Rwanda

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Repubulika y'u Rwanda
République du Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
Flag of Rwanda.svg Coat of arms of Rwanda.svg
Ibendera rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda Ikimenyetso mpamo cy’inyandiko za Leta y’u Rwanda
LocationRwanda.svgIkarita ya Repubulika y’u Rwanda

U Rwanda cyangwa Repubulika y’u Rwanda

U Rwanda ni igihugu giherereye muri Afurika yo hagati mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, munsi y’Umurongo wa Koma y’isi. Umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda witwa Kigali. Ni gihugu kiza cyane cy’imisozi igihumbi, kikaba gikoresha indimi eshatu: Ikinyarwanda, Igifaransa, Icyongereza. Ururimi rw’Igihugu ni Ikinyarwanda.

Leta y’u Rwanda ni Repubulika yigenga kandi ubutegetsi bwose niyo buturukaho, ishingiye kuri demokarasi, igamije guteza imbere abaturage, kandi idashingiye ku idini.

Ibirango by’igihugu cy’u Rwanda ni: ibendera, ikimenyetso mpamo cy’inyandiko za Leta, intego n’indirimbo y’Igihugu.

Intego ya Repubulika ni : Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu.

Indirimbo y’Igihugu ni : Rwanda Nziza.

"Ubumenyi bw'isi"[edit | edit source]

N’igihugu kidakora kunyanja, kiri muri Afurika yo hagati karere bita ak’ibiyaga bigari. U Rwanda rufite ibirunga bitanu, ibiyaga makumyabiri na bitatu n’imigezi myinshi, imwe akaba ariyo soko y’uruzi rwa Nil. U Rwanda rufite ubuso bwa 26,338 km² ubutaka bukaba bwihariye 24,948 km² amazi agafata 1,390 km². Abaturage babarirwa hafi ya 7,954,013 , ubwo rero n’abantu 281kuri buri km², u Rwanda rubarirwa mu bihubu bituwe cyane kurusha ibindi muri Afurika.

Imipaka n’ibihugu by’ibituranyi bikurikira ni 893 km: Burundi mu majyepfo (290km), Tanzania mu burasirazuba (217km), Uganda mu majyaruguru(169km) na Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo (217km). U Rwanda rufite ibihe by’imvura bibiri-Gashyantare kugera muri Gicurasi no kuva muri Nzeli kugera muri Mutarama. Mu misozi ibihe biri mi rugero hajya haba ubutita rimwe na rimwe hakaza n’urubura rw’imbonekarimwe.

Igihugu gifite imiterere y’ubutaka itandukanye yiganjemo ibirunga mu majyaruguru kikaba gikikijwe n’ikiyaga cya Kivu mu burengerazuba. Parike National y’ibirunga iri mu birunga mu misozi miremire n’amashyamba, ifite ingangi zizwi cyane kw’isiinyamaswa nini cyane zizwi ku kuwita ku miryango yango yazo. Hari inyamaswa nini n’into, naho ikiyaga cya Kivu muburengerazuba kikaba gifite kikaba gifite umusenyi mwiza mu nkengero zacyo ku Kibuye ikaba itatswe n’uturwa twinshi. Ahantu ha mbere haciye bugufi mu Rwanda ni umugezi wa Rusizi ukaba uri ku metero 950 hejuru y’inyanja n’aho ahantu harehare cyane gusumbya ahandi ni ikirunga cya Kalisimbi kiri kuri metero 4,519.

Pariki Nasiyonali[edit | edit source]

Intara[edit | edit source]

Igihugu cy’u Rwanda kigabanyijemo intara n’Umujyi wa Kigali. Intara zigabanyijemo uturere, imijyi, imirenge n’utugari. Umujyi wa Kigali ugabanyijemo uturere, imirenge n’utugari.

Kugeza muri 2005, U Rwanda rwari rugabanyijemo intara cumi n’ebyiri (12) na Komini ijana na cumi n’esheshatu (106). Izi zari: Umujyi wa Kigali,9 Intara ya Kigali Ngali,10 Intara ya Gitarama,11 Intara ya Butare,12 Intara ya Gikongoro,13 Intara ya Cyangugu,14 Intara ya Kibuye,15 Intara ya Gisenyi,16 Intara ya Ruhengeri,17 Intara ya Byumba,18 Intara y’Umutara,19 Intara ya Kibungo.

