Abamasayi

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Abamaasai ( /m ɑː s aɪ, m ɑː s aɪ / ) ni ubwoko bw' abanilotic batuye mu majyaruguru, hagati no mu majyepfo ya Kenya no mu majyaruguru ya Tanzania . Bari mu baturage bazwi cyane ku rwego mpuzamahanga kubera aho batuye hafi ya parike nyinshi z’imikino yo mu biyaga bigari bya Afurika, n'imigenzo yabo n'imyambarire yabo. [1] Abamasyai bavuga ururimi rwa Maa (ɔl Maa), rumwe mu zigize umuryango w’ururimi rwa Nilotic ufitanye isano n’indimi za Dinka, Kalenjin na Nuer . Usibye abasaza bamwe baba mu cyaro, abamasayi benshi bavuga indimi zemewe za Kenya na Tanzaniya, Igiswahiri n'Icyongereza .  Abamasayi ibarura ryo muri 2019 ryagaragaje ko muri Kenya bangana na 1.189.522, ugereranyije ni 377.089 mw ibarura ryo 1989.

leta za Tanzania na Kenya byatangije gahunda yo gushishikariza abamasayi kureka gakondo yabo ubuzima burangwa no guhora bimuka, ariko aba bakomeje imigenzo yabo yacyera. Amoko menshi ya abamasayi muri Tanzaniya na Kenya yishimira kwakira abashyitsi mu midugudu yabo kugira ngo bamenye umuco wabo, imigenzo, n'imibereho yabo, kugira ngo babone amafaranga.

Amateka[edit | edit source]

Abamasayi batuye mu karere k'ibiyaga bigari bya Afurika bahageze banyuze muri Sudani y'Amajyepfo . [2] Benshi mu bavuga ururimi rwa Nilotic muri kariya gace, barimo abamasayi, abaTurkana na abaKalenjin, ni abashumba, kandi bazwiho igitinyiro cyane kubera ubushobozi bwabo bwo kuba indwanyi no gukirana n' amatungo. abamasayi n'andi matsinda yo muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba bakiriye imigenzo n'imico bivuye mu matsinda aturanye nabo avuga ururimi rwigi Cushitike, harimo gahunda yo gushyiraho imyaka y'amashyirahamwe mbonezamubano, gukebwa, n imvugo. [3] [4]

Inkomoko, kwimuka no kwivanga nandi moko[edit | edit source]

Umugabo w' umumasayi

Dukurikije amateka yabo yajyiye ahererekanwa mu mvugo, Abamasayi bakomotse mu kibaya cyo hepfo ya Nili mu majyaruguru y’ikiyaga cya Turkana (mu majyaruguru y’Uburengerazuba bwa Kenya) maze batangira kwimukira mu majyepfo ahagana mu kinyejana cya 15, bagera mu gice kinini cy’ubutaka buva mu majyaruguru y' icyahoze ari Kenya kugeza ubu kikaba ari Tanzaniya hagati yikinyejana cya 17 na nyuma yikinyejana cya 18. Amoko menshi yari yaramaze gushinga imidugudu muri kariya karere yimuwe ku gahato n' Abamasayi bari bahagezee, mugihe abandi, cyane cyane amatsinda y’Abashushitike bo mumajyepfo, yinjiye mu muryango w' Abamasayi . Abakurambere ba Nilotic baba Kalenjin nabo bakiriye bamwe mubaturage baba Cushitike. [5]

Gutura muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba[edit | edit source]

Ifasi y' Abamasayi yageze ku bunini bwayo bushoboka hagati mu kinyejana cya 19,yaragendaga ikajyera mu kibaya kinini cya Rift ndetse n’ubutaka bwari buteganye nacyo ku musozi wa Marsabit mu majyaruguru kugera i Dodoma mu majyepfo. Muri iki gihe, Abamasayi , kimwe n'itsinda rinini ry' aba Nilotic bose babaga aho, borora inka kuva iburasirazuba ukajyenda ukagera ku nkombe za Tanga muri Tanganyika (ubu ni muri Tanzaniya). ibisambo byakoreshaga amacumu n'ingabo, ariko byari bitinyitse cyane kubera byari bizi gutera amacumu (orinka) byashoboraga kuyaterara muri metero 100 agahamya ku ntego. Mu 1852, hari raporo ivuga ko abarwanyi 800 b' abamasayi berekeje muri Kenya yubu. Mu 1857, nyuma yo kwuva mu "butayu bwa Wakuafi" mu cyahoze ari mu majyepfo y'uburasirazuba bwa Kenya, abarwanyi babamasayi basatiriye Mombasa ku nkombe za Kenya.

Abarwanyi babamasayi muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba y' abadage, c. 1906–1918

Kubera kwimuka, abamasayi ni bo bavuga cyane ururimi rw' abanyaNilotic yepfo . Igihe cyo kwaguka cyakurikiwe na Maasai "Emutai" yo mu 1883–1902. Iki gihe cyaranzwe n ibyorezo nka contegious bovine pleuropneumonia, rinderpest (reba 1890 African rinderpest epizootic ), n'ubushita . Ikigereranyo cyashyizwe ahagaragara bwa mbere n’umu liyetona w’umudage mu cyahoze ari amajyaruguru y’iburengerazuba bwa Tanganyika, ni uko 90% by’inka na kimwe cya kabiri cy’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zazize rinderpest. Abaganga b'Abadage bo muri ako gace bavuze ko "buri segonda" umunyafurika yazanaga ibidomo kwisura biturutse k' ubushita. Iki gihe cyahuriranye n’amapfa. Mu 1897 na 1898 imvura yarabuze burundu.

Umushakashatsi wo muri Ositarariya Oscar Baumann ubutaka bw' abamasayi hagati y' 1891 ni 1893, maze asobanura ugutura kw' abamasayi mu gace ka Ngorongoro mu gitabo cyo 1894 cyitwa Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle ("through the lands of massai to the source of Nile"): " Hari abagore bashizemo ari amagufwa yanamye gusa mumaso yabo yuzuye inzara igaragara ... abarwanyi no gukururuka ntibabishoboraga, hamwe nabasaza bintejye nke batagifite na kimwe bitayeho. Ibisiga byinshi byabakurikiranye kuva hejuru, bategereje abahohotewe. " Ugereranyije, bibiri bya gatatu by' abamasayi bapfuye muri iki gihe.

