Ubutayu bwa sahara

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Inyandiko y'umwimerere: Sahara

Sahara

iyi ni videwo yafatiwe hejuru ya Sahara mu burasirazuba bwo hagati ifashwe n'abakozi ba Expedition 29 bari mu kirere.
Ubutayu bwa Tadrart Acacus mu burengerazuba bwa Libiya, igice cya Sahara
Ishusho yo hejuru yerekana Safsaf Oasis hejuru ya Sahara. Ahagana hasi (ukoresheje radar) ni urutare , rugaragaza imiyoboro yumukara yaciwe no gutembera kwinzuzi za kera zahoze zigaburira oasisi .

Sahara ( /s ə h ɑːr ə /, /s ə h au ə / ; mucyarabu: aṣ-ṣaḥrāʼ al-kubrá, bivuga 'Ubutayu bunini cyane ') ni ubutayu buherereye ku mugabane wa Afurika . bufite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 9,200,000 ( nukuvuga 3,600,000 sq mi), nibwo butayu bunini kandi bushyushye kurusha ubundi kwisi bukaba n'ubutayu bwa gatatu bunini muri rusange, burutwa gusa n'ubutayu bwa Antaragitika na Arikitike . Izina 'Sahara' rikomoka ku ijambo ry'icyarabu rivuga "ubutayu", ṣaḥra ( صحرا /ˈsˤaħra/ ). [1]

Ubwo butayu bugizwe n' igice kinini cy' Afurika y'Amajyaruguru, usibye akarere karumbuka ko ku nyanja ya Mediterane, imisozi ya Atlas ya Maghreb, n'ikibaya cya Nili mu Misiri na Sudani . Bukora ku nyanja itukura mu burasirazuba no ku nyanja ya Mediterane mu majyaruguru bukagera ku nyanja ya Atalantika mu burengerazuba, aho imiterere igenda ihinduka ahari butayu hagahinduka ibibaya. Mu majyepfo, ihana imbibi na Sahel, umukenke wo mu turere dushyuha dukikije ikibaya cy'uruzi rwa Nijeri n'akarere ka Sudani yo muri Afurika yo munsi y'Ubutayu bwa Sahara . Sahara ishobora kugabanywamo uturere twinshi, harimo Sahara y’iburengerazuba, imisozi ya Ahaggar rwagati, imisozi ya Tibesti, imisozi ya Aïr, ubutayu bwa Ténéré, n’ubutayu bwa Libiya .

Mu imyaka amagana n'ibihumbi byinshi, Sahara yahindukaga ubutayu ubundi ikaba umukenke mu byiciro bingana n'imyaka 20.000 ibyo bikaba byaraterwaga nifatizo ry'isi ihora izenguruka izuba . Aka gacekarimo Sahara biteganijwe ko kazameraho ibyatsi mu myaka igera ku 15.000.

Ubumenyi bwaho iherereye[edit | edit source]

Ikarita y'ubumenyi bw' Afrika, yerekana agace ka Sahara
Awazisi mu misozi ya Ahaggar . Owazisi irengera bimwe mubinyamubuzima mubutayu bwumye cyane.
Ku ya 2 Werurwe 2003, umuyaga mwinshi wo muri Sahara wohereje umukungugu mwinshi mu majyaruguru y'uburengerazuba hejuru y'inyanja ya Atalantika
Butte yakozwe kuburyo bw'umwimerere n'umuyaga

Sahara ikora ku bice byinshi bya Alijeriya, Tchad, Misiri, Libiya, Mali, Mauritania, Maroc, Niger, Sahara y'Uburengerazuba, Sudani na Tuniziya . Ifite ubuso bwa miliyoni 9 za kilometero kare (3.500.000 sq mi), nukuvuga 31% bya Afurika. Turamutse tubariyemo uturere twose dufite imvura igereranije yumwaka iri munsi ya milimetero 250, Sahara yaba kilometero kare miliyoni 11 (4.200.000 sq mi) . Nimwe muntara eshatu zifite Fiziyogarafi nini muri Africa .

Sahara ahanini ni amabuye ya hamada ( amabuye ashashe ); ergs (umusenyi w'inyanja; uduce tunini dutwikiriwe nuwo musenyi ) hakaba igice kinini gifite umusenyi ufite metero zirenga 180 z'ubujyejuru (590 ft). Umuyaga cyangwa imvura y'imbonekarimwe nibyo bikora ibiranga ubutayu nukuvuga umusenyi w'ubutayu, umusenyi wo mu mirima, umusenyi w' inyanja, ikibaya cyamabuye, ibibaya bya kaburimbo ( reg ), ibibaya byumye ( wadi ), ibiyaga byumye ( oued ), hamwe nubutaka bwumunyu ( shati cyangwa chott ).

Imisozi myinshi yaritandukanije cyane, ndetse nibirunga byinshi biboneka mu butayu, harimo nkimisozi ya Aïr, imisozi ya Ahaggar, Atlas ya Sahara, imisozi ya Tibesti, Adrar des Iforas, n’imisozi yo ku nyanja itukura . Impinga ndende muri Sahara yitwa Emi Koussi, akaba ari ikirunga cyaka giherereye mu gace ka Tibesti mu majyaruguru ya Tchad.

Sahara yo hagati irumye cyane , ikagira ibimera bike. Amajyaruguru n’amajyepfo by'ubwo butayu, hamwe n’imisozi miremire, bigizwe nuduce tw’ibyatsi bito n’ibihuru byo mu butayu, bikagira kandi n’ibiti n’ibihuru birebire byo muri wadis, aho ubuhehere bwikusanyiriza. Mu karere ko hagati, kakandi kumye cyane, hari uduce twinshi two mu butayu bunini: Tanezrouft, Ténéré, Ubutayu bwa Libiya, Ubutayu bw'Iburasirazuba, Ubutayu bwa Nubiya n'ibindi. Utu turere twumye cyane dushobora kumara imyaka nimyaka nta mvura ihagwa.

Mu majyaruguru, Sahara yambukiranya inyanja ya Mediterane muri Egiputa ndetse nibice bya Libiya, ariko muri Cyrenaica na Maghreb, Sahara ihana imbibi n’ishyamba rya Mediterane, ishyamba ry’ibiti, hamwe n'akarere k’ibidukikije ko mu majyaruguru ya Afurika kagizwe n'ibihuru, byose bikaba bifite ikirere cya Mediterane kirangwa nimpeshyi ishyushye n'itumba rikonje kandi riragwa nimvura. ugendeye ku mahame yibimera ya Frank White n'impuguke mubumenyi bw'isi Robert Capot-Rey, umupaka wamajyaruguru ya Sahara ugarukira kubiti byimikindo byitwa date palm naho umupaka wamajyepfo ukagarukira ku byatsi bya esparto; ibyatsi biranga ikirere cya Mediterane ku gice cya Maghreb na Iberia . Ku mupaka wo mu majyaruguru hagwa imvura ingana na isoyeti milimetero100 (3.9 in) kumwaka.

Mu majyepfo, Sahara ihana imbibi na Sahel, umukenke wumye ugizwe n'uturere dufite impeshyi irimo imvura ikwira muri Afurika kuva iburasirazuba kugeza iburengerazuba. Ukurikije ikirere, ku mupaka y’amajyepfo ya Sahara hagwa imvura ihwanye na isoyeti milimetero150 (5.9 in) kumwaka (iyi ni impuzandengo yigihe kirekire, kubera ko imvura ihinduka buri mwaka).

Imijyi y'ingenzi iherereye muri Sahara harimo Nouakchott, umurwa mukuru wa Moritaniya; Tamanrasset, Ouargla, Béchar, Hassi Messaoud, Ghardaïa, na El Oued muri Alijeriya; Timbuktu muri Mali; Agadez muri Nijeri; Ghat muri Libiya; na Faya-Largeau muri Cadi.

Ikirere[edit | edit source]

Sahara ni ubutayu bunini cyane ku isi. Iherereye mu karere kitwa horse latitude munsi y'agace gashyuha cyane aho ikirere cyisi cyiganjemo ubutumburuke bwa subtropical, numuvuduko mwinshi wumuyaga uhagarika imvura n’ibicu, kandi gafite umuyaga uhindagurika uvanze n'umuyaga utuje. 