Ariko ibi byarahindutse kuva ku itariki ya 1 Mutarama 2006. Muri porogaramu yo kwegereza ubuyobozi abaturage no kuvugurura ubutegetsi muri rusange mu gihugu, ubutegetsi bwite bwa leta bwagabanyijwe mu matsinda matoya u Rwanda 13rugabanywamo intara eshanu (5) zagabanyijwemo nazo uturere mirongo itatu (30). Uturere natwo tugabanyijwemo imirenge Magana ane na cumi n’atandatu (416) n’utugali ibihumbi bibiri n’ijana mirongo ine n’umunani (2148). Igihugu cy’u Rwanda kigabanyijemo Intara enye ( 4) n’Umujyi wa Kigali.

Amazina, umubare n’ibyicaro by’Intara n’iby’Umujyi wa Kigali bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe ikurikira:

Intara n’Uturere
Izina Icyicaro Akarere karimo icyicaro
1 Intara y’Amajyaruguru Kinihira Akarere ka Rulindo
2 Intara y’Amajyepfo Busasamana Akarere ka Nyanza
3 Intara y’Iburasirazuba Kigabiro Akarere ka Rwamagana
4 Intara y’Uburengerazuba Bwishyura Akarere ka Karongi
5 Umujyi wa Kigali Nyarugenge Akarere ka Nyarugenge

Abanyarwanda[edit | edit source]

Volcans National Park

Hari batatu mu Rwanda. Hari Abatwa, Abahutu n’Abatutsi.[1]

Abatwa bakaba bari mu bwoko bw’abo bita aba pygmés. Ni bagufi mu gihagararo bakaba banabarwa mu bantu batuye bwa mbere mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari bo muri Afurika yo hagati nkuko ubasanga i Burundi, RDC no mu Rwanda. Abatwa bakaba bafitanye isano n’andi moko y’abapygmés bo muri ako karere. N’ubwo Abatwa bavuga ikinyarwanda nk’abahutu n’abatutsi, banenwa n’abandi baturage nkaho ntacyo bavuze. Abatwa ni 1% y’abaturage b’u Rwanda kandi bakaba bafite uruhare ruto cyane muri politiki y’igihugu.

Abahutu nibo benshi mu Rwanda no mu Burundi. Kuva kera bari batunzwe n'umwuga w'ubuhinzi. Abatutsi N’aborozi b’inka bakaba.

Iyobokamana[edit | edit source]

Abanyarwanda benshi ni abayoboke b’amadini 2 akomeye ariyo Ubukirisitu (Abagatolika, Abaporoso, Abapresibuteliyani n’abangilikani) n’ubuyislamu.

Aya madini niyo shingiro ry’abemera Imana kuva mu gihe cy’ubukoloni. Ikindi kigaragara ni uko abenshi batumva ukuntu wamenya Imana n’umugambi idufiteho utari muri aya madini yavuzwe haruguru.

Kiliziya cyane cyane Kiliziya Gatolika niyo yashinze imizi mu Rwanda. Abanyarwanda benshi ni abagatolika. Rero Kiliziya ifite uruhare runini mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Hari andi madini nayo y’abakirisitu mu Rwanda, ariko ntabwo akomeye nka Kiliziya Gatorika. Iri dini niryo rya mbere ryinjiye mu Rwanda riyobowe na Musenyeri Hirth wo mu muryango w’Abapadiri bera27mu w’1900. abapadiri bera bazanywe mu Rwanda n’abadage, bayobora icyo gihe bategekaga u Rwanda, u Burundi na tanzaniya y’icyo gihe. Abadage barindaga abapadiri bera bizera ko naho bazashyigikira ubutegetsi bw’Abadage (irohat) mu Rwanda.

