Goma

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Goma ni umurwa mukuru w'intara ya Kivu y'Amajyaruguru mu burasirazuba bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo . Iherereye ku nkombe yo mu majyaruguru y'Ikiyaga cya Kivu, iruhande rw'umujyi wa Gisenyi wo mu Rwanda . Ikiyaga hamwe ni mijyi yombi iri muri Albertine Rift, ishami ryiburengerazuba bwa sisitemu yo muri Afrika yuburasirazuba . Goma iri muri km 13–18 gusa majyepfo yikirunga cya Nyiragongo . Amateka ya vuba ya Goma yiganjemo ikirunga na jenoside yo mu Rwanda yo mu 1994, ari na yo yongereye Intambara ya mbere n'iya kabiri ya Congo . Nyuma yibi bintu byari bikigira ingaruka ku mujyi no kuwukikije mu 2010. Uyu mujyi wafashwe n’inyeshyamba zo ku March 23 Movement mu gihe cyo kwigomeka kwa M23 mu mpera za 2012, ariko kuva icyo gihe zasubijwe inyuma n’ingabo za leta.

Umupasitori wanduye mu cyorezo cya Ebola cya Kivu kiri cya 2018–2020 muri ako karere byamenyekanye ko hagati muri Nyakanga 2019 ariho yagiye i Goma.

Amateka[edit | edit source]

Ikibazo cy'impunzi 1994[edit | edit source]

Itsembabwoko ryo mu Rwanda ryo mu 1994 ryakozwe na guverinoma y'agateganyo y'u Rwanda ku baturage b'abatutsi ndetse n'abahutu bashyira mu gaciro. Mu rwego rwo gusubiza imbere u Rwanda Patriotic Front (FPR), rwashinzwe n’impunzi z’abatutsi muri Uganda, zari zimaze kugenzura uduce twinshi two mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda nyuma y’igitero cya 1990 ndetse n’intambara y’abenegihugu ikomeje, ihirika leta y’Abahutu i Kigali irayirukana. Bumwe mu butumwa bwinshi bw’umuryango w’abibumbye bwagerageje gutanga akarere keza mu bihe bihindagurika kandi bitanga impunzi nziza. Kuva ku ya 13 Kamena kugeza ku ya 14 Nyakanga 1994, impunzi 10,000 kugeza 12.000 ku munsi zambutse umupaka zerekeza Goma. Kwinjira kwinshi kwateje ikibazo gikomeye cy’ikiremwamuntu, kubera ko habuze aho kuba, ibiryo n'amazi. Icyakora, guverinoma ya Zaïrean yiyemeje kwita kuri iki kibazo. Gatoyi inyuma y'aho ukuza hafi miliyoni imwe impunzi, a yica kolera Ebola avuga ibihumbi ubuzima mu nkambi z'impunzi z'Abahutu hirya Goma. Ingabo za FPR zahujije cyane cyane uruhare mu ntambara, zambutse umupaka kandi mu bikorwa byo kwihorera nazo zahitanye abantu benshi.

Intambara ya mbere ya congo[edit | edit source]

Imitwe yitwara gisirikare y'Abahutu ndetse n'abagize guverinoma y'agateganyo y'Abahutu bari mu mpunzi, maze bagaba ibitero mu nkambi zikikije Goma bagaba igitero ku bwoko bw'Abatutsi bo mu moko ya leta ya Kivus n'u Rwanda ku mupaka. Kubera impamvu za politiki, guverinoma ya Kinshasa y’icyo gihe cya Zayire iyobowe na Joseph Mobutu ntiyigeze ibuza ibyo bitero, bityo leta y’u Rwanda n’abafatanyabikorwa bayo ba Uganda batera inkunga inkunga y’ubumwe bw’ingabo za demokarasi zo kubohoza Zayire, umutwe w’inyeshyamba uyobowe na Laurent Kabila kurwanya Mobutu. Ingabo z'u Rwanda zagabye igitero mu nkambi za Goma, bituma hapfa abantu ibihumbi n'ibihumbi, kandi babifashijwemo n'iza Uganda, Kabila yagiye guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu mu ntambara ya mbere ya Kongo, yarangiye mu 1997.

