere . Muri ibyo bintu harimo ubwinshi bwabaturage, kubura amatungo n’ibimera, hamwe nimiterere y'afurika,kuko ifite icyerekezo cy’amajyaruguru-Amajyepfo. Icyakora ibitekerezo bya Diamond byanenzwe na bamwe barimo James Morris Blaut . Umuhanga mu by'amateka John K. Thornton avuga ko Afurika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara yari ikize kandi ko yateye imbere mu ikoranabuhanga kugeza nibura mu kinyejana cya cumi na karindwi. [15] Bamwe mu bahanga bemeza ko muri rusange Afurika yari ikennye kurusha isi yose mu mateka yayo, usibye ibice bimwe na bimwe bya Afurika. Urugero, Acemoglue na Robinson, bavuga ko igice kinini cya Afurika cyahoze gikennye cyane, ariko " Aksum, Gana, Songhay, Mali, na Zimbabwe .... birashoboka ko byari biteye imbere nk'ibindi bihugu byo muricyo gihe ku isi hose." [16] Abantu batari bake barimo Rodney na Joseph E. Inikori bavuze ko ubukene bwa Afurika mu ntangiriro y’abakoloni bwatewe ahanini n’igihombo cy’abaturage kijyanye n’ubucuruzi bw’abacakara ndetse n’izindi mpinduka z’abaturage. [17] Abandi nka JD Fage na David Eltis banze iki gitekerezo. [18]

Indimi zitandukanye[edit | edit source]

Abantu bo muri Gana bafite amahirwe 8.1% yo kuba bahuje ururimi kavukire.

Ibihugu bya Afrika bifite ibibazo byitumanaho biterwa nindimi zitandukanye. Ikigereranyo cya Greenberg kerekana ko amahirwe menshi aruko abantu babiri batoranijwe ku bushake baba bafite indimi kavukire zitandukanye. Ufashe ibihugu 25 bitandukanye ukurikije iki cyigereranyo, 18 (72%) ni Abanyafurika. Nyamara, usanga ururimi rwibanze rwa zaguverinoma, ibiganiro bya politiki, ibiganiro by’amasomo, n’ubuyobozi akenshi bikorwa mu rurimi rw’ibihugu byahoze byakoronije Afurika; Icyongereza, Igifaransa, cyangwa Igiporutugali

Ubucuruzi bushingiye ku bitekerezo[edit | edit source]

Igitekerezo remezo cyemeza ko ubutunzi n’iterambere ry’ibihugu bikomeye by’Uburayi, Amerika y'Amajyaruguru na Aziya y'Iburasirazuba babukesha ubukene bw'isi yose, harimo na Afurika. Abahanga mu bukungu bashyigikiye iki gitekerezo bemeza ko uturere dukennye tugomba guhagarika umubano w’ubucuruzi n’ibihugu byateye imbere kugira ngo dutere imbere. [19]

Ibitekerezo bidahwitse byo gukumira ubukungu mu bihugu byateye imbere bidindiza iterambere rya Afurika. Iyo ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y'amajyambere byasaruye umusaruro w'ubuhinzi ku giciro gito, muri rusange ntabwo byohereza hanze ku giciro kinini nkuko byari byitezwe. Ibikomoka k'ubuhinzi, ibiciro biri hejuru mu bitumizwa mu bihugu byateye imbere , cyane cyane ibyashyizweho n' ubuyapani, umuryango w' ubumwe bw'uburayi , Politiki rusange y'ubuhinzi, na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Amerika; ishami ry'ubuhinzi, ni zimwe mumpamvu zitera ibyo biciro.

Imiterere yafurika nayo igira ingaruka kubyoherezwa hanze; amategeko ya leta zibihugu byinshi bya Afrika nayo abangamira ibyoherezwa mu mahanga. Ubushakashatsi mu kubukungu rusange nku bwo Jane Shaw yakoze bwerekana ko gukumira ibicuruzwa bihungabanya iterambere ry’ubukungu. Abahinzi bahura nikumirwa ryibicuruzwa bitumizwa mu mahanga n’ibicuruzwa byoherezwa mu mahanga biba ngombwa ko bakoresha amasoko yaho batuye bakabura amahirwe yo kujya kwisoko rinini kandi mpuzamahanga. ibyo bituma isoko riba rito, abahinzi bagacika intege zo guhanga udushya kandi bagahinga ibiribwa bike ibyo byose bikadindiza ubukungu.

