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Ishyaka FPR - Inkotanyi

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia

Inyandikorugero:Merge Inyandikorugero:Infobox political party Ishyska cya FPR - Inkotanyi , FPR ni ishyaka rya politiki riri ku butegetsi mu Rwanda . Iyobowe na Perezida Paul Kagame, iryo shyaka ryayoboye igihugu kuva aho umutwe waryo witwaje intwaro watsinze ingabo za leta, utsinda intambara yo mu Rwanda mu 1994 .

Kuva muri 1994, ishyaka ryategetse u Rwanda hakoreshejwe amayeri yaranzwe n'ubutegetsi . [1] [2] Amatora y'akoreshwa mu buryo butandukanye, burimo kubuza amashyaka atavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, gufata cyangwa kwica abanegura, n’uburiganya bw’amatora .

Amateka[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ihuriro ry’u Rwanda ku bumwe bw’igihugu[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Nyuma y’ihirikwa rya Idi Amin muri 1979, abanyabwenge b’impunzi b’abatutsi muri Uganda bashinze umuryango wa mbere w’impunzi za politiki muri ako karere, Umuryango w’abanyarwanda uharanira ubumwe bw’igihugu ( RANU ), kugira ngo baganire ku kugaruka mu Rwanda. Nubwo ahanini ari ihuriro ry’ibiganiro by’ubwenge, ryabaye abarwanyi nyuma y’amatora ya Milton Obote yo muri 1980 bituma impunzi nyinshi z’abatutsi zifatanya na Yoweri Museveni mu ntambara yo muri Uganda . Mu gusubiza, Obote yamaganye ingabo z’igihugu zishinzwe kurwanya Museveni ( NRA ) zigizwe na Banyarwanda . Kugerageza guhatira impunzi zose z’abatutsi mu nkambi z’impunzi muri Gashyantare muri 1982 byatumye habaho isuku ryinshi, bituma impunzi 40.000 zisubira mu Rwanda. U Rwanda rwatangaje ko rwemera 4000 gusa muri bo nk'Abanyarwanda, mu gihe Uganda yatangaje ko bazasubiza 1000 . Abandi bagera 35000 basigaye basigaye mu gihirahiro cyemewe n’akarere k’umupaka kamaze imyaka, aho abasore benshi b’impunzi bagiye bajya muri NRA . [3]

Babiri mu barwanyi bagize uruhare mu gitero cy'a NRA mu 1981 cyabereye i Kabamba cyatangiye intambara ni impunzi z'abatutsi: Fred Rwigyema na Paul Kagame, bakuriye hamwe mu nkambi y'impunzi ya Kahunge kandi bombi bari abanyamuryango ba RANU. Igihe NRA yatsinze yinjira i Kampala muri 1986, hafi kimwe cya kane cy’abarwanyi bayo 16.000 bari Banyarwanda, naho Rwigeyema yari umuyobozi wungirije . Guverinoma ya Museveni imaze gushingwa, Rwigyema yagizwe minisitiri w’ingabo wungirije n’umuyobozi mukuru w’ingabo, aba uwa kabiri nyuma ya Museveni mu mutwe wa gisirikare uyobora igihugu. Kagame yagizwe umuyobozi w'agateganyo w'ubutasi bwa gisirikare. Impunzi z'abatutsi zagize umubare utagereranywa w'abasirikare ba NRA kubera ko bari barinjiye mu myigaragambyo hakiri kare bityo bakaba bariboneye uburambe. [4]

Ibyo abanyarwanda mu ntambara yahise imenyekana na guverinoma nshya. Amezi atandatu nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi, Museveni yahinduye ubutegetsi bwemewe n’imyaka myinshi atangaza ko abanyarwanda bari batuye muri Uganda azahabwa ubwenegihugu nyuma y’imyaka 10. Ukuboza 1987, RANU yakoresheje kongere yayo ya karindwi i Kampala maze yiyita Front Patriotic Front ; FPR nshya, yiganjemo abahoze mu ntambara y'abanyarwanda, yari abarwanyi cyane kuruta RANU yambere. [4]

Imbere yo gukunda igihugu[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Intambara y'abanyagihugu[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ku ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, FPR iyobowe na Jenerali Majoro Fred Gisa Rwigyema yinjiye mu Rwanda, itangiza intambara yo kubohora igihugu. Igitero cya FPR cyabanje gutsinda, nubwo Rwigema yapfuye azize amasasu ku ya 2 Ukwakira. [5] Icyakora, ingabo za FAR zahawe ubufasha n'Ububiligi, Ubufaransa na Zayire kandi mu gihe cy'ukwezi kumwe zongeye gufata ingamba, bituma FPR isubira muri Uganda . [6]