Guhera ku masezerano yo mu 1904, akurikirwa n'andi yo mu 1911, ubutaka bwa abamasayi muri Kenya bwagabanutseho 60% igihe Abongereza babirukanaga kugira ngo babone aho bubakira abimukira, nyuma babashyira ahitwa samburu Samburu, Laikipia, Kajiado n' Uturere twa Narok. abamasayi muri Tanganyika (ubu ni Tanzaniya) bimuwe mu butaka burumbuka hagati y'umusozi wa Meru n'umusozi wa Kilimanjaro, ndetse n'imisozi miremire irumbuka hafi ya Ngorongoro mu myaka y' 1940. bambuwe ubutaka bwinshi bujyirwa ibyanya byo kubungabunga ibinyabuzima na parike z’igihugu: Parike y’igihugu ya Amboseli, Parike ya Nairobi, Maasai Mara, Ikigo cy’igihugu cya Samburu, Pariki y’ikiyaga cya Nakuru na Tsavo muri Kenya; n'ikiyaga cya Manyara, Agace ko kubungabunga ibinyabuzima ka Ngorongoro, Tarangire na Parike y'igihugu ya Serengeti ahahoze ari Tanzaniya.

abamasayi ni aborozi kandi banze icyifuzo cya guverinoma ya Tanzaniya na Kenya cyo kubahindurira ubuzima. Basabye uburenganzira bwo kuragirira muri parike nyinshi z’igihugu mu bihugu byombi.

Abamasayi barwanyije ubucakara kandi babana ninyamaswa nyinshi zo mu gasozi ntabwo bahiga cyangwa ngo barye inyoni. Ubutaka bw' abamasayi ubu bufite uduce twiza two guhingiramo muri Afrika yuburasirazuba. Umuryango w' abamasayii ntiwigeze wihanganira igurishwa ry' abantu, kandi abantu bashakaga abacakara birinze abamasayi.

Mubyukuri hari imirenge makumyabiri n' ibiri cyangwa amoko mato yumuryango w' abamasayi, buri umwe ufite imigenzo, isura, ubuyobozi n'imvugo yawo. Iyi mitwe izwi ku izina ry' 'ishyanga' cyangwa 'iloshon' mu rurimi rwa Maa: aba Keekonyokie, Damat, Purko, Wuasinkishu, Siria, Laitayiok, Loitai, Kisonko, Matapato, Dalalekutuk, Loodokolani, Kaputiei, Moitanik, Ilkirasha, Samburu Laikipia, Loitokitoki, Larusa, Salei, Sirinket na Parakuyo.

jenetike[edit | edit source]

Iterambere ryagezweho mu isesengura rishingiye kuri jenetike ryafashije mu kumenya iremwa ry'amok yabamasayi. jenetike ishingiye ku bisekuruza , igikoresho gikoresha gene z'abaturage b' ubu kugirango bakurikirane ubwoko bwabo n’ igice cy' Isi bakomokamo, byafashije kandi gusobanura ahahise h' abamasayi bubu.

ADN ya Autosomal[edit | edit source]

ADN ya autosomal y' abamasayi yasuzumwe mubushakashatsi bwuzuye bwakozwe na Tishkoff n'abandi. (2009) mu kujyereranya jenetike y' abaturage batandukanye bo muri Afurika. Nk’uko abanditsi b’ubwo bushakashatsi babitangaza ngo abamasyi "bagumyek' umuco wabo imbere y’iterambere ryinshi ry imiterere y ibinyabuzima". Tishkoff n'abandi beerekanye kandi ko: "Benshi mu baturage bavuga ururimi rwa Nilo-Sahara muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba, nk' abamasayi, berekana imirimo myinshi iva muri Nilo-Sahara [...] na Cushitike [. . . ] AACs, hajyendewe ku bimenyetso by' indimi kenshi abaNilotic b' injije Abanyakushi kuva mu myaka 3000 ishize kandi ku kigero cyo hejuru bahuje imihindagurikire y' umubiri yabanyafurica y' iburasirazuba yo kwihanganira ikinyabutabire cyo mu mata cyitwa lactose. "

Y-DNA[edit | edit source]

Ubushakashatsi kuri Y chromosome bw' akozwe na Wood et al. (2005).ku baturage batandukanye bo munsi y' ubutayu bwa sahara,harimo abamasayi 26 b' abagabo bo muri kenya bapima amasano y' ibisekuruza by' ababyeyi babagabo. Abanditsi barebeye hamwe haplogroup (amatsinda y' abantu bahuje igisekuruza) E1b1b -M35 (ntabwo M78) muri 35% y' abamasayi bapimwe,. E1b1b-M35-M78 muri 15%, abakurambere babo higanjemo abagabo benshi bo majyaruguru ya Cushitike, babayeho hashize imyaka irenga 13 000. Igisekuru cya kabiri cyakanza cyane mubamasyi ni Haplogroup A3b2, ikunze kuboneka mu baturage ba baNilotic, nka Alur ; byagaragaye muri 27% by'abagabo ba abamasayii. Ikimenyetso cya gatatu cy iganza cyane ku turemanyjingo ADN kubabyeyi babagabo mu bamasayi ni E1b1a1-M2 (E-P1), ikunze kugaragara cyane mu karere ka Sahara; yabonetse muri 12% by' ibipimo byafashwe mu bamasayi. Haplogroup B-M60 yagaragaye mu bamasayi 8% , nayo iboneka muri 30% (16/53) yabanyaNilote bo muri Sudani y'Amajyepfo.