Ibarura ry’abaturage rya 2002 ryagaragaje ko amadini ahagaze mu buryo bukurikira muri iki gihe: Abagatolika (49,5%), Abaporotesitanti bari mu madini atandukanye (27,2%), Abadivantisite (12,2%); Andi madini ya gikirisito (4%), Abatagira idini (3,6%) n’Abayisilamu (1,8%), indi myemerere 1,7%. Iri barura riragaragaza ko 98,3% by abatuye u Rwanda biyemerera ko bafite idini babarizwamo. Ibi biratwereka ko amadini ari rumwe mu nzego z’imiyoborere ihuza abantu benshi kuko amenshi muri ayo madini atandukanye cyane n’idini gakondo kuko yo ahuza abayoboke bayo kandi akabaha gahunda y’imitekerereze ndetse n’imyitwarire. [2]

Ibendera rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda[edit | edit source]

Ibendera ry’Igihugu rigizwe n’amabara atatu : icyatsi kibisi, umuhondo, n’ubururu.

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda[edit | edit source]

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bugizwe ahanini n’ubuhinzi abenshi mu bahinzi batunzwe n’ibyo bahinga. Ubukungu bukaba buhura n’icyibazo cy’uko abantu ari benshi kurusha ubutaka buhari. Kuba u Rwanda rudakora ku nyanjya bikaba byongera ibyo bibazo kubera ko bituma igihugu kitagera ku masoko mpuzamahanga cyangwa kibagerayo bigoranye. Ibihingwa ngengabukungu bya mbere ni ikawa, icyayi n’ibireti. Ibi n’ibyamasoko mpuzamahanga. Mu gihugu, ibihingwa bihaboneka muri byo ni ibitoki, imyumbati, amasaka, imboga, n’ibirayi. Ariko ntibihagije ku isoko ryo mu Rwanda ibindi bitumizwa mu mahanga. Ibindi byongera ku ntungamubiri ku banyarwanda ni amatungo- inka, ihene n’intama. [3]

Ubutegetsi bwite bw’igihugu[edit | edit source]

Muri Politiki, u Rwanda rwayoborwaga n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mbere yuko rukolonizwa n’Ababirigi kugeza rubonye ubwigenge ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962. Ni repubulika iyoborwa na perezida ikaba ikanagendera kuri demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi. Itegekonshinga rishya ryemejwe ku itariki ya 26 Gicurasi 2003. Umukuru w’igihugu ni Nyakubahwa Perezida Paul Kagame naho Umukuru wa guverinoma Ni Minisitiri w’intebe Anastase Murekezi Guverinoma ishyirwaho na Perezida. Nkuko Komisiyo y’amatora y’u Rwanda ibivuga, mu matora rusange yabaye ku italiki ya 25 Kanama 2003, abatsinze ni aba: Paul Kagame 95%, Faustin Twagiramungu 3.62% na Jean Népomuscène 1.33%. Abitabiriye amatora ni 96.55%.

Amashyaka ya Politiki[edit | edit source]

Paul Kagame

U Rwanda ni igihugu kigendera kuri demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi.

Amashyaka ya politike mu gihugu n’abayayobora ni aya : Parti Démocratique Chrétien (PDC) iyobowe na Alfred Mukezamfura ; Parti Social Démocratique (PSD) iyobowe na Vincent Biruta ; Union Démocratique du Peuple Rwandais (UDPR) iyobowe na Adrien Rangira ; Mouvement Démocratique Républicain (MDR) yasheshwe ikaba yarayoborwaga na Kabanda Célestin ; Parti Démocratique Islamique (PDI) iyobowe na André Bumaya ; Parti Libéral(PL) iyobowe na Prosper Higiro ; na Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR) iyobowe na Paul Kagame.

Hari n’andi mashyaka yahagaritswe kubera ko atemewe n’amategekop. Ayo ni Parti Socialiste Rwandais (PSR), na Parti pour le Progres et la Concorde (PPC) na Parti pour le Renouveau Démocratique.