Kubura kwibicu guhoraho bituma haza urumuri rwinshi rudafite ikirubangamiye hamwe nimirasire ishyushye nkumuriro. Kudahindagurika kwikirere cyo hejuru yubutayu bituma ibicu bitabaho, bityo n'imvura ntibeho. Kugabanuka, umuyaga ushyushye hamwe n'umuvuduko mwinshi wumuyaga wo muri subtropcal bituma imvura itagwa . Ikibaya cya subtropical nicyo kintu cyiganje gituma habaho ikirere gishyushye cyo muri kariya karere kanini. Umuyaga umanuka niwo ukomeye kandi ufite imbaraga mu gice cy’iburasirazuba bw’Ubutayu, mu butayu bwa Libiya: aha ni ahantu h’izuba ryinshi, humye kandi ihataba imvura ku isi, kimwe n'ubutayu bwa Atacama, buherereye muri Chili na Peru .

Kubura kwimvura n'ibicu byiganje cyane mu gice cyiburasirazuba bwa Sahara kurusha muburengerazuba. Umwuka wiganje hejuru ya Sahara ni umuyaga wo ku mugabane ushyushye kandi wumye. Imyuka ishyushye kandi yumye iba cyane cyane hejuru yubutayu bwo mumajyaruguru y' Afrika kandi bukagira ingaruka mubutayu bwose mugihe kinini cyumwaka. Kubera ubu buryo bwo gushyuha bikabije, ubushyuhe buke busanzwe bugaragara hafi yubutaka, kandi bukiyongera mugihe cyimpeshyi.

Ingaruka ziterwa nubutaka bwaho buke cyane ni nkeya kuko nubundi nta mwuka umanuka. Nanone, kugira ngo bwirinde gahunda y’ikirere ibyara imvura n’ikwirakwizwa ry’ikirere ubwacyo, ubutayu buba bwumutse bitewe n’imiterere n’aho buherereye. Mu byukuri, ubushyuhe bukabije bwa Sahara ntibusobanurwa gusa n’umuvuduko ukabije w’umwuka: Umusozi wa Atlas wo muri Alijeriya, Maroc na Tuniziya nawo ufasha kongera ubukana bw’amajyaruguru y’ubutayu. Iyi misozi minini ikora nkinzitizi, igatera igicucu gikomeye cyimvura kugabanuka ikoresheje ubuhehere bukomeye buzanwa n’imivurungano y’ikirere ku nkombe ya polar igira ingaruka ku kirere gikikije Mediterane.

Isoko y'ibanze ituma imvura igwa muri Sahara ni Intertropical convergence Zone, umuvuduko mucye wumuyaga ukomeza kugeza hafi ya koma yisi niwo uzana ibihe by'imvura bigufi kandi bihindagurika muri Sahel no mumajyepfo ya Sahara. Imvura kugirango igwe muri ubu butayu bunini igomba gutsinda inzitizi zifatika z’ikirere zisanzwe zibuza imvura kugwa. Ikirere gikaze cya Sahara kirangwa nimvura nkeya cyane, itizewe, imvura idasanzwe; izuba ryinshi cyane ryigihe kirekire; ubushyuhe bwo hejuru umwaka wose; igipimo ntarengwa cy'ubushyuhe bugereranije ; ihindagurika ry'ubushyuhe bwa buri munsi ; nurwego rwo hejuru cyane mu guhumeka arirwo rwaciye agahigo kwisi yose.

Ubushyuhe[edit | edit source]

Ubusanzwe ikirere kiragaragara neza hejuru yubutayu, kandi igihe cyizuba ni kinini cyane ahantu hose muri Sahara. Hafi ubutayu bwose bufite amasaha arenga 3,600 yizuba ryinshi kumwaka (hejuru ya 82 kwijana yamasaha yumunsi), kandi ahantu hanini mugice cyiburasirazuba hafite amasaha arenga 4000 yizuba ryinshi kumwaka (hejuru ya 91 kwijana yamasaha yumunsi). Agaciro k'amasaha 4300 (98%) yigihe cy'amanywa aboneka muri Egiputa yo hejuru ( Aswan, Luxor ) no mu butayu bwa Nubian ( Wadi Halfa ). Impuzandengo ya buri mwaka yimirasire y'izuba igera kuri 2.800 kWh / (m 2 mwaka) mubutayu bunini. Sahara ifite imbaraga nyinshi zo kubyara ingufu z'izuba.

Umusenyi wo muri Sahara

kuba izuba riherereye kure cyane, n'ubuhehere buri hasi cyane, hamwe no kubura ibimera n'imvura nkeya bituma ubu butayu bunini bufata umwanya wambere mu turere tunini kandi dushyuha cyane kwisi. Ikigereranyo cy'ubushyuhe bwo hejuru kirenga 38 kugeza kuri 40 ° C cyangwa 100.4 kugeza 104.0 ° F mukwezi gushyushe hafi ya hose mubutayu usibye ahantu hirengeye cyane. Ikigereranyo cyo hejuru cyane ku isi cyashyizwe ahagaragara ubushyuhe buri munsi;  byari 47 ° C cyangwa 116.6 ° F mu mujyi wa kure wo mu butayu bwa Alijeriya witwa Bou Bernous, ku butumburuke bwa metero 378 (1,240 ft) hejuru yinyanja, ikibaya kitwa icyurupfu california cyonyine nicyo kijya kigera kuri ubwo bushyuhe . Ahandi hantu hashyushye muri Alijeriya nka Adrar, Timimoun, Muri Salah, Ouallene, Aoulef, Reggane hafite n'uburebure buri hagati ya metero 200 na 400 hejuru yinyanja, harangwa n'ubushyuhe bungana na 46 ° C cyangwa 114.8 ° F mu mezi ashyushye yumwaka. Salah, izwi cyane muri Alijeriya kubera ubushyuhe bukabije, ifite ubushyuhe buri hejuru ya 43.8 ° C cyangwa 110.8 ° F, 46.4 ° C cyangwa 115.5 ° F, 45.5 ° C cyangwa 113.9 ° F na 41.9 ° C cyangwa 107.4 ° F muri Kamena, Nyakanga, Kanama na Nzeri. Hariho utundi turere dushyuha cyane kurushaho duherereye cyane cyane muri Azalai, mu majyaruguru ya Mali. Igice kinini cyubutayu kigira amezi atatu kugeza kuri atanu arangwa n' impuzandengo yubushyuhe yo hejuru cyane  irenga 40 ° C cyangwa 104 ° F. Ingero ni nka Bilma, Nijeri na Faya-Largeau, Tchad. Ikigereranyo cy'umwaka; ubushyuhe buri munsi burenga 20 ° C cyangwa 68 ° F ahantu hose kandi bushobora kwegera 30 ° C cyangwa 86 ° F mu turere dushyushye umwaka wose. Nyamara, igice kinini cyubutayu gifite ubushyuhe burenze 25 ° C cyangwa 77 ° F.

Izuba rirenze muri Sahara

Ubushyuhe bwumucanga nubwubutaka burenze urugero. Ku manywa, ubushyuhe bwumucanga buba buri hejuru cyane: bushobora kugera kuri 80C cyangwa bukarenga. Ubushyuhe bwumucanga bwa 83.5 ° C (182.3 ° F) bwagaragaye muri Port Sudani . Ubushyuhe bwubutaka bwa 72 ° C cyangwa 161.6 ° F bwagaragaye muri Adrar ya Mauritania naho ubushyuhe bwa 75 ° C (167 ° F) bupimwa i Borkou, mu majyaruguru ya Tchad.