Imiyoborere[edit | edit source]

Nubwo Afurika na Aziya byari byinjije amafaranga asa mu myaka ya za 1960, Aziya imaze kurenga Afurika, usibye ibihugu bike bikennye cyane kandi byugarijwe n'intambara nka Afuganisitani na Yemeni . Ishuri rimwe ry’ubukungu rivuga ko iterambere ry’ubukungu muri Aziya rishingiye ku ishoramari ryaho. Ruswa muri Afurika igizwe ahanini no gukuraho ubukungu buturuka ku bukode no kwimurira imari shingiro mumahanga aho gushora imari murugo; ndetse nimyumvire y'abanyagitugu b'Abanyafurika bafite konti za banki mu Busuwisi. Abashakashatsi bo muri kaminuza ya Massachusetts Amherst bavuga ko kuva mu 1970 kugeza 1996, ingengo y'imari yavuye mu bihugu 30 byo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara yose hamwe ingana na miliyari 187 z'amadolari, arenga amadeni ibyo bihugu bifitiye amahanga. Abanditsi Leonce Ndikumana na James K. Boyce bavuga ko kuva mu 1970 kugeza 2008, imari shingiro yavuye mu bihugu 33 byo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara yose hamwe yari miliyari 700. Iri tandukaniro mu iterambere rihuye nigitekerezo cyatanzwe n'umuhanga mu bukungu Mancur Olson . Kubera ko leta zari zifite ubutegetsi buhindagurika kandi leta nshya zakunze kwambura imitungo abayobozi bazibanjirije, abayobozi babika umutungo wabo mu mahanga, kugira ngo batazawamburwa .

Umunyagitugu wu munyekongo Mobutu Sese Seko yabaye ruharwa muri ruswa, n'icyenewabo, nyuma yo kunyereza hagati ya miliyari 4 na 15 zamadorali y'Amerika ku ngoma ye. Guverinoma z'abasosiyaliste zateye Marxisme, hamwe n'ivugurura ry'ubutaka, nazo zagize uruhare mu ihungabana ry'ubukungu muri Afurika. urugero, ubutegetsi bwa Robert Mugabe muri Zimbabwe, cyane cyane ifatira ry’abahinzi b’abazungu, byatumye ubukungu bw’ubuhinzi bw’igihugu bwangirika, ahahoze ari kimwe mu bihugu bikomeye bya Afurika; Mugabe yari yarashyigikiwe nuburusiya n'Ubushinwa mugihe cy'intambara yo kubohora Zimbabwe . Muri Tanzaniya, Perezida w’abasosiyaliste Julius Nyerere yeguye mu 1985 nyuma y’uko politiki ye yo guhuriza hamwe ubuhinzi mu 1971 itumye ubukungu bwangirika, inzara ikumirwa gusa n’inkunga nini yatanzwe nikigega mpuzamahanga cy'ubukungu n’ibindi bihugu by’amahanga. [20] Tanzaniya yasigaye nka kimwe mu bihugu bikennye cyane kwisi kandi bishingiye ku mfashanyo, kandi byatwaye imyaka mirongo kugira ngo ikire. Kuva ishyaka ry’abasosiyalisiti ryavaho mu 1992, ikimukira muri demokarasi, Tanzaniya yagize iterambere ryihuse mu bukungu, yiyongeraho 6.5% muri 2017. [21]

Inkunga z’amahanga[edit | edit source]

Kohereza ibiryo mugihe habaye ikibazo cyibura ryabyo ntabwo bikunze kugirwaho impaka muri rusange; ariko nkuko Amartya Sen yabigaragaje, inzara nyinshi ziterwa no kubura amafaranga aho kuba kubura ibiryo. Mu bihe nk'ibi, imfashanyo y'ibiribwa - bitandukanye n'inkunga y'amafaranga - igira ingaruka zo kwangiza ubuhinzi bwaho bayohereje kandi abahinzi bo mubihugu byiburengerazuba (uburayi) bakabyungukiramo kuko baba basabwa umusaruro mwinshi .

Mu mateka, imfashanyo y'ibiribwa ifitanye isano cyane no gucuruza ibiribwa byinshi mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba kuruta ibikenewe mu bihugu biri mu nzira y'amajyambere .

Igitekerezo cy’imfashanyo cyanenzweho kubangamira ingamba z’ubucuruzi. Ibimenyetso bigenda byiyongera byerekana ko inkunga z’amahanga zatumye umugabane ukena. Umwe mu banenze cyane uburyo bwo guteza imbere imfashanyo ni umuhanga mu by'ubukungu Dambisa Moyo (impuguke mu by'ubukungu,umunyazambiya uba muri Amerika), yarwanyije igitekerezo cy’imfashanyo, yerekana uburyo inkunga z’amahanga zadindije iterambere ry’Afurika.