ADN ya mitochondial[edit | edit source]

Nkurikije ubushakashatsi bwa mtDNA bwakozwe na Castri n'abandi. (2008), hapimwe abamasayi muri Kenya, mu gisekuruza cy' ababyeyi babagore babamasayi basanze harimo uruvangitirane cyane, ariko nta tandukaniro rinini nandi moko y' abaturage babaNilo-Hamitic mu karere, nkaba Samburu .mu bamasayi benshi bapimwe bari abo mu matsinda atandukanye ya macro-haplogroup L sub-clade, harimo L0, L2, L3, L4 na L5 . tumwe mu turemanjyingo tw' ababyeyi babagore duturuka muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru n'Amajyaruguru y'Uburasirazuba natwo baratubonye, cyane cyane ko hari ubwoko bw' ijyisekuruza mtDNA haplogroup M hafi ya 12.5% by'ibipimo byafashwe muba masayii.

Umuco[edit | edit source]

Abarwanyi ba Maasai bahanganye nimpyisi, nkuko bafotowe muri wildest Africa (1907)

Umuryango w' abamasayi umugabo niwe uba ari umutware muri kamere, aho nabasaza, rimwe na rimwe bifatanya nabasaza bacyuye igihe, bagahitamo ibikorwa byingenzi kuri buri tsinda rya abamasayi. Imbumbe y' amategeko nyamvugo akubiyemo ingingo nyinshi z' imyitwarire. ntabwo bizwi niba hari igihano cyo kwicwa bajyira, kandi mubisanzwe kwishyura inka nibyo bicyemura amakimbirane. Inzira yo hanze yurukiko nayo irakoreshwa yitwa amitu, 'gushaka amahoro' birimo gusaba imbabazi. basenga imana imwe yitwa Enkai cyangwa Engai . Engai ifite kamere ebyiri: Engai Narok (Imana Yirabura) ni umugwaneza, naho Engai Na-nyokie (Imana Itukura) n iman y' ihorera. Hariho kandi inkingi ebyiri za societe ya abamasayi: Oodo Mongi, Inka itukura na Orok Kiteng, Inka yumukara igabanijwemo imiryango itanu cyangwa. abamasayi kandi bajyira inyamaswa baziririza, ikaba ntare; ariko, iyo nyamaswa ishobora kwicwa. Uburyo abamasyi bica intare butandukanye no guhiga hagamijwe kwishimisha kuko bikoreshwa mumihango yo kuva mu cyiciro cyimwe ujya mukindi. "Umusozi w'Imana", Ol Doinyo Lengai, uherereye mu majyaruguru ya Tanzaniya kandi ushobora kuwubona uri ku kiyaga cya Natron mu majyepfo ya Kenya. Umukuru mu myizerere ya kiMasayi ni laibon mu nshingano ze harimo ubuvuzi bwa gihanga, kuragura no guhanura, no kwemeza intsinzi mu ntambara cyangwa imvura ihagije. Uyu munsi, bafite uruhare rwa politiki rwiyonger kuri izo nshingano zindi kimwe kubera abayobozi. Imbaraga zose laibon yarafite zari zishingiye ku oko yabaga ateye ku giti cye aho gushingira kuri uwo mwanya. Benshi mu bamasayi bayobotse ubukristu nubuyisilamu . abamasayi kujyira imitako itoroshye kandi mu myaka mirongo, bagurishije uwo mutungo kuri ba mukerarugendo nkubucuruzi.

abamasayi n 'abahut kuri bariyeri ya enkang muburasirazuba bwa Serengeti, 2006

Umubare wo hejuru w’impfu z’abana mu bamasayi watumye abana batamenyekana rwose kugeza bageze ku mezi 3 ilapaitin . Kwigisha abagore ba bamasayi gukoresha amavuriro n'ibitaro mugihe batwite byatumye impinja nyinshi zibaho.cyeretse mu bice biri kure cyane. Ku bamasayi kubaho ubuzima gakondo, iherezo ryubuzima usanga rwose nta mihango, kandi abapfuye babarecyera aho bakaribwa n' inkongoro . Umurambo wanzwe n' inkongoro ufatwa nkaho ufite imiziro, kandi ufatwa nk' uwateza umwaku; kubwibyo rero,nibisanzwe ko imibiri itwikirwa ibinure n'amaraso bivuye ku kimasa cya kinjwe . [6] Gushyingura mu bihe byashize byahariwe abatware bakomeye, kubera ko bakekaga ko byangiza ubutaka.

Imibereho gakondo y' abamasayi ishingiye ku nka nka, zikaba ariyo soko yabo yibanze yibiryo. Ubutunzi bwumugabo bupimirwa ku nka nabana afite. Ubushyo bwinka 50 burubahwa, kandi uko abana baba benshi nibyiza. Umugabo ufite kimwe muri ibi akabura ikindi afatwa nkumucyene. Imyizerere ishingiye ku idini ya' abamasayi ivuga ko Imana yabahaye inka zose zo ku isi, biganisha ku myizerere ivuga ko gushimuta inka mu yandi moko ari uburyo bwo kwisubiza ibyabo mu nzira ziciye mu mucyo, ariko uyu umuco ntabwo umenyerewe cyane.

Abamasyi ibyo kurya byose bakenera babibona kunka. Barya inyama, banywa amata buri munsi, kandi banywa amaraso rimwe na rimwe. Ibimasa, ihene, nintama bibagwamo inyama mu bihe bidasanzwe no mumihango. Nubwo ubuzima bwabamasyi bwose bwagiye bushingira ku matungo yabo, vuba aha hamwe n’inka zabo zigenda zigabanuka, abamasayi bakuze batunzwe n’ibiribwa nk'amasaka, umuceri, ibirayi n' amashu (bizwi nabamasayi nk'amababi y'ihene). [7]

Ingaruka zituruka ku mico yo hanze[edit | edit source]

Abagore bamasayi basana inzu muri Maasai Mara (1996)
umumasayi atwaye moto (2014)

Imibereho gakondo yubushumba yarushijeho kuba ingorabahizi kubera gukururwa n' ibijyezweho. Inyandiko ya Garrett Hardin, igaragaza "ibyago bya rubanda rugufi bitewe nubugugu bwa bamwe", ndetse na " cattle complex" ya Melville Herskovits byafashije abashakashatsi ku bidukikije ndetse n’abafata ibyemezo ku byerekeye ingaruka mbi abashumba ba abamasayi bateza akarere ka savannah. Iki gitekerezo cyaje kugaragara ko ari ibinyoma n’abahanga mu bumenyi bwa muntu ariko kiracyashinze imizi mu bitekerezo by’ abashakashatsi mu bidukikije ndetse n’abayobozi ba Tanzaniya. [8] Ibi byatumye abafata ibyemezo b’abakoloni babongereza mu 1951 bakura abamasayi bose muri parike y’igihugu ya Serengeti nuko babashyira mu turere two mu gace ka Ngorongoro conservation area (NCA). Gahunda ya NCA yari iyo gushyira inyungu zabamasayi hejuru y'ibindi byose, ariko iri sezerano ntiryigeze ryuzuzwa. Ikwirakwizwa rya virusi itera SIDA ryari ryinshi.