Bitewe no kubura ibicu nubuhehere buke cyane, ubutayu ubusanzwe bugira ubushyuhe bwinshi buhindagurika hagati yumunsi nijoro. Ariko, nakamenyero ko amajoro akonja cyane nyuma yiminsi ishyushye cyane muri Sahara.  Ugereranyije, ubushyuhe bw'ijoro usanga buri hagati ya 13 na 20 ° C (23-36 ° F) hakonje ugereranyije no kumanywa. ihindagurika rito riboneka mu turere two ku nkombe kubera ubuhehere bwinshi kandi akenshi usanga buri munsi ya 10 ° C cyangwa 18 ° F, mugihe ihindagurika rinini riboneka mubice byo kubutaka byubutayu aho ubuhehere buri hasi cyane, cyane cyane mumajyepfo ya Sahara. Nubwo bimeze bityo, mwitumba ijoro rishobora gukonja, kugeza ku rwego rwo gutitira, cyane cyane ahantu hahanamye.  Inshuro amajoro yo muri sahara akonja ziterwa cyane na Oscillation ya ruguru ya Atlantike y'Amajyaruguru (NAO), hamwe nubushyuhe bwo mugihe cyubukonje mugihe cyibihe bibi bya NAO hamwe nimbeho yo mubukonje hamwe mugihe NAO ari nziza. [2] Ibi byose nukubera ko amasaha agenda gahoro hafi yuburasirazuba bwa anticyclone ya subtropical mugihe cyubukonje bwinshi cya NAO, nubwo cyumye cyane kuburyo byakagombye gutanga imvura irenze urugero, bigabanya umuvuduko wumuyaga wumye, n'ukonje uva mumisozi miremire ya Eurasia muri Sahara kuburyo bugaragara. [3]

Imvura[edit | edit source]

Impuzandengo yimvura yumwaka itangirira hasi cyane mumajyaruguru namajyepfo yubutayu kugeza hafi yigice cyo hagati nuburasirazuba. Uruhande ruto rwo mu majyaruguru y’ubutayu rwakira ibicu n’imvura nyinshi bitewe n’imiterere y’umuvuduko muke wo hejuru y’inyanja ya Mediterane ku nkombe ya polar, nubwo ihujwe cyane n’igicucu cy’imvura cy’imisozi kandi imvura igereranijwe buri mwaka iba kuva kuri 100 millimetres (4 muri) kugeza kuri 250 millimetres (10 in) . Kurugero, Biskra, Alijeriya, na Ouarzazate, Maroc, tubisanga muri kano karere. Inkombe yo mu majyepfo y’ubutayu ku mupaka na Sahel yakira ibicu n’imvura byo mu mpeshyi bitewe na Intertropical Convergence Zone iturutse mu majyepfo,imvura igwa ugereranije buri mwaka iri hagati ya 100 millimetres (4 in) kugeza kuri 250 millimetres (10 in) . urugero, Timbuktu, Mali na Agadez, Niger tuzisanga muri iyi zone. Intambwe nini yo hagati ya hyper-arid yo mu butayu ntishobora na rimwe kwibasirwa n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere cyo mu majyaruguru cyangwa mu majyepfo kandi ikomeza guhora iyobowe nikirere cya anticyclonic, kandi imvura igereranijwe buri mwaka ishobora kugabanuka kugera kuri 1 millimetre (0.04 in) . Mubyukuri, igice kinini cya Sahara cyakira munsi ya 20 millimetres (0.8 in) . Muri kilometerokare 9,000,000 (3,500,000 sq mi) zigize ubutaka bwo mu butayu bwa Sahara, ubuso bungana na kilometerokare2,800,000 (1,100,000 sq mi) (hafi 31% yubuso bwose) bwakira buri mwaka impuzandengo yimvura ingana na milimetero 10 (0.4 in) cyangwa munsi yayo, mugihe kilometerokare 1,500,000(580,000 sq in) (hafi 17% yubuso bwose) yakira impuzandengo ya milimetero 5 (0.2in) cyangwa munsi. Impuzandengo ngarukamwaka y'imvura ni zero hafi kilometerokare 1,000,000(390,000 sq in) mu burasirazuba bwa Sahara igizwe n'ubutayu bwa: Libiya, Misiri na Sudani ( Tazirbu, Kufra, Dakhla, Kharga, Farafra, Siwa, Asyut, Sohag, Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, Wadi Halfa) aho igihe kirekire bivuze hafi 0.5 millimetres (0.02 muri) ku mwaka. Imvura ntabwo iba yizewe kandi iba ari nkeya muri Sahara kuko igenda guhindagurika cyane uko umwaka utashye. Bitandukanye rwose n’imvura idakunda kuboneka mumwaka, ibipimo byo kuzamuka kumwuka mu mwaka byo ni binini cyane, hafi ya 2,500 millimetres (100 muri) ku mwaka kugeza kuri 6,000 millimetres (240 zirenga 6,000 millimetres (240 in) ku mwaka mu butayu bwose. Nta handi ku isi habonetse umwuka wumye kandi uzamuka nko mu karere ka Sahara. Ariko, urubura rwigeze kugwa inshuro ebyiri muri Sahara, muri Gashyantare 1979 n'Ukuboza 2016, mu mujyi wa Ayini Sefra .

uko ubutayu bwikoze n'ikirere cya mbere y'amateka[edit | edit source]

Igitekerezo kimwe cyuko Sahara yikoze ni uko imvura yo muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru yacitse intege kubera ibibarafu mu gihe cya Quaternary, guhera mu myaka miriyoni ebyiri cyangwa eshatu ishize. Ikindi gitekerezo ni uko imvura yagabanutse igihe inyanja ya Tethys ya kera yumaga mugihe cya Tortoniya mumyaka miriyoni 7.

Ikirere cya Sahara cyagiye gihindagurika kuva ku kirere cyimvura kugera kucyubushyuhe mu myaka ibihumbi namagana ishize, bikekwa ko biterwa n’imihindagurikire irambye yikirere cy' Afurika y'Amajyaruguru iteguza imvura yo muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru - yerekeza mu majyepfo. iki kiciro giterwa nikiciro cyigihe cyimyaka 41000 aho ihindagurika ryisi rihinduka hagati ya 22 ° na 24.5 °. Kugeza ubu (2000 ACE), turi mugihe cyumye, ariko biteganijwe ko Sahara izongera kuba icyatsi mumyaka 15000 (17000 ACE). Iyo imvura yo muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru iri mu mvura ikaze ya buri mwaka kandi ibimera byo mu karere ka Sahara bikiyongera, bigatuma habaho icyo bakunze kwita sahara y'icyatsi kibisi ". Ku mvura idasanzwe yo muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru ifite intege nke, ikinyuranyo kiragaragara, kubera ko imvura igabanuka buri mwaka n’ibimera biba bike bigatuma habaho icyiciro cy’ikirere gishyushye cya Sahara kizwi ku izina rya "ubutayu bwa Sahara".

Igitekerezo cy'uko ihindagurika ryimirasire (ubushyuhe bw'izuba) riterwa n’imihindagurikire irambye mu kuzenguruka kwisi ari ikintu kigenzura ihinduka ry’igihe kirekire mu mbaraga z’imvura ku isi yose ryatanzwe bwa mbere na Rudolf Spitaler mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya cumi n'icyenda., icyo gitekerezo cyaje gutangwa ku mugaragaro no gupimwa numuhanga mu byikirere John Kutzbach mu 1981. Igitekerezo cya Kutzbach kijyanye n'ingaruka z'izuba ku miterere y'imvura ku isi cyemewe muri iki gihe nkifatizo ritera igihe kirekire cyimvura. Kutzbach ntabwo yigeze aha izina igitekerezo cye ku buryo bwemewe niyo mpamvu kiswe " Hypothesis ya Orbital Monsoon " nk'uko Ruddiman yabisabye mu 2001.