Muri iki gihe, Afurika ihura n'ikibazo cyo gukurura inkunga z’amahanga mu turere dufite amafaranga menshi ava mubyacurujwe. Ikeneye andi mabwiriza agenga ubukungu no kugira uruhare rugaragara mubukungu bwisi. Kubera ko guhatanira inkunga z’amahanga mu bihugu biri mu nzira y'amajyambere bigenda byiyongera, Afurika yagerageje gukomeza urugamba rwayo rwo gukumira inkunga z’amahanga ifata inshingano nyinshi ku rwego rw’akarere ndetse no kurwamahanga. Byongeye kandi, Afurika yashyizeho ' gahunda y'ibikorwa byafurika' mu rwego rwo kugira umubano mushya n’abafatanyabikorwa mu iterambere kugira ngo basangire inshingano zijyanye no kuvumbura uburyo bwo kubona abashoramari b’abanyamahanga. [22]

Guhagarika ubucuruzi ni miryango myinshi[edit | edit source]

Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika niryo tsinda rinini mu bukungu mpuzamahanga ku mugabane wa Afurika . Intego z’uyu muryango zirimo gushyiraho agace k’ubucuruzi bwisanzuye, ihuriro rya gasutamo, isoko rimwe, banki nkuru, n’ifaranga rimwe (reba ubumwe bw’imari nyafurika ), bityo hagashyirwaho ubumwe bw’ubukungu n’ifaranga rimwe . Gahunda iriho ni ugushirahourya Umuryango w’ubukungu bw'Afurika ufite ifaranga rimwe muri 2023. Banki nyafurika yishoramari igamije gushimangira iterambere. Gahunda y' umuryango w'ubumwe bw'Afurika ikubiyemo kandi ikigega cy’imari nyafurika kiganisha kuri Banki Nkuru y'Afurika . Amashyaka amwe ashyigikiye iterambere ry’Afurika yunze ubumwe .

Mu ihuriro mpuzamahanga ry’amafaranga n’amabanki harimo:

  • Banki Nkuru y’ibihugu bya Afurika y’iburengerazuba
  • Banki y'ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo hagati
  • Agace rusange k'ifaranga

Inyandikorugero:African Economic Community

Impinduka zubukungu nibibigaragaza[edit | edit source]

Ikarita ya Afrika ukurikije ibicuruzwa byinjira (GDP nominal) muri miliyari zamadorali y'Amerika (2008). 
  200+

Nyuma yo guhungabana kubukungu bw’isi no kongera gusubira kumurongo mu 2009, mu2011 ubukungu bwa Afurika bwarangiritse kubera imyigaragambyo yo mubihugu by'abarabu nuko gutera imbere kumugabane kuragabanuka buva kuri 5% muri 2010 bugera kuri 3,4% muri 2011. Kubera iterambere ry’ubukungu bwa Afurika y’amajyaruguru hamwe n’iterambere rirambye mu tundi duce tw'Afurika, byari biteganijwe ko iterambere ry’umugabane wa Afurika rizihuta kugera kuri 4.5% muri 2012 na 4.8% muri 2013.  ibibazo by'ubukungu bwisi bw'igihe gito byagumyeho kuko uburayi buhanganye nibibazo byimyenda bufite. Ibiciro by'ibicuruzwa - by'ingenzi muri Afurika - byaraguye bitewe nabaguzi bake ndetse numusaruro mwinshi, kandi bishobora kugabanuka kurushaho. Ariko ibiciro biteganijwe ko bizaguma kurwego rwiza kubohereza ibicuruzwa muri Afrika.

Uturere[edit | edit source]

Ibikorwa by'ubukungu byongeye kwiyongera muri Afurika. Ariko, umuvuduko wo gukira nturi kurwego rumwe mubaturage bibihugu n'uturere. Ibihugu byohereza peteroli muri rusange birakize cyane kuruta ibihugu bitumiza peteroli. Afurika y'Iburengerazuba na Afurika y'Iburasirazuba nibyo bice bibiri byitwaye neza mu mwaka wa 2010.

Ubucuruzi bw’Afurika bwadindijwe na politiki yo gukumirana hagati y'ibihugu n’uturere. N'ubwo bimeze bityo ariko, ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bigize Isoko rusange ry’Afurika y’iburasirazuba n’Amajyepfo (COMESA), akarere gakomeye cyane mu bukungu, bwikubye inshuro esheshatu mu myaka icumi ishize kugeza mu 2012. Urugero, Gana na Kenya byateje imbere amasoko mu karere kubikoresho byubaka, nimashini, bitandukanye cyane n’ibicuruzwa by’amabuye y’ubuhinzi bigize igice kinini cy’ibyoherezwa mu mahanga.