Bitewe n'ubwiyongere bw'abaturage babamasayii, gutakaza umubare w'inka bitewe n indwara, no kubura aho kuziragira kubera imbibi nshya za parike ndetse no gutura mu midugudu no guhinga kw'andi moko, abamasayi bahatiwe guteza imbere uburyo bushya bwo kwibeshaho. Benshi muri bo batangiye guhinga ibigori nibindi bihingwa kugirango babeho, igikorwa bafataga nabi mu muco wabo. [8] Guhinga byatangijwe bwa mbere mu bamasayi n’abagore ba bWaArusha na bWaMeru bimuwe mu byabo bashakanye n’abagabo babamasayi; ibisekuru byakurikiyeho byabayeho ubuzima bwo guhinga no korora. Imibereho yabo yarushijeho kugorana, mu 1975 Ngorongoro conservation area yabujije ibikorwa byo guhinga. Kugirango babeho bahatirwa kugira uruhare mu bukungu bw'amafaranga ya Tanzaniya. Bagombaga kugurisha amatungo yabo n'imiti gakondo kugirango bagure ibiryo. Kubuza guhinga byavanyweho mu 1992 kandi guhinga byongeye kuba igice cyingenzi mu mibereho ya abamasayi. Imipaka ya parike no kwegurira abikorera ku giti cyabo ubutaka byakomeje kugabanya aho barajyira,Byatumye bahinduka cyane. [9]

Mu myaka yashize, imishinga myinshi yatangiye gufasha abayobozi b'imiryango yaabamasayi kubona uburyo bwo kubungabunga imigenzo yabo ndetse ikanahuza uburezi bw'abana babo kubw' isi ya none.

Ubwoko bushya bw' imirimo mu baturage babamasayi burimo ubuhinzi, ubucuruzi (kugurisha imiti gakondo, resitora / amaduka, kugura no kugurisha amabuye y'agaciro, kugurisha amata n' ibiyakimokaho, kudoda imitako), n' akazi k' umushahara (nk'abashinzwe umutekano / abita kubakiriya, abayobora ba mukerarugendo), n'abandi bakora ibikorwa bya leta n'abikorera.

Abamasayi benshi bavuye mu buzima bwo guhora bimuka bajya mu myanya y' ubucuruzi no muri guverinoma. Nyamara nubwo ubuzima bwo mu mijyi bugoye bashobora kuyobora, benshi bazishimira kwerekeza murugo bambaye imyenda idoze, gusa bazava murugo mu mwambaro gakondo bita shuka (umwenda wamabara), inkweto za sandari kandi bitwaje inkoni (o-rinka ) - bayakiriye. ]

Imibanire mu muryango mugari[edit | edit source]

umumasayi w' umwana witegura kuba indwanyi

Igice nyamukuru cy' umuryango mugari w' abamasayi kumyaka umuntu aba afite. Abahungu bato boherezwa hamwe ninyana nintama vuba bishoboka, ariko ubwana bwabahungu ahanini babumara bakina, usibye imihango bakora kugirango bagerageze ubutwari no kwihangana byabo. Abakobwa bashinzwe imirimo nko guteka no gukama, ubuhanga bigira kuri ba nyina bakiri bato. Buri myaka 15 cyangwa irenga, hatangizwa ikiragano gishya cyaba Morans cyangwa Il-murran (abarwanyi). Haba harimo abahungu benshi bari hagati yimyaka 12 na 25, bageze mubugimbi kandi bagomba kuba batari bari mukiragano gishize. Umuhango umwe wo kuva mubuhungu ujya kumurwanyi muto ni umuhango wo gukebwa bikorwa nta kinya. Muri iki gihe cya none, abahungu batuye hafi yimijyi hamwe nabaganga bashobora kwitabira iyi mihango batekanye, ariko nyamara nta nyinya babatera nubundi kuko bagomba kwihanganira ububabare buzabageza kubugabo. Uyu muhango mubusanzwe ukorwa nabakuru, bakoresha icyuma gityaye. Umuhungu agomba kwihanganira iki gikorwa acecetse. Kugaragaza ububabare bizana igisebo.kwikanga kwose gushobora gutera ikosa muri iki gikorwa gisaba kwitonda cyane, bishobora kukuviramo inkovu ubuzima bwawe bwose, gutakaza ubushobozi, no kubabara. ukira hagati y' amezi 3-4, muri iki gihe kwihagaririka birababaza kandi bikanga rimwe na rimwe, kandi abahungu bagomba kuguma bambaye imyenda yumukara mugihe cyamezi 4-8.

Muri iki gihe, abasore bashya bakebwe batura muri "manyatta", "umudugudu" wubatswe na ba nyina. Manyatta nta bariyeri iyizengurutse yo kuyirinda, ishimangira uruhare rw'indwanyi rwo kurinda abaturage. Nta kraal y'imbere yubatswe, kubera ko abarwanyi batagira inka cyangwa ngo bakore imirimo y'ububiko. bisaba Indi mihango mbere yo kugera ku rwego rwindwanyi nkuru, bikarangirara mu birori bya eunoto, "ukuza kwimyaka".

Iyo hatangijwe igisekuru gishya cy'abarwanyi, Il-murran irihoizamurwa mu cyiciro cyisumbuyeho, bagashingwa ibyemezo bya politiki kugeza igihe bazagera ku kiciro cyabakuru. Iyu muhango wo kuva kumurwanyi ujya kumukuru muto ibera mu muhuro munini witwa Eunoto. abahoze ari indwanyi bakata umusatsi wabo muremure ; abakuru bo baba bafite agasatsi gacyei. Indwanyi ntizemerewe kuryamana nabagore bakebwe,ariko bashobora gucudika n' abakobwa bataracyebwa. Kuri Eunoto, abarwanyi bashoboye kubahiriza iri tegeko barashimirwa byumwihariko.