Agace ka Sahel muri Mali

Mubihe byanyuma byurubura , Sahara yari nini cyane kuruta iyubu, igera mu majyepfo kurenga imbibi zayo zubu. [4] Iherezo ryigihe cy'urubura ryazanye imvura nyinshi muri Sahara, kuva nko mu 8000 mbere ya Yezu kugeza 6000 mbere ya Yezu, ahari kubera ahantu h’umuvuduko muke byatumye urubura rugwa mu majyaruguru. Urubura rumaze kugenda, Sahara yo mu majyaruguru yarumye. Naho muri Sahara yo majyepfo,kuma byagendaga bisimburana nimvura, akaba ari nabyo bituma amajyepfo agira imvura kurusha amajyaruguru kugeza nanubu. Ahagana mu 4200 mbere ya Yezu, imvura yasubiye mu majyepfo igera aho igeze ubu, [5] biganisha ku butayu bwa Sahara buhoro buhoro. Sahara ubu yumye nkuko byari bimeze mu myaka 13.000 ishize

Ikiyaga cya Tchad ni ibisigisigi byahoze ari inyanja ya paleolake Mega-Tchad, yabayeho mugihe cy'ubushyuhe bwa Afurika. Mu myaka ya 5000 mbere ya Yesu, ikiyaga cya Mega-Tchad nicyo cyari kinini muri paleolakes enye zo muri Sahara, kandi bivugwa ko cyari gifite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 350.000.

Igitekerezo cya pompe kuri Sahara gisobanura ibihe bikurikira: Igihe cy'imvura cyangwa " cya Sahara y'icyatsi", Sahara ihinduka ubwatsi bwumukenke kandi ibimera n’ibinyabuzima bitandukanye biba byinshi. Hakurikiraho igihe cyo hagati y'imvura n'izuba ndetse nigihe cyubushyuhe aho agace ka Sahara kongera gusubira mu butayu kandi bikaba ngombwa ko ibimera n’ibinyabuzima bisubira mu majyaruguru kugera ku misozi ya Atlas, no mu majyepfo yerekeza muri Afurika y’iburengerazuba, cyangwa mu burasirazuba mu kibaya cya Nili . Ibi bitandukanya abaturage bo mu moko atandukanye mu bice bifite ikirere gitandukanye, bikaba ngombwa ko babimenyera.

Bivugwa kandi ko abantu bihutishije igihe cyo kuma kuva 6.000-25.500 mbere ya Yezu bitewe n'abashumba baharagiraga.

Ibimenyetso by'izunguruka[edit | edit source]

Gukura kwa speleothem (risaba amazi y'imvura) kwagaragaye muri Hol-Zakh, Ashalim, Ndetse-Sid, Ma'ale-ha-Meyshar, Ktora Crack, Ubuvumo bwa Nagev Tzavoa, n'ahandi, kwatumye gukurikirana imvura yabanjirije amateka byoroha. Inzira yinyanja itukura yari yumye cyane mbere ibihumbi 140 na nyuma yibihumbi 115 (mumyaka ibihumbi ishize). Ibihe bito bito bigaragara kuri 90-87 kya, ariko byari bikiri kimwe cya cumi gusa imvura igera kuri kya 125. Mu majyepfo y’ubutayu bwa Negev speleothems ntiyakuze hagati ya 185-140 kya ( MIS 6), 110-90 (MIS 5.4-5.2), cyangwa nyuma ya 85 kya cyangwa mugihe kinini cy’ibihugu bitandukanye (MIS 5.1), ibihe by'ikirere na Holocene . Ibi birerekana ko Negev yepfo yari yumye kuri hyper-arid muri ibi bihe.

Mugihe cyanyuma cya Glacial Maximum (LGM) ubutayu bwa Sahara bwari bunini kurenza uko bimeze ubu aho amashyamba yo mu turere dushyuha yagabanutse cyane, kandi ubushyuhe bwo hasi bwagabanije imbaraga za Hadley. Aka ni agace k'ikirere gatera umwuka wubushyuhe wo mukarere ka Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) kuzana imvura muri tropique, mugihe umwuka wamanutse ushyushye, kuri dogere 20 mumajyaruguru, ugasubira muri koma y'isi kandi ukazana umwuka w'ubutayu muri kano karere. Ifitanye isano n’umuvuduko mwinshi w’umukungugu utwarwa n’umuyaga, kandi urwego rwumukungugu ruboneka nkuko biteganijwe mu nyanja zo mu majyaruguru ya Atlantike. Ibihe by'ubutayu bwa Sahara byari byatangiye ahagana mu 12.500 mbere ya Yesu, hamwe no kwagura ITCZ ​​ mu mpeshyi mu majyaruguru y’isi, bikazana ibihe by'ikirere gitose hamwe n’ikirere cya savanna muri Sahara (usibye igihe gito cyumye kijyanye na Dryas). mugihe cya Holocene yubushyuhe bwikirere bwabaye 4000 mbere ya Yesu mugihe ubushyuhe bwo hagati buringaniye busa nubushyuhe buri hagati ya dogere 2 na 3 ugereranije nimyaka yashize. Isesengura ry’umugezi wa Nili washyizwe mu bishanga muri delta naryo ryerekana ko iki gihe cyari gifite umubare munini w’imyanda iva muri Nili yubururu, byatumye habaho imvura nyinsh mu misozi miremire ya Etiyopiya. Ibi byatewe ahanini n’umuvuduko ukabije w’imvura mu turere tw'ubushyuhe, bigira ingaruka ku Buhinde, Arabiya na Sahara, ikiyaga cya Victoria vuba aha cyabaye isoko yera ya Nili kandi yumye hafi y'imyaka 15.

Kugenda gutunguranye kwa ITCZ yerekeza mu majyepfo, kurangwa na Heinrich (gukonja gutunguranye gukurikirwa no gushyuha gahoro), bifitanye isano nimpinduka hamwe nibihe bya El Niño-Amajyepfo ya Oscillation, byateye kuma byihuse mu turere twa Sahara na Arabiya bihinduka ubutayu. Ibi bifitanye isano no kugabanuka kugaragara k'ubunini bwa Nili hagati ya 2700 na 2100 mbere ya Yesu. [6]

Uduce tw'ibidukikije[edit | edit source]

Ibintu nyamukuru biranga imihanda yakarere ka Sahara

Sahara igizwe n'uduce dutandukanye. tugiye dutandukanijwe nubushyuhe, imvura, ubutumburuke, nubutaka, utu duce kandi tubamo imiryango itandukanye yibimera ninyamaswa.

Ubutayu bwo ku nyanja ya Atalantika ni agace kagufi ko ku nkombe za Atalantika aho igihu gituruka ku nkombe ya Canary Current ikonje kigatanga ubuhehere buhagije bwo gukomeza ibinyamisogwe bitandukanye, ibinyomoro, n'ibihuru. Bufite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 39,900 (15,400 sq mi) mu majyepfo ya Maroc na Mauritania.

Ikibaya cya Sahara y'Amajyaruguru n'amashyamba biri hafi y'ubutayu bwo mu majyaruguru, iruhande rw'amashyamba ya Mediterane, amashyamba, hamwe na ecorgion zo mu majyaruguru ya Maghreb na Cyrenaica. Imvura yo mu itumba ikomeza ibihuru n’ibiti byumye bigira inzibacyuho hagati y’ikirere cy’ikirere cya Mediterane mu majyaruguru na Sahara ya hyper-arid ikwiriye mu majyepfo. Ifite 1,675,300 square kilometers (646,840 sq mi) muri Alijeriya, Misiri, Libiya, Mauritania, Maroc, na Tuniziya.

Agace k'ibidukikije mu butayu bwa Sahara gakubiyemo igice kinini cyo hagati ya Sahara aho imvura iba nkeya kandi ikagwa rimwe na rimwe. Ibimera ntibikunze kubonekayo, kandi aka gace kagizwe ahanini numusenyi ( erg, chech, raoui ), ikibaya cyamabuye ( hamadas ), ibibaya bya kaburimbo ( reg ), ibibaya byumye ( wadis ), hamwe nubutaka bwumunyu. gafie kilometero kare 4,639,900 z'ubuso(1,791,500 sq mi) kagakora kuri Alijeriya, Tchad, Misiri, Libiya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, na Sudani.

Igice cy'ikibaya cya Sahara y'Amajyepfo hamwe n’ibiti byo mu ishyamba ni itsinda rito rigana iburasirazuba n’iburengerazuba hagati ya Sahara ya hyper-arid na Sahelnasi ya Sahel mu majyepfo. Kwimuka kwa Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) bizana imvura yo mu cyi muri Nyakanga na Kanama ugereranije 100 to 200 mm (4 kugeza 8 muri) ariko biratandukanye cyane uko umwaka utashye. Iyi mvura ikomeza urwuri rwicyatsi nicyatsi, hamwe nishyamba ryumye hamwe nigiti kibisi kumugezi wigihe. Iyi ecoregion 1,101,700 square kilometres (425,400 sq mi) muri Alijeriya, Tchad, Mali, Mauritania, na Sudani.