Intambara ya kabiri ya congo[edit | edit source]

Mu gihe cy'umwaka umwe, Kabila yari yatonganye n'abahoze ari inshuti ze, maze mu 1998 guverinoma y'u Rwanda ishyigikira umutwe w'inyeshyamba zishingiye muri Goma urwanya Kabila, imyigaragambyo y'Abanyekongo iharanira demokarasi (RCD, rimwe na rimwe bita RCD-Goma ) ikozwe n'abaturage ba Banyamulenge, ifitanye isano n'Abatutsi. . Bafashe Bukavu n'indi mijyi, Intambara ya Kongo ya kabiri iratangira. Inkambi z'impunzi za Goma, aho Abahutu bari barashinze umutwe witwaje intwaro witwa FDLR (Force Democratic for Liberation of Rwanda), bongeye kwibasirwa n'ingabo za leta y'u Rwanda na RCD.

Intambara ya kabiri ya Kongo ntiyari yarigeze ibaho muri Afurika kubera gutakaza ubuzima bw'abasivili mu bwicanyi n'amahano. Kugeza 2003 Banyamulenge yari yarambiwe intambara kandi amakimbirane yagaragaye hagati yabo nu Rwanda. Mu 2002 na 2003 hagaragaye amahoro yoroheje yumushyikirano hagati yimpande nyinshi zagize uruhare muntambara.

Ikirere cya Goma mu Kwakira 2010
Reba amazu muri Goma, 2014

Kuva mu 2003 hagaragaye ihohoterwa ryinshi. Abahutu FDLR bagumye mu mashyamba no mu misozi mu majyaruguru no mu burengerazuba bwa Goma, bagaba ibitero ku mupaka w'u Rwanda no ku Banyamulenge. Ingabo z’ingabo z’igihugu cya Kongo ntizishobora cyangwa ntizishaka kubahagarika, kandi kubera iyo mpamvu u Rwanda rukomeje gushyigikira inyeshyamba za Banyamulenge nka RCD na Jenerali Nkunda, no kugaba ibitero muri Kivu y'Amajyaruguru zikurikirana FDLR. [1]

Muri Nzeri 2007, imirwano nini yatewe ubwoba ko izongera gutangira kubera ko umutwe w'ingabo 8000 w’ingabo za Jenerali Nkunda, ukikije Rutshuru, witandukanije no kwishyira hamwe n’ingabo za Kongo maze utangira kubatera mu mujyi wa Masisi uherereye mu majyaruguru y’iburengerazuba bwa Goma. MONUC ( Inshingano z'umuryango w'abibumbye muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo ) yatangiye gutwara indege ingabo za Kongo muri Goma no kuzimura na kajugujugu kuva ku kibuga cy'indege mpuzamahanga cya Goma i Masisi. [1]

Ku ya 27 Ukwakira 2008, Intambara ya Goma yatangiye mu mujyi hagati y’ingabo za Kongo, zishyigikiwe na MONUC, n’inyeshyamba za CNDP za Nkunda; Impunzi 200.000 zahunze umujyi. Ku ya 3 Ugushyingo 2012 habaye imirwano hagati y'ingabo z'Abanyekongo n'u Rwanda ku mupaka uherereye mu majyaruguru ya Goma. Goma yaje gufatwa n’umutwe wa M23 ku ya 20 Ugushyingo 2012. [2] "Ibihumbi mirongo" by'abasivili bahunze ako karere. Muri Kanama 2019, Minisitiri w’ubuzima Diane Gashumba wo mu Rwanda yatangaje ko abanyeshuri bazahagarika kujya mu ishuri i Goma, umujyi wo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo wegereye umupaka kubera ubwoba bwa Ebola.

