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Iterambere ry'ubukungu n'ubucuruzi mu Rwanda

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia
Ikarita igaragaza imihanda n'uduce byo murwanda
Urwibutso rwa Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi muri 1994 ruherereye kugisozi
Ibendera ry'igihugu cy' U Rwanda

U Rwanda rwashyize mu bikorwa ivugurura ry’ubukungu n’imiterere kandi rukomeza umuvuduko w’ubukungu mu myaka icumi ishize. Iterambere ry’inzego za Leta ryerekana ko rigarukira mugufata ibyemezo mu iterambere ry'igihugu, abikorera bazagira uruhare runini mu gufasha kuzamura ubukungu burambye.[1]

Ubucuri n'imwe mungamba z'ubukungu bwu Rwanda

Incamake[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ubukungu bwu Rwanda bwagize inganda zihuse kubera politiki ya leta igenda neza[2]. Ifite ubukungu buvanze. Kuva mu ntangiriro ya 2000, u Rwanda rwabonye ubukungu bwifashe neza, buteza imbere imibereho y'abanyarwanda benshi. Icyerekezo cya Guverinoma cyateye imbere cyabaye umusemburo w'ubukungu bwihuta. Perezida w'u Rwanda, Paul Kagame, yavuze ko yifuza guhindura u Rwanda "Singapore ya Afurika".[3]

Ku bufatanye na Guverinoma y'u Rwanda, USAID ishyigikiye iterambere ry'ubukungu n'iterambere binyuze muri gahunda zongera umusaruro w'ubuhinzi, kwagura imibereho, kongera amafaranga, no kuzamura imirire, bityo bigafasha u Rwanda kwigirira icyizere no guhangana n'ikirere.

Amateka[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe tutsi muri 1994[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Mu myaka ya za 1960 na 1970, politiki y’imari y’ubukungu y’u Rwanda, hamwe n’imfashanyo zituruka hanze ndetse n’ubucuruzi bugereranywa n’ubucuruzi, byatumye ubwiyongere bukabije bw’umuturage n’igipimo gito cy’ifaranga. Ariko, mugihe ibiciro bya kawa kwisi byagabanutse cyane mumyaka ya za 1980, iterambere ryabaye ribi.

Ugereranije n'ubwiyongere bwa GDP buri mwaka bwa 6.5% kuva 1973 kugeza 1980, ubwiyongere bwaragabanutse kugera ku kigereranyo cya 2,9% ku mwaka kuva 1980 kugeza 1985 kandi bwahagaze kuva 1986 kugeza 1990. Ikibazo cyageze mu 1990 igihe ingamba za mbere z’imiterere ya IMF gahunda yo guhindura[4]. Mu gihe gahunda itashyizwe mu bikorwa mbere y’intambara, hashyizweho ingamba z’ingenzi nko guta agaciro kabiri no gukuraho ibiciro byemewe. Ingaruka ku mishahara n'imbaraga zo kugura byarihuse kandi bitangaje. Iki kibazo cyibasiye cyane cyane intore zize, abenshi muri bo bakaba barahawe akazi mu bakozi ba Leta cyangwa mu bigo bya Leta.

Mu myaka 5 y’intambara y’abenegihugu yarangiye muri Jenoside yo mu 1994, GDP yagabanutse mu myaka 3 kuri 5, bituma igabanuka ryihuse rirenga 40% mu 1994, umwaka wa Jenoside. Ubwiyongere bwa 9% muri GDP nyayo mu 1995, umwaka wambere nyuma yintambara, byerekana ko ibikorwa byubukungu byongeye kubaho.

Nyuma ya Jenocide yakorewe abatutsi muri 1994[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Itsembabwoko ryo mu 1994 ryasenye ishingiro ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda, rikennye cyane abaturage, cyane cyane abagore, kandi ryangiza ubushobozi bw’igihugu mu gukurura ishoramari ry’abikorera ndetse n’amahanga. Icyakora, u Rwanda rwateye intambwe igaragara mu guhungabanya no kuvugurura ubukungu bwarwo. Muri Kamena 1998[5], u Rwanda rwasinyanye n'Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy'Imari gishinzwe Kuringaniza Imiterere[6]. U Rwanda rwatangiye kandi gahunda yo kwegurira abikorera ku giti cyabo na Banki y'Isi[7].[8][9]

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994 mu Rwanda, guverinoma yatangiye gahunda ikomeye yo kuzamura ubukungu bw’igihugu no kugabanya gushingira ku buhinzi gusa ahubwo yongeramo ingamba nshya mubucuruzi bwa serivisi zitandukanye. Guverinoma y'u Rwanda yashyize ahagaragara umuvuduko wa 13% muri GDP mu 1996 binyuze mu kunoza imisoro yinjira kubyinjira mu igihugu, kwihutisha abikorera ku giti cyabo, ibigo bya Leta kugira ngo bongere imiyoboro y'umutungo wa Leta, kandi bikomeza kunoza umusaruro woherezwa mu mahanga n'umusaruro w'ibiribwa. Igihingwa cy’icyayi n’inganda byakomeje kuvugururwa, ndetse ikawa iravugururwa yitabwaho n’uko abahinzi bumva umutekano wabo ugarutse.

Indanganturo[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  1. https://www.usaid.gov/rwanda/economic-growth-and-trade
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Rwanda#cite_note-14
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Rwanda#cite_note-15
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_adjustment
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhanced_Structural_Adjustment_Facility
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Monetary_Fund
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Bank
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Rwanda#cite_note-Rwanda_production_in_2019,_by_FAO-21
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Rwanda#cite_note-MINAGRI_Annual_Report_2018-2019-22