Mu mashyamba y’iburengerazuba ya Sahara montane xeric, imisozi miremire y’ibirunga itanga ikirere gikonje, gituma habaho ishyamba rya Sahara-Mediterane. iki gice kingana na kilometero kare258,100 (99,650 sq mi), giherereye muri Tassili n'Ajjer yo muri Alijeriya, kigakora gato huri Aïr ya Nigeri, Dhar Adrar ya Mauritania, na Adrar des Iforas ya Mali na Alijeriya.

Igice cya Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric ishyamba ryibiti kigizwe nimisozi ya Tibesti na Jebel Uweinat . Imvura nyinshi kandi igwira igihe hamwe nubushyuhe buringaniye bituma haba amashyamba nibiti by'imikindo, acacia, myrtle, oleander, tamarix, hamwe nibiti byinshi bidasanzwe. Iki gice kingana na kilometero kare82,200 (31,700 sq mi) giherereye muri Tibesti ya Tchad na Libiya, na Jebel Uweinat ku mupaka wa Misiri, Libiya, na Sudani.

Halofitike yo muri Sahara ni agace karangwa nibihe by’umwuzure w'umuvu w'umunyu kagizwe n’ibiti by’ibihingwa bya halofitike (byatewe n’umunyu). iki gice kifite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 54,000 (21,000 sq mi) ubariyemo: umwuzure wa Qattara na Siwa uva mu majyaruguru ya Egiputa, ibiyaga by'umunyu byo muri Tuniziya yo hagati, Chott Melghir muri Alijeriya, n'uduce duto twa Alijeriya, Mauritania, no mu majyepfo ya Maroc.

Tanezrouft ni kamwe mu turere dukarishye ku isi kakaba na kamwe bice bishyushye kandi byumye bya Sahara, nta bimera bihaba . kari ku mbibi za Alijeriya, Nigeriya, na Mali, mu burengerazuba bw'imisozi ya Hoggar .

Ibimera n'ibinyabuzima[edit | edit source]

Ibimera bya Sahara bigiye bitandukanye cyane bishingiye kuri bio-geography iranga ubu butayu bunini. dukurikije ibimera, Sahara ifite zone eshatu zishingiye ku mvura iba yahaguye arizo; Amajyaruguru (Mediterane), Hagati n'Amajyepfo. Hari nuturere tubiri twimberabyombi - imberabyombi ya Mediterane na Sahara n'imberabyombi ya Sahel.

Ibimera byo muri Sahara bigizwe n’amoko agera kuri 2800 y’ibimera . Hafi ya kimwe cya kane cyabyo ntahandi wabibona . Hafi ya kimwe cya kabiri cyubwoko busanzwe bwibimera byo biboneka no mubundi butayu bwabarabu.

Ingamiya muri Guelta d'Archei, mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba bwa Tchad

Bivugwa ko Sahara yo hagati irimo amoko magana atanu y'ibimera, akaba ari make cyane urebye ubunini bwayo. Ibimera nkibiti bya acacia, imikindo, ibinyomoro, ibihuru, n’ibyatsi; byamenyereye ubushyuhe kandi bikura biba bigufi kugira ngo byirinde gutakaza amazi kubera umuyaga mwinshi, bikabika amazi mu biti byabyo kugira ngo bizayakoreshe mu gihe cyiki, bikagira imizi miremire igenda itambitse ishakisha ahantu hari amazi n'ubuhehere, bigira kandi amababi mato mato cyangwa inshinge kugirango byirinde gutakaza amazi mugihe bihumeka . Amababi yabyo ashobora kuma rwose hanyuma akazashibuka.

Muri Sahara habayo ubwoko bwinshi bwimbwebwe twavuga nka: ingunzu , imbwebwe yera nimbwebwe ya Rüppell . Imparage nini yumweru ya Addax, ishobora kugenda hafi umwaka mubutayu itanywa amazi. imparage ya Dorcas yo mumajyaruguru ya Afrika nayo ishobora kugenda igihe kirekire idafite amazi. Izindi mparage zizwi zirimo rhim na dama.

Ingwe zo muri Sahara ( ingwe zo mu majyaruguru y'uburengerazuba bwa Afurika ) ziba muri Alijeriya, Togo, Niger, Mali, Benin, na Burkina Faso . Haracyariho ingwe zitageze kuri 250 zikuze, ziritonda cyane, zihunga abantu bose. Ingwe zirinda izuba kuva muri Mata kugeza Ukwakira, zishakisha aho zikinga mibihuru nka balanite na acacia Ubundi bwoko bw'ingwe ( zo mu amajyaruguru y'uburasirazuba bwa Afurika ) butuye muri Tchad, Sudani no mu burasirazuba bwa Niger. Ariko, kuri ubu zarazimye mu misozi ya Misiri na Libiya. Hasigaye ubwoko bugera kuri 2000 bwingwe zikuze.

Ikiyaga cya Idehan Ubari oasis, gifite ibyatsi kavukire n'imikindo

Izindi nyamaswa zirimo ibinyaruvu, imbeba, inzoka z'umucanga, hamwe n'imisega yo muri Afurika, (mu bihugu 14 gusa) na ostrich ifite ijosi ritukura . Izindi nyamaswa ziba muri Sahara (inyoni byumwihariko) twavuga nka silverbill nyafrica hamwe ninyombya yumukara, nibindi. Habayo kandi ingona nto zo mu butayu ahagana muri Mauritania no mu kibaya cya Ennedi cya Tchad. [7]

Sikorupiyo y'urupfu ishobora kureshya na sentimetero 10(3.9 in). Ubumara bwayo burimo agitoxine na scyllatoxine nyinshi kandi mbi cyane kubuzima; ariko,kurumwa niyi sikorupiyo ntibipfa kwica umuntu mukuru ufite ubuzima bwiza. Ikimonyo gisa na feza cyo muri Sahara kirihariye kubera ubushyuhe bukabije bw’aho, hamwe n’inyamanswa zihora zigihiga, ibimonyo bisohoka mubuvumo bwabyo iminota icumi gusa kumunsi.

ingamiya n' ihene ni inyamaswa ni amatungo aboneka cyane muri Sahara. Kubera imiterere yayo yo kutananirwa no kwihuta, ingamiya ninyamaswa ikunzwe,ikoreshwa nabakerarugendo .

Ibikorwa byabantu bibangamira cyane agace gakunda kubamo amazi (oase) cyangwa aho amazi yegereye hejuru. Umubare munini w’inyamabere zari zisigaye waragabanutse bitewe nuko abantu bazihiga ngo bazirye. Mu myaka yashize, imishinga yiterambere yatangiriye mu butayu bwa Alijeriya na Tuniziya hakoreshejwe amazi yuhira yavomwe mu mazi yo mu kuzimu. Izi gahunda akenshi ziganisha ku kwangirika no gusharira kubutaka .

Abashakashatsi bo muri kaminuza ya Hacettepe (Yücekutlu, N. et al., 2011) batangaje ko ubutaka bwa Sahara bushobora kuba bufite ubutare nyabuzima ndetse na bimwe mu bintu by'ingenzi byibiriwa bikenerwa gukoreshwa nk'ifumbire mu guhinga ingano.