Politiki[edit | edit source]

Reba kandi: List of governors of North Kivu intara

Goma ihagarariwe mu Nteko ishinga amategeko n'abadepite batanu / Abahagarariye:

  • Jean Batiste Kasekwa (ECIDE)
  • Hubert Furuguta (UNC)
  • Patrick Munyomo (AFDC)
  • Elvis Mutiri (ADR)
  • Josue Mufula (LDIC)

Urutonde rw'abayobozi[edit | edit source]

  • Kana Guzangamana 1989-1991
  • Mingale Mwenemalibu mu 1991
  • Athanase Kahanya Kimuha Tasi 1991-1993
  • Mashako Mamba Sebi 1993-1996
  • Kisuba shebaeni 1996-1998
  • Francois-Xavier Nzabara Masetsa 1998-2005
  • Polydore Wundi Kwavwirwa 2005-2008
  • Roger Rachid Tumbula, ahagana mu mwaka wa 2008-2011 Poursuite de l'opération ‹ gusenya des kubaka anarchique › 
  • Jean Busanga Malihaseme, Muri 2011-?
  • Kubuya Ndoole Naason, 2012-?
  • Dieudonné Malere, 2015–?
  • Timothée Mwisa Kyese, 2018 - ubungubu

Ibikorwa byibirunga bikikije Goma[edit | edit source]

Ikibaya kinini cya Rift kirimo gukururwa, biganisha ku nyamugigima no gushiraho ibirunga muri ako gace.

Ishusho ya mudasobwa yikirunga cya Nyiragongo ikomoka kumafoto ya satelite, yerekana ihungabana rya Goma-Gisenyi ku nkombe yikiyaga imbere. Inyuma, ibumoso, ni ikirunga cya Nyamuragira . Menya ko igipimo gihagaritse cyakabije.

Muri Mutarama 2002, Nyiragongo yaradutse, yohereza umugezi wa lava 200 metres (219 yd) kugeza kuri one kilometre (1,100 yards) z'ubugari no kugera kuri metero ebyiri (6½)ft) byimbitse unyuze hagati mu mujyi kugera ku nkombe z'ikiyaga. Inzego zikurikirana ikirunga zashoboye gutanga umuburo kandi abaturage benshi ba Goma bimukiye i Gisenyi. Lava yashenye 40% yumujyi (amazu ninyubako zirenga 4.500). Hariho impfu zimwe na zimwe zatewe na lava no gusohora imyuka ya dioxyde de carbone, itera guhumeka . Lava nayo yitwikiriye amajyaruguru 1☃☃km ya kilometero 3-kilometre (9,800 ft)kiriye amajyaruguru 1 km ya kilometero 3-kilometre (9,800 ft) umuhanda wikibuga cyindege mpuzamahanga cya Goma, utandukanya terminal na apron byari kuri iyo mpera. [3] Lava irashobora kugaragara byoroshye mumafoto ya satelite, [4] nindege irashobora kuboneka ukoresheje kilometero 2 (6.500-ft) igice cyamajyepfo yumuhanda ugaragara neza.

Mu 2005, ibikorwa by'ibirunga byongeye kubangamira umujyi.

Kugeza ubu abahanga muri Goma barimo gukurikirana Nyiragongo.

Iterabwoba ryatewe n'ikiyaga cya Kivu[edit | edit source]

Ikiyaga cya Kivu ni kimwe mu biyaga bitatu byo muri Afurika byagaragaye ko gifite gaze nyinshi zashushe zifata igitutu mu burebure bwacyo. Babiri mu bandi, ikiyaga cya Monoun n'ikiyaga cya Nyos, bahuye n'ikibazo cyo guturika kwa limnic cyangwa 'kurenga ikiyaga', irekurwa rikabije rya dioxyde de carbone ihumeka ishobora kuba yaratewe n'inkangu. Ihirikwa ry'ikiyaga cya Nyos ryishe cyane, ryahitanye abantu bagera ku bihumbi bibiri mu gace gakikije ikiyaga. Kivu iruta inshuro 2000 kurenza ikiyaga cya Nyos kandi irimo na metani yashonze nk'ikindi cyago - nubwo kwibumbira hamwe kwa dioxyde de carbone biri hasi cyane ugereranije n'ikiyaga cya Nyos. Abantu bagera kuri miriyoni ebyiri, harimo n’abaturage ba Goma, batuye hafi y’ikiyaga cya Kivu kandi bashobora guhura n’akaga ko guturika kwatewe na kimwe mu birunga byegeranye ndetse na nyamugigima bifitanye isano nayo. [5]

Ikintu kizwi nka ' mazuku ' cyahitanye abana vuba aha.