Abaminisitiri b’ubucuruzi bo muri Afurika bemeye mu mwaka wa 2010 gushyiraho akarere k’ubucuruzi ka Pan-Afrika. Ibi bizagabanya imisoro y’ibihugu ku bicuruzwa bitumizwa mu mahanga kandi byongere ubucuruzi bw’imbere muri Afurika, kandi ibi bitanga ikizere kubukungu butandukanye muri rusange.

Uturere twisi ukurikije ubutunzi bwose (muri trillioni z'amadorali y'Amerika), 2018
Ibihugu ukurikije ubutunzi bwuzuye
Ibihugu ukurikije umusaruro rusange kuri buri muntu mu 2018 [23]

Inzego z'ubukungu n'inganda[edit | edit source]

Kubera ko Afurika yohereza ibicuruzwa hanze ikomeje ahanini gushingira ku bikoresho fatizo, ibyoherezwa mu mahanga bihura n'ihindagurika ry’ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa. Ibi byongerera umugabane kwibasirwa n’ihungabana ryo hanze kuyindi migabane kandi bigashimangira ibikenerwa byoherezwa mu mahanga. Ubucuruzi bwa serivisi, cyane cyane ingendo n’ubukerarugendo, bwakomeje kwiyongera mu mwaka wa 2012, bishimangira imbaraga z’umugabane muri uru rwego. [24] [25]

Ubuhinzi[edit | edit source]

Umuhinzi wo muri Kenya ku kazi mu karere ko kumusozi waKenya

Mu gihe ibihugu by'Afurika byohereza ibihingwa mu Burengerazuba, abaturage b'Afurika amamiriyoni bicwa ninzara bitewe n’ibihugu byateye imbere birimo Ubuyapani, Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi na Amerika. Ibi bihugu birinda urwego rw’ubuhinzi bigakumira amahoro menshi yibitumizwa mu mahanga kandi bigatanga inkunga ku bahinzi babo,[26]bigatuma habaho umusaruro mwinshi cyane w’ibicuruzwa nk’ingano, ipamba n’amata. Ingaruka zibi nuko igiciro cyibicuruzwa nkibi gikomeza kugabanuka kwisi kugeza igihe abanyafurika badashoboye guhangana kwisoko, usibye ibihingwa byera muri Afurika gusa. [24] [25]

Mu myaka yashize ibihugu nka Berezile byabonye umusaruro w’ubuhinzi uri hejuru, byemeye gusangira ikoranabuhanga na Afurika mu kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi ku mugabane wa Afurika kugira ngo ube umufatanyabikorwa w’ubucuruzi ukomeye. Kongera ishoramari mu ikoranabuhanga ry’ubuhinzi muri Afurika muri rusange bifite ubushobozi bwo kugabanya ubukene muri Afurika. [24] [25] Isoko ryabakeneye kakawo nyafurika ryarazamutse cyane n’ibiciro birazamuka mu 2008. Guverinoma ya Nijeriya, Afurika y'Epfo na Uganda zakuye inyungu ku bicuruzwa bimwe na bimwe by’ubuhinzi byashakishwaga cyane kwisoko kandi bashyira ingufu mu kuzamura urwego rw’ubuhinzi. Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika urateganya gushora imari cyane mu buhinzi bwa Afurika kandi ibyo bikurikiranirwa hafi bikanashyigikirwa na Loni.

Ingufu z'amashanyarazi[edit | edit source]

Sitasiyo ya Athlone i Cape Town, muri Afrika yepfo
Umuvuduko wumuyaga Muri Afurika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara.
agace gashyuha muri Afrika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara.

Afurika ifite umutungo kamere wo kubyara ingufu z'amashanyarazi muburyo butandukanye ( ingomero z'amazi, ibigega bya peteroli na gaze, umusaruro wamakara, umusaruro wa iraniyumu, ingufu zishobora kubaho nkizuba, umuyaga na geothermal). Kubura iterambere ryibikorwa remezo muri iki gihe bivuze ko hakoreshwa bike muri ibyo byavuzwe haruguru. [24] [25] Abakoresha amashanyarazi menshi muri Afurika ni Afurika y'Epfo, Libiya, Namibiya, Misiri, Tuniziya, na Zimbabwe, buri wese akoresha hagati ya kilowati 1000 na 5000 kuri metero kare ku muntu, bitandukanye na Etiyopiya, Eritereya, na Tanzaniya, aho gukoresha amashanyarazi kuri buri muntu bikiri hasi cyane.