Amateka[edit | edit source]

urutare rw;ubugeni rwo muri Sahara muri Fezzan

Abantu babaga ku nkombe yubutayu hashize imyaka ibihumbi, [8] kuva igihe kirekire cyurubura kirangiye . Icyo gihe Sahara yari ahantu heza cyane kuruta uko bimeze muri iki gihe. Izirenga petroglyphs 30.000 zinyamaswa zo mumazi nk 'ingona [9] zakomeje kubaho,kimwe cya kabiri cyazo kiboneka mu Tassili n'Ajjer mu majyepfo ya Algeria. dinozore zasigaye, harimo Afrovenator, Jobaria na Ouranosaurus, nazo ziba muri Arijeriya. Sahara yubu nta bimera byinshi ifite, usibye mu kibaya cya Nili,no mu misozi miremire yo mu majyaruguru, aho usanga ibimera bya Mediterane nk'igiti cy'umwelayo. Abantu benshi bemezaga ko ako karere ariko kari kameze kuva kera nko mu mwaka wa 1600 mbere ya Yezu, nyuma y’imihindagurikire y’isi ubushyuhe bwariyongereye ndetse n’imvura iragabanuka, ibyo bikaba byaratumye habaho ubutayu butunguranye muri Afurika y’Amajyaruguru mumyaka 5.400 ishize. [5]

AbaKiffian[edit | edit source]

Umuco wa Kiffian nuwo mugihe cyabanjirije amateka, wabayeho hagati yimyaka 10,000 na 8000 ishize muri Sahara, mugihe cya Neolithic Subpluvial . Ibisigazwa by'abantu bo muri uyu muco byabonetse mu 2000 ku kibanza kizwi ku izina rya Gobero, giherereye muri Niger mu butayu bwa Ténéré . Iki kibanza kizwi nkimva nini yamabuye kandi ya mbere yabantu mu butayu bwa Sahara. Abakiffians bari abahigi babahanga. Amagufa yinyamaswa nini zo mu mukenke zavumbuwe muri ako gace zerekana ko babaga ku nkombe yikiyaga cyari gihari mugihe cya Holocene Wet Phase, igihe Sahara yari yuzuye kandi itose. Abakiffian bari barebare, basumba centimetero 185. Isesengura rya Craniometric ryerekana ko aba baturage ba Holocene bo hambere bari bafitanye isano rya bugufi na Late Pleistocene Iberomaurusians hamwe naba Holocene ba mbere ba Maghreb, ndetse nitsinda rya Holocene Mechta rwagati . Ibimenyetso byumuco wa Kiffian ntibikibaho kuva mumyaka 8000 ishize, kuko Sahara yanyuze mugihe cyumye mumyaka igihumbi ishize. Nyuma yiki gihe, umuco wa Teneriya wigaruriye ako karere.

Abanya Teneri[edit | edit source]

Gobero yavumbuwe mu 2000 mu rugendo rw’ubucukuzi rwari ruyobowe na Paul Sereno, washakaga ibisigazwa bya dinozore . Imico ibiri itandukanye yabayeho mbere yamateka yavumbuwe aho hantu: umuco wa mbere wa Holocene Kiffian, n'umuco wo hagati wa Holocene Tenerian . Kiffians bari abantu babanjirije amateka babanjirije abanya Teneriya baza kuzimira hashize imyaka 8000, ubwo ubutayu bwashyuhaga cyane. Kuzimira byarakomeje kugeza mu 4600 mbere ya Yesu, ubwo ibihangano bya mbere bifitanye isano na Teneriya byandikwaga. I Gobero havumbuwe ibigazwa byabantu bagera kuri 200. Abanya Teneriya bari bagufi cyane kandi ntambaraga ugereranyije nabaKiffian. Isesengura rya Craniometric ryerekana kandi ko bari batandukanye. Imva zerekana ko Abanya Teneriya bubahirije imigenzo yo mu mwuka, kuko bashyinguwe hamwe n'ibikoresho nk'imitako ikozwe mu mitsi yimvubu n'amasafuriya y'ibumba. Ikintu gitangaje cyane ni ugushyingurwa kwabantu batatu bahoberana mumva imwe, byabaye mu myaka 5300 ishize, byumugore ukuze n’abana babiri, bagereranijwe ko bari bafite imyaka itanu n umunani. Ibisigazwa byabo byerekana ko batwikiwe ku buriri bwindabyo. Bose uko ari batatu bavugwa ko bapfuye mu masaha 24 buri wese, ariko kubera ko ibisigazwa byabo bidafite ihahamuka rigaragara (ntabwo bashinyaguriwe bikabije) kandi bashyinguwe ku buryo bwiza icyabateye gupfa kiracyari amayobera.

Oued Zouzfana n'umudugudu wa Taghit

Tashwinat Mummy[edit | edit source]

Uan Muhuggiag bigaragara ko hatigeze haturwa kuva byibuze mu kinyagihumbi cya 6 kugeza mu 2700 mbere ya Yezu, nubwo wenda hanyuzagano hagaturwa. ikintu cy'agaciro dusanga muri UAN Muhuggiag ni umubyeyi wabitse neza umwana w'umuhungu uri mukigero cy'imyaka 2 nigice. Umwana yari aryamye nkuko uruhinja ruba rumeze munda, ari mumufuka wakozwe muruhu rwimparage, uriho n'amababi. Bimwe mu bice byumubiri we byavanyweho, nkuko bigaragazwa ninkovu zo mu nda no mugatuza, hanyuma hashyirwaho imiti igabanya ubukana kugira ngo umubiri we utangirika. Urunigi rw'amagi ya ostrich narwo rwabonetse mu ijosi rye. Radiocarubone yagaragaje ko uwo mugore yari afite hafi imyaka 5600, ibyo bigatuma irusha imyaka 1000 umugore wari warabayeho imyaka myinshi muri Egiputa ya kera. Mu 1958–59, ubushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe byuwo mwana mu matongo buyobowe na Antonio Ascenzi bwakoze isesengura rya antropropologique, radiologue, amateka n'ubutabire kuri mummy Uan Muhuggiag bwemeje ko yari umwana w'amezi 30 nigitsina kitazwi, yari afite imiterere ya Negroid . Ibipimo byafashwe ku inda ye byerekanaga kandi ko umubiri we wabanje gutwarwa na evisceration hanyuma nyuma ugahinduka umwanda. Undi muntu mukuru, basanze kuri Uan Muhuggiag, yari yarahambwe yunamye. Ariko, umubiri ntiwerekanye ibimenyetso bya evisceration cyangwa ubundi buryo ubwo aribwo bwose bwo kuwubungabunga. Umurambo bagereranije ko ushobora kuba aruwo muri 7500 BP.

Nubians[edit | edit source]

Beni Isguen, umujyi mutagatifu uzengurutswe n'inkuta ndende muri Sahara ya Alijeriya

Mu gihe cya Neolithic, mbere yuko ubutayu butangira ahagana mu 9500 mbere ya Yesu, Sudani yo hagati yari ifite ibidukikije byinshi byafashaga baturage benshi ariko ubu hose hahindutse ubutayu. Mu kinyagihumbi cya 5 mbere ya Yezu, abantu bari batuye ahahoze hitwa Nubia, nibo bakoze "impinduramatwara mu buhinzi", bari babanye neza n'ibimera n'amatungo yo mu rugo. Ubugeni bw’inka n’abashumba bo muri sahara isobanura imihango nimizizririzo y' inka dusanga muri iki gihe muri Sudani ndetse n’indi miryango y’aborozi muri Afurika. Megaliths iboneka muri Nabta Playa ifatwa nkurugero rwerekana ibikoresho bya mbere bizwi ku isi bya kera, byahanuye Stonehenge imyaka igera ku 2000. [10] Ibi biragoye kubyumva, nkuko byagaragaye kuri Nabta Playa, kandi nkuko byagaragajwe n'inzego zinyuranye z'ubuyobozi muri sosiyete yaho, birashoboka ko ari byo byashingiweho ku miterere y'umuryango wa Neolithic i Nabta ndetse n'Ubwami bwa kera bwa Misiri. [11]

Abanyamisiri[edit | edit source]