Amashyaka yo mu wa 1959[edit | edit source]

Ayo mashyaka ari ukubiri: hari ayo bamwe bita "partis nationaux", ni ukuvuga amashyaka yari afite abayoboke benshi, yari asakaye mu gihugu cyangwa mu duce tunini, akagira n'uburyo bugaragara bwo kwamamaza ibitekerezo byayo n'abayobozi batwaye bagaragara. Tuvuge ayo mashyaka ayo ari yo n'igihe yavukiye: [4]

1. APROSOMA Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse 15/02/1959
2. UNAR Union Nationale Rwandaise 13/09/1959
3. RADER Rassemblement Democratique Rwandaise 14/09/1959
4. PARMEHUTU Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation des Bahutu 09/10/1959

Hari n'andi mashyaka akabakaba makumyabiri ataragize uburemere byayo tumaze kuvuga. Ndetse urebye neza, amwe n'amwe muri ayo mashyaka mato yegamiye ayo ane manini. Ayo mashyaka matoya ni aya:

1) ABAKI Alliance des Bakiga
2) ABESC Association des Bahutu evuluant pour la suppression des castes
3) ACR Association des Cultivateurs du Rwanda
4) APADEC Association du Parti Democrate Chretien
5) APROCOMIN Association des Commerçants Indigenes
6) AREDETWA Association pour le Relevement Democratique des Batwa
7) ARUCO Alliance du Ruanda - Urundi et du Congo
8) ASSERU Association des Eleveurs du Rwanda
9) MOMOR Mouvement Monarchiste Rwandais
10) MUR Mouvement pour 1'Union Rwandaise
11) PAMOPRO Parti Monarchiste Progressiste
12) PSCR Parti Social Chrétien du Rwanda
13) UAARU Union des Aborozi Africains du Rwanda
14) UMAR Union des Masses Rwandaises
15) UNAFREUROP Union Afro-Europeenne
16) UNINTERCOKI Union des Intérêts Communs du Kinyaga

[edit | edit source]

Amabanki[edit | edit source]

  • Banque de Kigali (BK)
  • Banque Rwandaise de Développement (BRD)
  • FINA Bank Rwanda
  • Compagnie Générale de Banque (COGEBANQUE)
  • Banque Commerciale du Rwanda (BCR)
  • ECOBANK RWANDA
  • Banque de l'Habitat du Rwanda (BHR)
  • Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR)
  • Urwego Opportunity Microfinance Bank (UOMB)
  • BANCOR SA
  • Banque Populaire du Rwanda SA

Sosiyete Sivile mu Rwanda[edit | edit source]

OLPC classroom teaching

Iki gice kiraganira kuri sosiyete sivile yo mu Rwanda, ariko irashimangira ku mateka yayo, uko iteye, n’amashami yayo aba mu Rwanda. Iki igce karanagaragaza imibereho ya sosiyete sivile, imigenderane ifitanye na leta yu urwanda ndetse n’abaterenkunga, ingorane ihura nazo. Iki gice imbogamizi uwo muryango uhura nazo.

Urebye ibibazo uyu muryango uhura nabyo mu byerekeye kumvisha akamaro kawo, ni umuryango w’ubukorerabushake ufata umwanya hagati y’umuryango nyarwanda na leta. Hari amashyirahamwe atandukanye yigenga, yashizweho n’abantu ku giti cyabo kugira ngo babungabunge amahame n’imico yabo.

Ubundi inshingano z’uwo muryango ni kuwinjizamwo imiryango y’abakozi bo mu nzego zose, baba abunganira (avocats), za kiriziya, koperative, amashirahamwe y’abana n’abagore n’andi mashirahamwe ashinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage. [5]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Ugushakisha Ukuri n’Ubumuntu, Kituo Cha Katiba, Nyakanga, 2004 – Gashyantare, 2006
  2. Ishami Rishinzwe Uburere Mboneragihugu, Ukwakire, 2006
  3. Ugushakisha Ukuri n’Ubumuntu, Kituo Cha Katiba, Nyakanga, 2004 – Gashyantare, 2006
  4. Ubumwe bw'Abanyarwanda, Kigali, Kanama 1999
  5. Ugushakisha Ukuri n’Ubumuntu, Kituo Cha Katiba, Nyakanga, 2004 – Gashyantare, 2006

Imiyoboro[edit | edit source]