Ibikomoka kuri peteroli na peteroli ubwayo byoherezwa hanze nibihugu 14 bya Afurika. Ibikomoka kuri peteroli na peteroli byagize 46,6% by’ibicuruzwa byoherejwe hanze n'Afurika mu 2010; icya kabiri Afurika yohereza hanze ni gaze karemano, ibingana na 6.3% by’ibyo Afurika yohereza hanze ni gaze.

Ibikorwa Remezo[edit | edit source]

Lagos, Nijeriya, umujyi munini muri Afurika

Kubura ibikorwa remezo ni inzitizi kubucuruzi bwa Afrika. [24] [25] Nubwo Afurika ifite ibyambu byinshi, kubura ibikorwa remezo byo gutwara abantu byongera 30-40% kubiciro, ku byambu bitandukanye bya Aziya.

Imishinga ya gari ya moshi yabaye ingenzi mu turere ducukura amabuye y'agaciro guhera mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 19. Umuhanda wa gari ya moshi watangiye gutekerezwaho mugihe cyabakoloni, ukorwa mugihe cya nyuma yubukoloni. Jedwab na Storeygard bemeje ko kuva muri 1960 kugeza 2015 hari isano rikomeye hagati yishoramari ryubwikorezi niterambere ryubukungu. Politiki ikomeye yari igizwe no kwishyira hamwe kwa mbere yubukoloni, gucamo ibice byamoko, gutura i Burayi, ubwigenge ku umutungo kamere, na demokarasi. [27]

Ibikorwa remezo byinshi binini birakomeje muri Afrika. Kugeza ubu, imishinga myinshi iri mu gukora no gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi. Indi mishinga myinshi iri mugukora imihanda ya kaburimbo, gari ya moshi, ibibuga byindege, nibindi byubaka.

Ibikorwa remezo by'itumanaho nabyo biri kwiyongera muri Afrika. Nubwo interineti iri gutera imbere muyindi migabane, iracyari kuri 9% muri Afurika. Mu 2011, byagereranijwe ko telefoni zigendanwa 500.000.000 z'ubwoko bwose zakoreshwaga muri Afurika, harimo terefone 15,000,000 " zigezweho ".

Ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro na peteroli[edit | edit source]

Inganda zamabuye y'agaciro muri Afrika nizimwe mu nganda nini ku isi. Afurika ni umugabane wa kabiri munini, ufite kilometero kare miliyoni 30 z'ubutaka, bivuzeko ifite umutungo kamere munini. [24] [25] Mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika, ubucukuzi bw'ibinombe n’umusaruro wabyo bigize igice kinini cy’ubukungu bwabyo kandi bikomeza kuba urufunguzo rw’iterambere ry’ejo hazaza. Afurika ikize kumabuye y'agaciro kandi iza ku mwanya wa mbere cyangwa uwa kabiri kwisi kuri bauxite, cobalt, diyama yo mu nganda, urutare rwa fosifate, ibyuma bya platine (PGM), vermiculite, na zirconium . Ubucukuzi bwa zahabu niwo mutungo nyamukuru wa Afurika. 

Inganda[edit | edit source]

Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika ndetse n’Umuryango w’abibumbye bagaragaje gahunda yerekana uburyo Afurika ishobora kwifasha mu nganda no guteza imbere inganda zikomeye ku rwego rujyanye n’ubukungu bwa Afurika mu myaka ya za 1960 hamwe n’ikoranabuhanga ryo mu kinyejana cya 21. kwibanda ku kuzamura umusaruro wibintu bitandukanye munganda, ndetse numusaruro w’ubuhinzi, byatanze icyizere ko ikinyejana cya 21 kizaba ikinyejana cy’iterambere ry’ubukungu n’ikoranabuhanga muri Afurika. Ibi byiringiro, hamwe nizamuka ryabayobozi bashya muri Afurika mu bihe biri imbere, byatumye habaho ijambo " ikinyejana cy'Afurika ", bisobanuye ko ikinyejana cya 21 ari ikinyejana imirimo myinshi, imari shingiro, hamwe n’umutungo by'Afurika bishobora kuba aribyo isi izaba ishingiyeho.

Uruganda rw'isukari rwa Soucreye muri Sidi Bennour, muri Maroko

Ibi byiringiro byo mu nganda bifashwa n’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho n’inganda zicukura amabuye y'agaciro muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara. Namibia yakuruye ishoramari mu nganda mu myaka yashize ndetse n'Afurika y'Epfo yatangiye gutanga imisoro yo gukurura imishinga ishora imari itaziguye mu nganda.