Abarwanyi bamara umwanya munini ubu bagenda hirya no hino kubutaka bw' abamasayi, no kurenga imbibi zabo. Bagira uruhare runini mu gucuruza inka kuruta uko byari bisanzwe, guteza imbere ubucuruzi no guhahirana aho kwiba nk'uko byahoze.

hari imyizerere yo gukabya ko buri musore wumumasayi agomba kwica intare atarakebwa. Guhiga intare byari igikorwa cyahise, ariko byarabujijwe mu majyepfo y’iburasirazuba bwa Afurika - nyamara intare ziracyahigwa iyo zishe amatungo yabamasayi, kandi abarwanyi bato bishora mu kwica intare mu migenzo gakondo ntibagira ingaruka zikomeye. Kwiyongera kw impujyenjye kubijyanye nubuzima bw'intare byatumye byibura habaho gahunda yo kwaka indishyi iyo intare yishe amatungo, aho guhiga no kwica intare yabikoze. Nubwo bimeze bityo, kwica intare biha agaciro gakomeye nubwamamare uwabikoze mubaturage.

Abakobwa bakiri bato nabo bahura nikibazo cyo gukebwa kw'abagore, "emorata"mu rwego rwo gukora umuhango urambuye w'imihango yiswe "Emuatare," umuhango winjiza abakobwa babamasayi mu kiciro cyabakuze binyuze mu mihango yo gukebwa hanyuma bagashyingirwa bakiri bato. abamasayi bemeza ko gukebwa kwabagore ari ngombwa kandi abagabo babamasayi bashobora kwanga umugore uwo ari we wese utarigeze abikora kuko adashyingirwa cyangwa agakobwa ibyagaciro gake. Muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba, abagore batakebwe, ndetse n'abadepite bize cyane nka Linah Kilimo, barashobora gushinjwa kuba badakuze bihagije ku buryo badahabwa agaciro. Ku bandi umuco wo gukebwa kw'abagore uzwi nko guca imyanya ndangagitsina y'abagore, kandi ukanengwa cyane haba mu mahanga ndetse n'abagore benshi babikorewe, nk'umuntu uharanira inyungu zabamasayii, Agnes Pareyio . muri iki gihe bisigaye bikorwa mu magambo aho birangwa no kuririmba no kubyina mu mwanya wo gukebwa. Nyamara, iki gikorwa gikomeza gushinga imizi kandi kigahabwa agaciro numuco. Ijambo rya Maa ryo gukebwa, "emorata," rikoreshwa ku gukebwa kwigitsina gore nigitsina gabo. Gukata imyanya ndangagitsina y'abagore ntibyemewe muri Kenya na Tanzaniya. Uku gukebwa mubusanzwe bikorwa nuwatumiwe udakunze kuba ari umumasayi, akenshi aba avuye mumatsinda yaba Dorobo . Ibyuma bakoresha biba byatatswe n'abacuzi, Kimwe nabasore, abakobwa bazakebwa bambara imyenda yijimye,bakishushanyaho ibimenyetso bakoresheje amarangi, hanyuma bagapfuka mu maso iyo imihango irangiye.

Abagore bubatse batwite basonewe imirimo yose iremereye nko gukama no gutashya. Imibonano mpuzabitsina nayo irabujijwe kandi hari amategeko yihariye akoreshwa ku bagore batwite.

Ishuri rya abamasayimuri Tanzaniya

abamasayi mubisanzwe batunga abagore benshi ; ibi bikekwa ko babikora kubera umubare munini wimfu z’abana bato n’abarwanyi. Polyandry nayo irakorwa. Ariko, muri iyi minsi ibi byarahagaze. Umugore ntabwo arongora umugabo we gusa ahubwo itsinda ry ikiciro kimyaka. Abagabo biteganijwe ko batanga uburiri bwabo ku mushyitsi uri mukiciro cyimwe cyimyaka nawe; ariko ibi nabyo ntibigikorwa. Umugore niwe wihitiramo niba ararana numugabo wasuye. Umwana uwo ari we wese ushobora kuvamo ni umwana wumugabo nabazamukomokaho. ubwoko bwa gatanya burashoboka iyo umugore yahukaniye kwa se, ubusanzwe kubera gufata nabi umugore cyane. Kwishura inkwano, kurera abana, nibindi, byumvikanyweho. [10]

Umuziki n'imbyino[edit | edit source]

Imbyino yo gusimbuka gakondo

Umuziki wabamasayi usanzwe ugizwe ninjyana zitangwa n' ibitero byabaririmbyi baririmba bahigima mugihe umuyobozi windirimbo, aririmba ijwi ryingenzi. umuolaranyani mubusanzwe numuririmbyi ushobora kuririmba neza iyo ndirimbo, nubwo abantu benshi bashobora kuyobora indirimbo. umuolaranyani atangira aririmba umurongo cyangwa umutwe (namba) windirimbo. Itsinda rikikiririza rimwe, kandi umuolaranyani aririmbirambana nabandi ariko akabasimbya ijwi. Buri ndirimbo ifite imiterere yihariye ya namba ishingiye kumuhamagaro-no-kwitaba . Injyana isanzwe ni itandukaniro rya 5/4, 6/4 na 3/4 umukono wigihe. indirimbo iba yanditse ishingiye ku ngingo runaka kandi amagambo aguma yisubiramo. Kugenda kw'ijosi biherekeza kuririmba. Iyo uhumeka umutwe wegamiye imbere. Umutwe bawuhengekera inyuma kujyira basohore umwuka imbere. Muri rusange iyo bari rimba uba wumva ari amajwi menshi ajyenda asimburana. Bitandukanye nandi moko menshi yo muri Afrika,abamasayi bakoresha cyane drone polyphony. [11]

Abagore baririmba lullabies, indirimbo zirangwa no guhigimba, n'indirimbo zisingiza abahungu babo. Nambas, barimba bahamara banitabana, mwijwi rimwe,usanga basubiramo interuro imwe nyuma ya buri gitero aho bikiriza nijwi rijyiye hasi n'abaririmbyi basubiza ibitero byabo bwite ni ibiranga kuririmba kw' abagore. Iyo abagore benshi babamasayi bateraniye hamwe, baririmba bakabyina hagati yabo.