Ubwikorezi[edit | edit source]

Ikibuga cy'indege mpuzamahanga cya Goma gitanga ingendo zo mu gihugu kandi, guhera mu 2016, indege imwe mpuzamahanga ( Ethiopian Airlines ). Uyu mujyi uri ku mupaka w’u Rwanda kandi umuturanyi wa Gisenyi uhuza Kigali, umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda, ku mihanda na bisi zisanzwe zigenda hagati yiyi mijyi mu masaha ane. Goma ihujwe na Bukavu na feri, i Butembo, Beni, Bunia na Kisangani haba mu ndege zo mu gihugu cyangwa mu muhanda, kandi bisi zisanzwe ziva Goma zijya muri iyi mijyi. Bifata umunsi umwe cyangwa ibiri y'urugendo (muri bisi) kugirango ugere muri iyo mijyi.

Ikirere[edit | edit source]

Sisitemu yo gushyira mu kirere ikirere cya Köppen-Geiger ishyira ikirere cyayo nk'ikirere gishyuha gishyuha (Aw). Template:Weather box

Ibindi biranga Goma[edit | edit source]

  • Ikibuga cy’indege mpuzamahanga cya Goma cyemera ingendo z’ubucuruzi kandi nanone, guhera mu 2015, umurongo w’abagenzi ukorwa n’indege ya Ethiopian Airlines uva Addis Abeba ugana Goma.
  • Goma ifite ibibaya bine cyangwa bitanu byose hamwe bigera kuri 130 m, ndende ikaba igera kuri 80 m.
  • Pariki y'igihugu ya Virunga, ibamo ingagi zo mu misozi ziri mu kaga, iri mu majyaruguru y'umujyi.
  • Kugeza mu 2014, imurikagurisha ryari ryarafunguwe, ryerekana ibiti byaho, gushushanya, n'ibipupe .
  • Goma yakiriye amahugurwa y'abapadiri gatolika Redemptoris Mater iyobowe na Neocatechumenal Way .
  • Imihanda yo muri Goma yari imaze imyaka igera kuri 2 isanwa nabi, kandi n’imihanda myinshi yangiritse cyane kubera ibiza bituruka mu birunga. Imihanda myinshi yatangiye kongera kubakwa g1 gusa kuva kumupaka wu Rwanda na 3.5 km (2.2 mi)’abashoramari bo mu Bushinwa, kandi umujyi urimo gusanwa haba n’abashoramari ba Leta n’abikorera ku giti cyabo, ndetse na MONUSCO .
  • Ku ya 16 Werurwe 2013 Abakorerabushake b'Umuryango w'Abibumbye na MONUSCO bateguye isiganwa rya Tshukudu i Goma.
  • Umujyi rwagati ni 1 gusa kuva kumupaka wu Rwanda na 3.5 km (2.2 mi) kuva hagati ya Gisenyi.

Reba kandi[edit | edit source]

  • Ikiyaga cya Kivu
  • INNOSS'B
  • FC Mwangaza
  • Impanga hagati y'umujyi wa Goma n'umujyi wa Woluwe Saint-Pierre, mu Bubiligi . Ibindi: Urutonde rwimijyi yimpanga nimijyi ya bashiki bacu muburayi

Reba[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 McGreal, C. 2007. "Fear of fresh conflict in Congo as renegade general turns guns on government forces." The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  2. "Congolese rebels seize Goma, take airport." Melanie Goubyrukmini Callimachi, "Bloomberg BusinessWeek", Tuesday November 20, 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  3. "Cooperative Observations at Nyiragongo Volcano in D.R. of Congo". Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  4. Google Earth has high resolution photographs showing the affected part of the airport at coordinates -1.658, 29.237. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  5. "Killer Lakes". BBC Two, Thursday 4 April 2002. Summarised at www.bbc.co.uk.

Amerekezo: 1°41′S 29°14′E / 1.683°S 29.233°E / -1.683; 29.233