Ibihugu nka Maurice bifite gahunda yo guteza imbere "ikoranabuhanga ritangiza ibidukikije" munganda. Iterambere nkiryo rifite amahirwe menshi yo gufungura amasoko mashya mubihugu bya Afrika kuko hateganijwe ko hazakenerwa ikoranabuhanga ryiza ritangiza ibidukikije mu gihe kiri imbere kuko ibigega bya peteroli ku isi biri gukama kandi ikoranabuhanga rishingiye kuri peteroli rikaba rigenda rita agaciro mu bukungu.

Nijeriya mu myaka yashize yateje imbere inganda, Kurubu ifite uruganda rukora ibinyabiziga kavukire, Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing (IVM) rugakora Bisi yihuta, Amakamyo na SUV hamwe nimodoka zindi nshyashya . Ibirango bitandukanye byabo byimodoka biraboneka muri Nigeriya, Gana no mubindi bihugu bya Afrika yuburengerazuba. Nijeriya kandi ifite abakora ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki nka Zinox, mudasobwa ya mbere ifite ikirango cya Nigeriya. Muri 2013, Nijeriya yashyizeho politiki yerekeye imisoro ku bicuruzwa bitumizwa mu mahanga kugira ngo ishishikarize amasosiyete afite inganda muri icyo gihugu. Ni muri urwo rwego, amwe mu masosiyete akora ibinyabiziga byo mu mahanga nka Nissan yamenyesheje gahunda zabo zo kugira inganda zikorera muri Nijeriya. Usibye ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki n'ibinyabiziga, abaguzi benshi, imiti, ibyo kwisiga, ibikoresho byo kubaka, imyenda, ibikoresho byo mu rugo, plastiki n'ibindi nabyo bikorerwa muri icyo gihugu kandi byoherezwa mu bindi bihugu byo mu burengerazuba bwa Afurika na Afurika muri rusange. Muri iki gihe Nijeriya niyo ikora sima nyinshi muri Afurika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara. Dangote Cement Factory, Obajana ni rwo ruganda runini rwa sima mu munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara. Ogun niyo ifatwa nk'ihuriro ry’inganda muri Nijeriya (kubera ko inganda nyinshi ziherereye muri Ogun ndetse n’amasosiyete menshi yimukirayo), igakurikirwa na Lagos .

Urwego rwinganda ruracyari ruto ariko ruri gukura muri Afrika yuburasirazuba. Inganda nyamukuru harimo urwimyenda , urutunganya impu, ubuhinzi, ibikomoka ku miti, ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki n’imodoka. Ibihugu bya Afrika yuburasirazuba nka Uganda nabyo bikora moto zigurishwa kumasoko yimbere mu gihugu.

Ishoramari n'amabanki[edit | edit source]

Ibigo byinshi byimari bifite ibiro mumujyi wa Johannesburg, muri Afrika yepfo .

Ubushinwa n'Ubuhinde byagaragaje ubushake mukugira uruhare ku bukungu bwa Afurika mu kinyejana cya 21. Ishoramari ry’ubufatanye hagati ya Afurika n'Ubushinwa ryariyongereye cyane mu myaka yashize mu gihe ubukungu bwifashe nabi ku isi.

Ishoramari ry'ubushinwa ryariyongereye muri Afurika bituma Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi nawo ushaka kongera ishoramari. Abanyamuryango ba diyasipora nyafurika mu mahanga, cyane cyane mu bihugu by’Uburayi na Amerika, bongereye imbaraga zo gukoresha ubucuruzi bwabo mu gushora imari muri Afurika no gushishikariza ishoramari nyafurika mu mahanga mu bukungu bw’Uburayi.

Kohereza amafaranga muri dyiasipora nyafurika no kongera inyungu mu ishoramari riva mu Burengerazuba bizafasha cyane cyane ubukungu bwa Afurika butaratera imbere kandi bwangiritse cyane nk'Uburundi, Togo na Comoros. Icyakora, abahanga barinubira amafaranga menshi agira mu kohereza amafaranga muri Afurika kubera ko Western Union na MoneyGram bigenzura isoko ryohereza amafaranga muri Afurika, bigatuma Afurika ari isoko ryo kohereza amafaranga ahenze ku isi. Abahanga bamwe bavuga ko amafaranga menshi yo gutunganya ajyanye no kohereza amafaranga muri Afurika abangamira iterambere ry’ibihugu bya Afurika.

Angola yatangaje ko ishishikajwe no gushora imari mu bihugu by’Uburayi,cyane cyane Porutugali. Afurika y'Epfo yakunze kwitabwaho na Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika mwishoramari ryinganda, ku isoko ry'imari no mu bucuruzi buciriritse, kimwe na Liberiya mu myaka yashize iyobowe n'ubuyobozi bwayo bushya.