Kimwe mubidasanzwe kumiterere yijwi ryumuziki wa abamasayi nugukoresha ihembe rya greater kudu kugirango uhamagare abamorans mumihango ya Eunoto.

Kuririmba no kubyina byombi rimwe na rimwe bibera hafi ya manyattas, kandi usanga harimo no gureshyanya. Abasore bakora umurongo kandi bakaririmbe mu injyana, "Oooooh-yah", bijyana no guhigima no gukorora hamwe no kuzunguza igice cy umubiri cyo hepfo. Abakobwa bahagarara imbere yabagabo bakabyinisha igice cyo hepfo banaririmba "Oiiiyo..yo" mukajwi ko hejuru bitandukanye nabagabo. Nubwo imibiri yegerana cyane, ntabwo ikoranaho.

Eunoto,imihango yindwanyi, ishobora kumara iminsi 10 ,yo kuririmba kubyina n'imigenzo. Abarwanyi ba Il-Oodokilani bakora ubwoko urugendo na adumu, cyangwa aigus, rimwe na rimwe bita "imbyino yo gusimbuka" nabatari abamasayi. (Adumu na aigus zombi ni inshinga za Maa zisobanura "gusimbuka" hamwe na adumu bisobanura "Gusimbuka hejuru no kubyina". ) Indwanyi zirazwi cyane, kandi akenshi zifotorwa mugihe,muri aya marushanwa yo gusimbuka. Abarwanyi baca uruziga, noneho umwe cyangwa babiri icyarimwe bakinjira hagati kugirango batangire gusimbuka batarenga uruziga, agatsinsino kabo kadakora hasi. Abagize itsinda bazamura ijwi ryabo bakurikije uburebure bwo gusimbuka.

Abakobwa b'inshuti zabamoran (inyie) bitambajyiza mumyambaro myiza yabonka kimwe mu bigize eunoto. Ababyeyi babamoran baririmba bakabyina bishimira ubutwari no gutinyuka kwabahungu babo.

Guhindura umubiri[edit | edit source]

Umugore wumumasayi wakweduye amatwi

Gupfumura no gukwedura amatwi nubintu bisanzwe mubamasayi nandi moko. Bakoresha ibikoresho bitadukanye muri iki gikorwa harimo amahwa mugupfumura, ibiti, amabuye, amenyo yinzovu nakabindi. abamasayi bacye bacye cyane cyane abahungu nibo bakora uyu muhango. abagore bambara imitako yamasaro kumatwi bapfumuye.

gukura yamabwene abana bato bikorwa nabamasayi bo muri Kenya na Tanzaniya. abamasayi bafite imyizerere ikomeye ivuga ko impiswi, kuruka nizindi ndwara zoroheje zo mu bwana ziterwa no kubyimba kwishinya yo kumabwene, bakeka ko haba harimo inzoka. Iyi myizerere n'imikorere ntabwo byihariye mubamasayi. Mu cyaro cya Kenya hasuzumwe itsinda ry’abana 95 bafite hagati y’amezi atandatu n’imyaka ibiri mu 1991/92. 87% wasangaga barakuwe amabwene. Mu itsinda ryabafite hagati yimyaka 3-7, 72% mubana 111 basanze nabo barayakuwe.

Indyo[edit | edit source]

Umushumba uragiye amatungo ye muri Ngorongoro,

Ubusanzwe, indyo yabamasayi yari igizwe n'inyama mbisi, amata adatetse, n'amaraso by' inka . Menya ko inka zabamasayi ziri mubwoko bwa Zebu . Mu mpeshyi yo mu 1935, Dr. Weston A. Price yasuye abamasayi maze avuga ko nk'uko Dr. Anderson wo mu bitaro by’ubutegetsi bw’ibanze muri Kenya yabibinye amoko menshi adafite indwara. Benshi nta burwayi nabucye bwamenyo bari bafite . By'umwihariko abamasayi bari hasi ya 0.4% nibo bari bafite ikibazo cyo kubora kw' amenyo. Yavuze ko biterwa nimirire yabo mirire yabo igizwe (ukurikije ingano) amata adatetse, amaraso, inyama mbisi n'imboga n'imbuto zimwe na zimwe, nubwo mu midugudu myinshi batarya imbuto cyangwa imboga na gato. Yavuze ko buri mwana ukura ndetse n’umugore utwite cyangwa wonsa bahahabwa buri munsi amaraso iyo ahari. Dr. Weston A. Price yavuze kandi ko guverinoma yashyizeho ingufu mu 1935 kugira ngo abamasayi bajye mubuhinzi . Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na ILCA (Nestel 1989) bugira buti: "Uyu munsi, indyo yuzuye yabamasayi igizwe n'amata y'inka n' ibigori. Igikoma gikomeye kizwi nka ugali kandi kiribwana n'amata; bitandukanye n' igikoma cy'amazi, ugali ntabwo itegurwa n'amata. Amavuta yinyamanswa akoreshwa muguteka, cyane cyane igikoma, ibigori, nibishyimbo. Amavuta kandi ni ibiryo byingenzi by'uruhinja. "

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n'ikigo mpuzamahanga gishinzwe ubworozi muri Afurika (Bekure et al. 1991) bwerekana impinduka nini cyane mu mirire yabamasayi aho basigaye bakoresha nibindi bidakomoka kumatungo kn'ibigori bigize 12-39 ku ijana n' isukari 8–13 ku ijana; umuntu umwe anywa hafi litiro imwe y'amata ku munsi. Amenshi mu mata akoreshwa nk'amata avuze cyangwa amavuta. mu bipimo byose bakoresha amata ku rwego rwo hejurui.ibi bituma bobonamo ibyubaka umubiri bihajyije. Nyamara, fer, niacin, vitamine C, vitamine A, thiamine nibitanga ingufu ntabwo babibona mumata gusa. Bitewe nuko ibintu bigenda bihinduka, cyane cyane ibihe amata abonekera n amapfa akunze kubaho kenshi, abashumba benshi, harimo nabamasayi, ubu basigaye barya ibiryo nibihajyije ingano.