Paul Kagame, wakoraga amasomo ya gisirikare muri Amerika, yagarutse kuyobora FPR. Nyuma yaho, FPR yitabaje ibitero by'inyeshyamba, yibanda ku turere twa Byumba na Ruhengeri, [6] yigarurira igice kinini cy'amajyaruguru y'igihugu mu 1992 . [7] Amaherezo imishyikirano hagati ya FPR na guverinoma yu Rwanda yatumye hasinywa amasezerano ya Arusha muri 1993, bituma abakozi ba FPR n’izindi mpunzi bemerewe gusubira mu gihugu. [10]

Imirwano yatangiye ku ya 6 Mata 1994 ubwo indege ya Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana yaraswaga hafi y’ikibuga cy’indege cya Kigali, ikamwica hamwe na Cyprien Ntaryamira, perezida w’Uburundi. Kugeza ubu ntiharamenyekana uwagabye icyo gitero ; FPR yashinje intagondwa z'Abahutu muri guverinoma y'u Rwanda, mu gihe guverinoma yavugaga ko FPR ari yo nyirabayazana w'icyo gitero. [8] Ihanurwa ry'indege ryabaye umusemburo wa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994, yatangiye mu masaha make. Mu gihe cy’iminsi igera ku 100, hishwe abatutsi bagera kuri miliyoni irenga 1.000.000, babitegetswe na guverinoma y’agateganyo yiyise iy'abatabazi iyobowe na Kambanda Jean.[9]

Intsinzi ya FPR yarangiye ubwo Kigali yafatwaga ku ya 4 Nyakanga ndetse n'igihugu cyose ku ya 18 Nyakanga. FPR yacitsemo ibice mu mutwe wa politiki wagumanye izina rya FPR, n'iy'abasirikare, bitwaga Ingabo z'igihugu zo mu Rwanda ( ubu ni ingabo z'u Rwanda ).

Imiyoborere nyuma y'intambara mu Rwanda[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

FPR imaze kwigarurira igihugu, mu 1994, yashyizeho guverinoma y’ubumwe bw’igihugu iyobowe na Perezida Bizimungu Pasteur aho Paul Kagame yabaye umukuru w'ingabo.

Muri Gashyantare 1998 , Kagame yatorewe kuba perezida wa FPR , asimbuye Alexis Kanyarengwe, naho muri Werurwe 2000 aba perezida w’igihugu . [7] Nyuma ya referendumu y’itegeko nshinga muri 2003 , Kagame yatorewe kuba perezida n'amajwi 95 % . FPR yashinze ihuriro n’amashyaka mato mato, yabonye amajwi 74 % mu matora y’abadepite yo muri 2003, yatsindiye imyanya 40 kuri 53 yatowe mu mutwe w’abadepite . [7] Ihuriro ryatsindiye imyanya 42 mu matora y’abadepite yo muri 2008, Kagame yongeye gutorerwa kuba perezida muri 2010 n'amajwi 93 % . Amatora y’abadepite 2013 yagaragaje ko ihuriro riyobowe na FPR ryatsindiye imyanya 41.

Amateka y'amatora[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Amatora ya Perezida[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Amatora Umukandida w'ishyaka Amajwi % Igisubizo
2003 Paul Kagame 3,544.777 95.06% Yatowe
2010 4,638.560 93.08% Yatowe
2017 6,675.472 98,80% Yatowe

Amatora y'Umutwe w'Abadepite[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Amatora Umuyobozi w'ishyaka Amajwi % Intebe + / − Guverinoma
2003 Paul Kagame 2.774.661 73,78% Inyandikorugero:Composition bar 33 leta ishyize hamwe
2008 3,655.956 78,76% Inyandikorugero:Composition bar 3 leta ishyize hamwe
2013 76.22% Inyandikorugero:Composition bar 1 leta ishyize hamwe
2018 4,926.366 73,95% Inyandikorugero:Composition bar 1 leta ishyize hamwe

Reba[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  1. : 1–19. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. : 181–204. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Mahmood Mamdani (2002) When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton University Press, pp168–169
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mamdani, pp172–173
  5. "Was Rwigyema assassinated?". Daily Monitor (in Icyongereza). 2 February 2021. Retrieved 2021-09-08. While the official version from the RPF is that he was killed by the enemy bullet while on the front line, there is a persistent contrary allegation that Rwigyema was in fact assassinated and that the conspiracy to eliminate him was instigated by a fellow RPF senior commander Maj Peter Bayingana who conspired with Maj Chris Bunyenyezi.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Aimable Twagilimana (2007) Historical Dictionary of Rwanda, Scarecrow Press, p204
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Arthur S Banks, Thomas C Miller, William R Overstreet & Judith F Isacoff (2009) Political Handbook of the World 2009, CQ Press, p1125
  8. Hutus 'killed Rwanda President Juvenal Habyarimana' BBC News, 12 January 2010
  9. : 72–82. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)

Ibindi gusoma[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ihuza ryo hanze[hindura | hindura inkomoko]