Hariho ibigo bibiri by'ubumwe bw’ifaranga ry'Afurika: Banki y'Afurika yiburengerazuba hamwe na banki y'Afurika yo hagati. yombi akoresha amafaranga ya CFA (akoreshwa n'ibihugu byakoronijwe n'abafaransa) ku masoko yabo yemewe. Igitekerezo cy’ubumwe bw’ifaranga rimwe muri Afurika cyaremejwe, kandi gahunda zirahari kugira ngo bizagerweho mu 2020, nubwo ibibazo byinshi, nko kuzana igipimo cy’ifaranga ry’umugabane munsi ya 5%, bikomeje kuba inzitizi mu gushyira mubikorwa iyi gahunda.

Ivunjisha[edit | edit source]

Icyicaro gikuru cya Bourse de Tunis i Tunisi, muri Tuniziya

Kugeza mu mwaka wa 2012, Afurika ifite imigabane 23, ikubye kabiri iyo yari ifite imyaka 20 ishize. Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko, ivunjisha ryimigabane nyafurika riracyari munsi ya 1% yibikorwa byimigabane kwisi. Uko Ivunjisha rifashe mubihugu icumi bya mbere muri Afurika n’imari shingiro (amafaranga atangwa muri miliyari y'amadorari y'Amerika):

  • Afurika y'Epfo (82.88) (2014)
  • Misiri biliyoni 73.04 (30 Ugushyingo 2014 est. ))
  • Maroc (5.18)
  • Nijeriya (5.11) (Mubyukuri ifite agaciro k'isoko rya biliyoni 39.27)
  • Kenya (1.33)
  • Tuniziya (0.88)
  • BRVM (ivunjisha mu karere kagizwe nabanyamuryango barimo Benin, Burkina Faso, Gineya-Bissau, Coryte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegali na Togo: 6.6)
  • Maurice (0.55)
  • Botswana (0.43)
  • Gana (.38)

Hagati ya 2009 na 2012, ibigo 72 byose byaratangijwe ,ku isoko ry’imigabane mu bihugu 13 bya Afurika.

Ihuriro ry’ubucuruzi n’imiryango myinshi[edit | edit source]

Intego z’iri huriro zirimo gushyiraho agace k’ubucuruzi bwisanzuye, ihuriro rya gasutamo, isoko rimwe, banki nkuru, n’ifaranga rimwe (reba ubumwe bw’imari nyafurika ), bityo hagashyirwaho ubumwe bw’ubukungu n’ifaranga rimwe. Gahunda iriho ni ugushiraho Umuryango w’ubukungu nyafurika ufite ifaranga rimwe muri 2023. Banki nyafurika ishora imari igamije gushimangira iterambere. Gahunda ya Afurika yunze ubumwe ikubiyemo kandi ikigega cy’imari nifaranga nyafurika kiganisha kuri Banki Nkuru y'Afurika . Amashyaka amwe ashyigikiye iterambere ry’Afurika yunze ubumwe .

Ihuriro mpuzamahanga ry’amafaranga n’amabanki igizwe na:

  • Banki Nkuru y’ibihugu bya Afurika y’iburengerazuba
  • Banki y'ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo hagati
  • Agace gasanzwe k'ifaranga

Inyandikorugero:African Economic Community

Amashyirahamwe yubukungu yakarere[edit | edit source]

Mu myaka ya za 1960, umunyapolitike wo muri Gana Kwame Nkrumah yazamuye ubumwe bw’ubukungu na politiki by’ibihugu bya Afurika, akaba yari afite intego yo kwigenga. Kuva icyo gihe, intego, nimiryango yigenga, byaragwiriye. Mu myaka mirongo ishize imbaraga zariyongereye mu nzego zitandukanye mu guhuza ubukungu mu karere. Ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika bwari bugizwe na 11% gusa by’ubucuruzi rusange bwa Afurika mu 2012, nukuvuga inshuro eshanu ugereranije no muri Aziya. Ibyinshi muri ubu bucuruzi bwo hagati muri Afurika bikomoka muri Afurika yepfo kandi ibyinshi mu bicuruzwa byoherezwa mu mahanga biva muri Afurika yepfo.