Ubushyo bwihene nintama zabamasayi, harimo intama zitukura zabamasayi, hamwe ninka zagaciro. Ibizamini bya Electrocardiogram byakoreshejwe ku basore 400 bakuze babamasayi basanze nta kimenyetso na kimwe cy’indwara z'umutima, ubumuga cyangwa imikorere mibi yumubiri. Ubundi bushakashatsi bwakozwe kuri karubone-ya14 bwerekanye ko impuzandengo ya cholesterol iri hafi ya 50 ku ijana ugereranije niyumunyamerika. Ibyavuye mu bushakashatsi bigaragaza ko umubiri muzima bafite ari ukubere morans.

Isupu birashoboka ko bwo bwiza kuruta ibindi abamasayi babinye bwo kurya ibimera. Acacia nilotica nikimera gikoreshwa cyane. Igishishwa cyumuzi cyangwa uruti birabizwa mumazi hanyuma umazi avuyemo bakanywa yonyine cyangwa bakayavanga nisupu. abamasayi bakunda gufata iki kinyobwa nkumuti, kandi kizwiho kubatera imbaraga no kudatinyuka. abamasayi barya isupu ivanze n'ibishishwa bisharira n'imizi irimo saponine igabanya cholesterol; abo mu mijyibadafite ibimera bisharira bakunda kurwara umutima. [12] imbuto zigize igice kinini cyibiryo biribwa nabana nabagore baba bacunze inka kimwe na mabamorani.

Kuvanga amaraso yinka, aboneka mugutobora imitsi yazo, n'amata bikorwa mugutegura ikinyobwa cyimihango muminsi mikuru idasanzwe kandi nkintungamubiri kubarwayi. Ariko, gukoresha amaraso mumirire gakondo biragenda bigabanuka kubera kugabanuka kwamatungo. muri iki gihe abamasayi basigaye batunzwe cyane nibiryo biturutse ahandi nk'ibigori, umuceri, ibirayi, amashu n'ibindi. abamasayi batuye hafi y'abahinzi-borozi nabo bayobotse ubuhinzi nkuburyo bwibanze bwo kubaho. Muri utu turere, ingano yikibanza ntabwo iba ari nini kuburyo yakwirwaho amashyo yinyamaswa; bityo abamasayi bahatirwa guhinga.

Amazu[edit | edit source]

inzu ihomesheje amase yinka

Nkabantu bazwiho guhora bimuka mumateka , abamasayi basanzwe bashingira kubikoresho byaho, byoroshye kuboneka hamwe nikoranabuhanga kavukire kugirango bubake amazu yabo. Inzu gakondo yabamasayi yubakagwa hagendewe ko bahora bimuka bityo ntabwo yamaraga igihe.aya mazu yabaga yenda kumera nkurukiramende, kandi yubatswe nabagore babishoboye. yabaga afite inkingi zibiti zishinze mubutaka kandi hasobekeranyijemo udushami duto tw' ibiti,nyuma bagahomesha imvange yicyondo, inkoni, ibyatsi,amase, inkari zabantu, n' ivu. Amase y'inka atuma inzu itava. Enkaj cyangwa engaji ni nto, ipima nka 3 kuri 5 m na metero1.5 gusa mu buhagarike.haba haromo aho, umuryango utekera, urira, uryama, usabanira, kandi ubika ibiryo,ibicanwa, nibindi bintu byo murugo. Amatungo mato nayo akenshi arara muri enkaji. Imidugudu iab ikikijwe n'uruzitiro rwa acacia (enkang) rwubatswe nabagabo. Mwijoro, inka zose, ihene n'intama byose bishyirwa mu kigo hagati, kure yinyamaswa zagasozi .Template:Wide imageTemplate:Wide image

Imyenda[edit | edit source]

Umugore wumumasayi wambaye imyenda ye myiza

Imyambarire ihinduka bitewe n' imyaka n'ahantu. Urugero, abasore bambara umukara amezi menshi nyuma yo gukebwa kwabo. Nyamara, umutuku niwo ukunzwe. haba nimyenda y'ubururu, umukara, iyamabara. abamasayi batangiye gusimbuza uruhu rwinyamaswa, uruhu rwinyana nuruhu rwintama, imyenda yubudodo mu myaka ya za 1960.

Shúkà ni ijambo ryo mururimi rwa Maa numwitero wa gakondo bambara bawizingiyeho.Mubisanzwe iba itukura, nubwo imwe iba ifite andi mabara (urugero ubururu ) nibishusho. iroza, ndetse nimyenda iriho indabyo, indwanyi zirayirinda. Imyenda imwe izwi nka kanga, ijambo ryigiswahiri, irasanzwe. abamasayi baba hafi y' inkombe bashobora kwambara kikoi, ubwoko bw' imyitero iza mu amabara atandukanye n' ibitambaro Nyamara, benshi bakunda iyimirongo.

Abamasayi benshi muri Tanzaniya bambara inkweto zudusandari, zari zisanzwe zikorwa muruhu rw' inka. ubu basigaye bazikora mu mapine cyangwa plastike . Abagabo n'abagore bambara udutako tw ibiti kumaboko. Abagore babamasayi bahora bari gukora imitako mu masaro n' utugozi . Ibi bibafasha gutaka imibiri yabo. Nubwo hariho itandukaniro mubisobanuro byamabara n' amasaro, ibisobanuro rusange kumabara make ni: umweru, amahoro ; ubururu, amazi ; umutuku, umurwanyi / amaraso / ubutwari.