Ahagana mu 6000 mbere ya Yezu, Abanyamisiri bo mumajyepfo y'uburengerazuba bwa Egiputa baragiraga inka kandi bakubaka inyubako nini. Imiturire iri kumurongo kandi idahindagurika yo mu Misiri ahagana mbere yikinyejana cya 6 mbere ya Yesu yibandaga ahanini kubuhinzi bwibinyampeke nubworozi bw'amatungo: inka, ihene, ingurube nintama. Ibintu bikozwe mubyuma byasimbuye ibyari byarakozwe mamabuye. Muri icyo gihe gutunganya impu zinyamaswa, ububumbyi no kuboha nabyo byarakorwaga cyane. Ibimenyetso byerekana akazi ka Al Fayyum mugihe kirekire cyangwa gusa byigihe gito mumwaka wa 6 mbere ya Yezu, hamwe nibikorwa byibiribwa byibanda kuburobyi, guhiga no gukusanya ibiryo. Imyambi yamabuye, ibyuma nibisakuzo kuva mubihe bikunze kuboneka. [12] Mubikozwe mwibumba bakoraga inkono, imitako,ibikoresho by'ubuhinzi nibyo guhiga, batekaga n’ibiribwa bitandukanye birimo inyama zumishijwe n'imbuto. Gushyingura mubutayu byongera imihango y'Abanyamisiri, kandi abapfuye bashyingurwaga bareba iburengerazuba. [13]

Kugeza mu 3400 mbere ya Yezu, Sahara yari yumye nkuko bimeze muri iki gihe, kubera kugabanuka kw'imvura n'ubushyuhe bwinshi biturutse ku guhinduka kw'izenguruka isi. [5] Uko kuma byabereye abantu imbogamizi yo kujya kuhatura. Ubucuruzi buciriritse cyangwa ubucuruzi bizwi ko byanyuze imbere mu bihe byakurikiyeho, ikintu cyonyine kidasanzwe ni ikibaya cya Nili. Nili ariko, ntiyashoboraga kunyura muri cataracte nyinshi, bigatuma ubucuruzi no guhura nubwato bigorana.

Abanyafenisiya[edit | edit source]

Azalai umunyu. Abafaransa batangaje ko muri 1906 ubushyo bw;ingamiya zari ingamiya 20.000.

Abaturage ba Fenisiya, bateye imbere kuva mu 1200-800 mbere ya Yesu, bashinze ihuriro ry'ubwami muri Sahara yose kugera mu Misiri. Muri rusange bari batuye ku nkombe za Mediterane, ndetse na Sahara, mu baturage ba Libiya ya kera, bakaba ari abasekuruza b'abantu bavuga indimi za Berber muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru na Sahara muri iki gihe, harimo na Tuareg yo muri Sahara rwagati.

Inyuguti z'Abanyafoyinike zisa n'izakiriwe n'Abanyalibiya ba kera bo muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru, kandi Tifinagh iracyakoreshwa muri iki gihe n'abashumba b'ingamiya ba Tuareg bavuga ururimi rwa Berber bo muri Sahara rwagati.

Igihe kimwe hagati ya 633 na 530 mbere ya Yezu, Hanno Navigator yashinze cyangwa ashimangira ubukoloni bwa Fenisiya mu burengerazuba bwa Sahara, ariko ibisigazwa bya kera byose byarazimanganye nta kimenyetso na kimwe gisigaye.

Abagereki[edit | edit source]

Mu 500 mbere ya Yezu, Abagereki nibwo bageze mu butayu. Abacuruzi b'Abagereki bakwirakwiriye ku nkombe y'iburasirazuba bw'ubutayu, bashyiraho ubukoloni bw'ubucuruzi ku nyanja Itukura . abanyakariteje bakwirakwiye ku nkombe za Atalantika yo mu butayu, ariko imivumba yamazi no kubura amasoko byatumye batagera mu majyepfo nko Maroc ya none. Ibihugu bikomatanyije bizengurutse ubutayu mu majyaruguru no mu burasirazuba; byarakomeje birigenga. Igitero cyagabwe nabaturage b'abimukira bo mu butayu cyahoraga gihangayikishije abatuye ku nkombe z'ubutayu.

Iterambere mumijyi[edit | edit source]

Isoko ryari ku kibanza kinini cya Ghardaïa (1971)

Iterambere mu mujyi, Garamantes, ryatangiye ahagana mu mwaka wa 500 mnere ya Yezu muri Sahara rwagati, mu kibaya cyitwa Wadi al-Ajal i Fezzan, muri Libiya. Garamantes yageze kuri iryo terambere mu gucukura imiringoti kure cyane yimisozi ihanamye kugirango ikure amazi mu kibaya hanyuma uyizane mumirima yabo. Garamantes yarakuze cyane kandi irakomera, yigarurira abaturanyi bayo kandi ifata abacakara besnhi (bashyizwe mubikorwa byo kwagura imiyoboro). Abagereki ba kera n'Abaroma bari bazi abanyagaramantes kandi bakabafata nk'abimukira badafite umuco. Icyakora, bakoranaga ubucuruzi nabo, kandi mu murwa mukuru wa Garamantes wa Garama habonetse ubwogero bw'Abaroma. Abacukumbuzi b'ibya kera basanze imijyi umunani minini hamwe n'indi midugudu myinshi ikomeye mu karere ka Garamantes. Iterambere rya Garamantes ryaje gusenyuka nyuma yo gutakaza amazi aboneka muri aquifers ntibaba bagishoboye gukomeza kwagura iyo miyoboro kugera ku misozi.

Hagati y'ikinyejana cya mbere mbere ya Yesu n'ikinyejana cya kane nyuma ya Yesu, ingendo nyinshi z'Abaroma muri Sahara zakozwe n'itsinda ry'imitwe ya gisirikare n'ubucuruzi y'Abaroma .

Berber[edit | edit source]

Zawiya ku bwinjiriro bwa Taghit, Alijeriya
Tuareg yigeze kugenzura Sahara yo hagati nubucuruzi bwayo.

Abaturage ba Berber bigaruriye igice kinini cya Sahara. Garamantes Berbers yubatse ingoma ikize rwagati mu butayu. [14] Aborozi babaTuareg bakomeje gutura no kwambukiranya ubuso bunini bwa Sahara kugeza nubu.

Kwaguka kwa isilamu nicyarabu[edit | edit source]

Ingoma ya Byzantine yategekaga inkombe zo mu majyaruguru ya Sahara kuva mu kinyejana cya 5 kugeza mu cya 7. Nyuma yuko abayisilamu bigaruriye Arabiya, cyane cyane mu gice cy’Abarabu, banigaruriye Afurika y’Amajyaruguru kuva hagati mu kinyejana cya 7 kugeza mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 8 kandi imbaraga za kisilamu zagutse vuba muri Sahara. Mu mpera za 641 Misiri yose yari mu maboko y’abayisilamu. Ubucuruzi bwambukiranya ubutayu bwarushijeho kwiyongera, kandi nubucuruzi bukomeye bwabacakara bwanyuraga mubutayu. Byagereranijwe ko kuva mu kinyejana cya 10 kugeza mu cya 19 abacakara bagera ku 6.000 kugeza ku 7.000 batwarwaga mu majyaruguru buri mwaka.

Igihe cya Turukiya[edit | edit source]

Mu kinyejana cya 16, mu majyaruguru ya Sahara,muturere two ku nkombe muri Alijeriya na Tuniziya y'ubu, ndetse no mu bice bimwe na bimwe bya Libiya y'ubu, hamwe n'ubwami bwigenga bwa Misiri, bwigaruriwe n'ubwami bwa Ottoman. . Kuva mu 1517 Misiri yari igice cy’u Bwami bwa Ottoman, ibyo byatumaga Ottomani igenzura ikibaya cya Nili, uburasirazuba bwa Mediterane na Afurika y'Amajyaruguru. Inyungu y'Ubwami bwa Ottoman nuko abaturage bakoraga bambukaga imipaka biboroheye kandi bagakora n'ubucuruzi hagati yabo. Abacuruzi bifashishije inzira y'ubutaka bwa Ottoman kugira ngo bagemure ibirungo, zahabu na silike biva mu burasirazuba,hamwe n'ibicuruzwa biva mu Burayi, ariko hanakorerwaga nicuruzwa ritemewe ryabacakara na zahabu biva muri Afurika. Icyarabu cyarakomeje maze ururimi n'umuco wa kisilamu birashimangirwa cyane. Uturere twa Sahel n’amajyepfo ya Sahara twarimo ibihugu byinshi byigenga hamwe n'imiryango ya Tuareg.