Muri iki gihe hari imiryango umunani yo mu karere ifasha mu iterambere ry’ubukungu muri Afurika:

Izina ryumuryango Itariki washinzweho Ibihugu bigize umuryango Igiteranyo rusange (muri miliyoni z'amadolari y'Amerika)
Umuryango w’ubukungu w’ibihugu bya Afurika y’iburengerazuba 28 Gicurasi 1975 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambiya, Gana, Gineya-Bissau, Gineya, Coryte d'Ivoire, Liberiya, Mali, Niger, Nijeriya, Senegali, Siyera Lewone, Togo 657
Umuryango w'Afurika y'Iburasirazuba 30 Ugushyingo 1999 Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, u Rwanda, Tanzaniya 232
Umuryango w’ubukungu w’ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo hagati 18 Ukwakira 1983 Angola, Uburundi, Kameruni, Repubulika ya Centrafrique, Kongo, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, Gabon, Gineya, São Tomé na Príncipe, Tchad 289
Umuryango w’iterambere ry’Afurika yepfo 17 Kanama 1992 Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Madagasikari, Malawi, Maurice, Mozambique, Namibiya, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, Seychelles, Afurika y'Epfo, Tanzaniya, Zambiya, Zimbabwe 909
Inzego za Leta ku iterambere 25 Ugushyingo 1996 Djibouti, Etiyopiya, Kenya, Uganda, Somaliya, Sudani, Sudani y'Amajyepfo 326
Umuryango w’ibihugu bya Sahel-Sahara 4 Gashyantare 1998 Benin, Burkina Faso, Repubulika ya Centrafrique, Comoros, Djibouti, Misiri, Eritereya, Gambiya, Gana, Gineya, Gineya-Bissau, Coryte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Liberiya, Libiya, Mali, Maroc, Mauritania, Niger, Nijeriya, São Tomé na Príncipe, Senegali, Siyera Lewone, Somaliya, Sudani, Tchad, Togo, Tuniziya 1, 692
Isoko Rusange muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba n'Amajyepfo 5 Ugushyingo 1993 Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Misiri, Eritereya, Eswatini (Swaziland), Etiyopiya, Kenya, Liberiya, Madagasikari, Malawi, Mauritius, Uganda, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, u Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudani, Zambiya, Zimbabwe 1.011
Ubumwe bw'Abarabu Maghreb 17 Gashyantare 1989 Alijeriya, Libiya, Maroc, Mauritania, Tuniziya 579

Ibindi wareba[edit | edit source]

Inyandikorugero:Col-3Inyandikorugero:Col-3Inyandikorugero:Col-3

Inyandiko[edit | edit source]

  1. "2017 World population" (PDF). 2017 World Population Data Sheet - Population Reference Bureau.
  2. Oliver August (2 March 2013). "Africa rising A hopeful continent". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  3. "African Economic Outlook 2017" (PDF). African Development Bank.
  4. "Rise of the African opportunity". Boston Analytics. 22 June 2016.
  5. AfCFTA
  6. The Economist, The African Century, March 28th 2020.
  7. The Economist, "The African century", March 28th 2020.
  8. The Economist, "The African century", March 28th 2020.
  9. The Economist, "The African century", March 28th 2020.
  10. Nick Mead, "African Economic Outlook 2012", The Guardian, 28 May 2012.
  11. Lewis H. Gann and Peter Duignan, The Burden of Empire: A Reappraisal of Western Colonialism South of the Sahara
  12. D. K. Fieldhouse, The West and the Third World
  13. Niall Ferguson, Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World and Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire
  14. http://pure.au.dk/portal-asb-student/files/41656700/alexandra_hrituleac_thesis_1_dec.pdf
  15. Africa and Africans in the Formation of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1992, second expanded edition, 1998).
  16. Why is Africa Poor? (Economic History of Developing Regions Vol. 25: 2010)
  17. Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications, 1972.
  18. David Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
  19. See, for example, Frank, A. G. (1979), Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, New York: Monthly Review Press.; Köhler, G., and A. Tausch (2001), Global Keynesianism: unequal exchange and global exploitation, Nova Publishers; Amin, S. (1976), Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism, New York: Monthly Review Press.
  20. Philip Wayland Porter. Challenging nature: local knowledge, agroscience, and food security in Tanga.
  21. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/download.aspx
  22. http://www.uneca.org/atpc/Work%20in%20progress/21.pdf
  23. Based on the IMF data. If no data was available for a country from IMF, data from the World Bank is used.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 John J. Saul and Colin Leys, Sub-Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism, Monthly Review, 1999, Volume 51, Issue 03 (July–August)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs: Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November)
  26. Caplan, Gerald (2008). The Betrayal of Africa. Groundwood Books. p. 93. ISBN 9780888998255.
  27. Remi Jedwab & Adam Storeygard, "Economic and Political Factors in Infrastructure Investment: Evidence from Railroads and Roads in Africa 1960–2015" Economic History of Developing Regions 34#2 (Summer 2019) Pages: 156-208 DOI: 0.1080/20780389.2019.1627190 data covers 43 sub-Saharan countries. abstract

Imiyoboro[edit | edit source]

  • Economy of Africa at Curlieonomy of Africa at Curlie