Gukora imitako, bikozwe nabagore, bifite amateka maremare mubamasayi, bagaragaza abaribo numwanya wabo mu muryango mugari binyuze mumitako yumubiri no gushushanya ku mubiri . Mbere yo guhura n’abanyaburayi, Amasaro yavaga mubikoresho bari basanganwe aho, amasaro y' umweru yavaga mw' ibumba, ibikonoshwa, amahembe y'inzovu, cyangwa amagufwa . Isaro ry'umukara n'ubururu ryakorwaga mu cyuma, amakara, imbuto, ibumba, cyangwa ihembe . Amasaro atukura yavaga mu mbuto, mu mbaho, amagufwa, amahembe y'inzovu, umuringa. Ahagana mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya cumi n'icyenda, amasaro menshi y’iburayi yageze muri Afurika y’iburasirazuba bw' yepfo, abakora amasaro basimbuje amasaro ashaje ibikoresho bishya maze batangira gukoresha amabara menshi asobanutse. Ubu, amasaro atsindajyiye y' ibirahure adahanda niyo akunzwe.

Umusatsi[edit | edit source]

Umugore wumumasayi ufite umusatsi mugufi

Kogosha umutwe biramenyerewe mumihango myinshi, byerekana intangiriro nshya izakorwa ubwo umuntu aba ava mu kiciro kimwe ajya mu kindi. abarwanyi nibo bamasayi bonyine baba bafite imisatsi miremire, bayibohesha imigozi yoroheje.

Iyo ageze ku gihe cy' "amezi" 3, umwana yitwa izina kandi yogoshwa umutwe bagasiga akazingo kamwe kumusatsi, kuva ku gikanu kugeza ku gahanga. kikaba gishasha "imiterere yubuntu" bujyirirwa uruhinja. Umugore wakuyemo inda yubushize umusatsi awushyira imbere cyangwa inyuma yumutwe, biterwa nijyitsina cy' umwana yabuze. Ibi bishushanya gukira kwe.

Abahungu bakebwa ku munsi wa kabiri, imitwe yabo ikogoshwa. Abarwanyi bato noneho bagatereka umusatsi wabo ugakura, kandi batakaza igihe kinini bita kumusatsi wabo. basigamo amavuta yinyamanswa na ocher, kandi igabanijwe hejuru yumutwe aho amatwi agarukira. Umusatsi bawuboha mu mafpude y inyabubiri. Ipamba cyangwa ubwoya bw'intama bishobora gukoreshwa mugukuza umusatsi. Umusatsi bashobora kuwureka ugatendera cyangwa bakawupfundikanya bakoresheje uruhu. Iyo abarwanyi banyuze muri Eunoto, bakaba abakuru, imisatsi yabo miremire irogoshwa.

Mugihe igitsina gabo cyogosha umusatsi iyo bava mu kiciro kimwe bajya mu kindi, uwitegura kuba umugeni yogosha umusatsi, kandi intama ebyiri zikicwa mukubahiriza uwo munsi.

Abamasayi bazwi[edit | edit source]

  • Joseph Ole Lenku - Umunyamabanga wa Guverinoma muri Kenya ushinzwe imbere no guhuza ibikorwa bya Guverinoma y’igihugu kuva 2012 kugeza 2014
  • David Rudisha - yiruka mu marushanwa yintera ndende na metero 800 ufite yabaye uwambere kurwego rwisi yisi
  • Edward Sokoine - Minisitiri w’intebe wa Tanzaniya kuva 1977 kugeza 1980 na none kuva 1983 kugeza 1984
  • Edward Lowassa - Minisitiri w’intebe wa Tanzaniya kuva 2005 kugeza 2008. Umwanya wa kabiri inyuma ya John Pombe Magufuli mu matora rusange ya Tanzaniya 2015.
  • Olekina Ledama - Uwashinze, Maasai Education Discovery
  • James Ole Kiyiapi - umwarimu wungirije muri kaminuza ya Moi akaba n'umunyamabanga uhoraho muri minisiteri y’uburezi n’ubuyobozi bw’ibanze
  • William Ole Ntimama - Umunyapolitike wo muri Kenya akaba n'umuyobozi w'umuryango wabaMaa
  • Francis Ole Kaparo - Uwahoze ari umuvujyizi wa National Assembly of Kenya
  • Joseph Nkaissery - Uwahoze ari umunyamabanga wa Guverinoma muri Kenya ushinzwe imbere no guhuza ibikorwa bya guverinoma y’igihugu kuva 2014 kugeza apfuye muri 2017
  • Nice Nailantei Lengete - Umugore wa mbere yagejeje ijambo ku kanama k' abakuru mubamasayi ku musozi wa Kilimanjaro, maze yemeza akanama kubuza guca imyanya ndangagitsina yabagore muri Kenya na Tanzaniya.
  • Katoo Ole Metito - Umudepite mu Ntara ya Kajiado y'Amajyepfo

Reba kandi nibi[edit | edit source]

Aho byasomwe[edit | edit source]

  1. Maasai - Introduction Jens Fincke, 2000–2003
  2. A. Okoth & A. Ndaloh, Peak Revision K.C.P.E. Social Studies, East African, p.60–61.
  3. Robert O. Collins, The southern Sudan in historical perspective, (Transaction Publishers: 2006), p.9–10.
  4. S. Wandibba et al., p.19–20.
  5. International Labour Office, Traditional occupations of indigenous and tribal peoples: emerging trends, (International Labour Organization: 2000), p.55.
  6. Cultural and Public Attitudes: Improving the Relationship between Humans and Hyaenas from Mills, M.g.L. and Hofer, H. (compilers). (1998) Hyaenas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vi + 154 pp.
  7. Nelson, Jimmy. The Maasai Tribe. Beforethey.com
  8. 8.0 8.1 McCabe, Terrence. (2003). "Sustainability and livelihood diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania". Human Organization. Vol 62.2. pp. 100–111.
  9. Goodman, Ric. (2002). "Pastoral livelihoods in Tanzania: Can the Maasai benefit from conservation?" Current Issues in Tourism. Vol 5.3,4. P.280–286.
  10. Spencer, P. (1988) The Maasai of Matapato: a study of rituals of rebellion Manchester University Press, Manchester. Spencer, P. (2003) Time, Space, and the Unknown: Maasai configurations of power and providence. Routledge, London.
  11. Joseph Jordania. Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution. Logos. Pg 17
  12. National Geographic Oct. 1995, page 161

Ubundi bumenyi[edit | edit source]