Ubukoloni bw'i Burayi[edit | edit source]

Ubukoloni bw’i Burayi muri Sahara bwatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19. Ubufaransa bwigaruriye ubutegetsi bwa Alijeriya kuva muri Ottomani mu 1830, maze ubutegetsi bw’Abafaransa bukwira mu majyepfo kuva muri Alijeriya bwerekeza iburasirazuba muri Senegali kugera muri Nijeri , Tchad, Mali, Sudani y'Abafaransa yari igizwe na Timbuktu (1893), Mauritania, Maroc (1912), Nigeriya, na Tuniziya (1881). Mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 20, ubucuruzi bwambukiranya Sahara bwari bwaragabanutse kubera ko ubucuruzi bwakorwaga binyuze mu buryo bugezweho kandi bunoze, nk'indege, aho kwambuka ubutayu. [15]

Abafaransa bifashishije urwango rumaze igihe hagati yabarabu ba Chaamba nabaTuareg. Mu 1902, Abafaransa binjiye mu misozi ya Hoggar batsinda abaTuareg mu ntambara ya Tit .

Ingoma y'Abakoloni b'Abafaransa niyo yari yiganje muri Sahara. yashyizeho imiyoboro isanzwe iva i Toulouse yerekeza, i Oran no hejuru ya Hoggar kugera Timbuktu no mu Burengerazuba i Bamako na Dakar, ndetse na bisi zitwara abagenzi zambukiranya Sahara ziyobowe na companyi Transsaharienne (est. 1927). Filime idasanzwe yakozwe na Kapiteni René Wauthier uzwi cyane mu gutwara indege yerekana imodoka nini y’ikamyo yambutse sahara bwa mbere iva muri Algiers yerekeza Tchad.

Igihugu cya Misiri, kiyobowe na Muhammad Ali n'abamusimbuye, bigaruriye Nubiya mu 1820-22, bashinga Khartoum mu 1823, bigarurira Darfur mu 1874. Igihugu cya Egiputa, harimo na Sudani, cyakolonijwe n'ubwongereza mu 1882. Misiri n'Ubwongereza byatakaje Sudani kuva 1882 kugeza 1898 biturutse ku ntambara ya Mahdist . Nyuma yo gufatwa n’ingabo z’Abongereza mu 1898, Sudani yabaye agakingirizo k’Abongereza n'Abanyamisiri.

Espagne yigaruriye Sahara y’iburengerazuba nyuma ya 1874, nubwo Rio del Oro yayobowe na Sahrawi . Mu 1912, Ubutaliyani bwafashe ibice by'icyagombaga kwitwa Libiya muri Ottomani. Muguteza imbere idini Gatolika y’Abaroma mu butayu, Papa Piyo wa IX yohereje intumwa muri Sahara na Sudani mu 1868; nyuma mu kinyejana cya 19 ububasha bwe bwongeye guhindurwa muri Vicariate Apostolique ya Sahara .

Gusenyuka kwingoma na nyuma yaho[edit | edit source]

Ikibuye karemano kiri mu majyepfo yuburengerazuba bwa Libiya
Sahara yuyu munsi

Igihugu cya Misiri cyabonye ubwigenge ku Bwongereza mu 1936, nubwo amasezerano y'Abongereza n'Abanyamisiri yo mu 1936 yemereye u Bwongereza kugumisha ingabo muri Egiputa no muri Sudani. Ingabo z’Ubwongereza zavanyweho mu 1954.

Byinshi mu bihugu bya Sahara byabonye ubwigenge nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y'Isi Yose : Libiya mu 1951; Maroc, Sudani, na Tuniziya mu 1956; Cadi, Mali, Moritaniya, na Nijeri mu 1960; na Alijeriya mu 1962. Espagne yavuye mu burengerazuba bwa Sahara mu 1975, maze sahara igabanywa Moritaniya na Maroc. Moritaniya yavuyemo mu 1979; Maroc niyo ikomeje kwigarurira ako karere.

Nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y'Isi Yose, ibirombe byinshi hamwe n’abaturage byateye imbere kugira ngo bikoreshe umutungo kamere w’ubutayu. Harimo amafaranga yinjira avuye kuri peteroli na gazi muri Algeria na Libya, nava kuri phosphates muri Maroc na Sahara yiburengerazuba.

Hashyizwe mu mushinga w'ibyigwa imihanda minini yambukiranya Africa inyuze muri Sahara , harimo umuhanda wa Cairo - Dakar ukikije inkombe ya Atalantika, Umuhanda Trans-Sahara uva Algiers ku nyanja ya Mediterane ugana i Kano muri Nijeriya, Umuhanda wa Tripoli - Cape Town uva Tripoli muri Libiya werekeza i N'Djamena muri Tchad, n'umuhanda wa Cairo - Cape Town ugenda ukurikira Nili. Buri imwe muri iyi nzira nyabagendwa yaruzuye , hamwe ni ibyuho n'ibice bitarimo kaburimbo.

Abantu, umuco, n'indimi[edit | edit source]

Ikinyejana cya 19 cyaranzwe nabacuruzi b'Abarabu bacuruzaga abirabura babajyana hakurya ya Sahara

Abaturage ba Sahara bafite inkomoko zitandukanye. Twavuga nka amazigh igizwe n'abaTuareg, abarabu ba Amazigh, AbaSahrawis bavuga icyesipanyoro bafite abaturage barimo Znaga, umuryango ufite izina rikomoka ku rurimi rwa Zenaga rwa mbere yamateka . Andi matsinda akomeye yabantu arimo: Toubou, Nubians, Zaghawa, Kanuri, Hausa, Songhai, Beja, na Fula / Fulani.

Imvugo zicyarabu ni indimi zivugwa cyane muri Sahara. Icyarabu, Berber nizindi indimi zizishamikiyeho zose zahurijwe hamwe ku ijambo Amazigh (rikubiyemo ururimi rwa Guanche ruvugwa n’abaturage ba mbere ba Berber batuye mu birwa bya Canary),indimi za Beja nazo ziri mu muryango wa Afro-Aziya cyangwa Hamito-Semitike .  Mu bihugu bya Afurika y'uburengerazuba niyo hagati ubariyemo na Sahara, bakoreshaga ururimi rw'igifaransa mu biganiro bwite no ubucuruzi bwo mu karere, abantu baho bari barafashe uwo muco wa kinyapolitike ndetse niyo bavuganaga na Tuareg na Berber. Umurage w'ubutegetsi bw'abakoloni b'Abafaransa ugaragarira cyane cyane mu ivugurura ry'ubutaka ryashyizweho na repubulika ya gatatu n'iya kane, ryateje amacakubiri ya politiki mu buryo bw'ubukorikori mu karere kitaruye kandi kegeranye. Diplomacy hamwe nabakiriya kavukire yakorwaga cyane cyane mucyarabu, akaba arirwo rurimi gakondo rwakoreshwaga no munzego z'ubuyobozi. Gukemura amakimbirane no gutumanaho hagati y’ibigo byakorwaga n’abasemuzi bagiranye amasezerano na guverinoma y’Ubufaransa, nk'uko Keenan akomeza abivuga, mu nyandiko yise "ahantu h’umuhuza w’imico itandukanye," ibi byagize uruhare runini mu kubungabunga indangamuntu gakondo z’akarere.

Ibindi wareba[edit | edit source]

  • Arid Lands Amakuru Yumuyoboro
  • Urutonde rw'ubutayu
  • Urutonde rwubutayu ukurikije uturere
  • Neolithic Subpluvial
  • Ikigega cyo kubungabunga Sahara
  • Inyanja ya Sahara
  • Abashakashatsi bo muri Sahara

Aho byakuwe[edit | edit source]

  1. "Sahara." Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  2. See Visbeck, Martin H.; Hurrell, James W.; Polvani, Lorenzo and Cullen, Heidi M.; ‘The North Atlantic Oscillation: Past, Present, and Future’; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 23 (2001); pp. 12876-12877
  3. Hurrell, James W.; Kushnir, Yochanan; Ottersen, Geir and Visbeck, Martin; An Overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation, pp. 17–19. Geophysical Monograph 134; published 2003 by the American Geophysical Union
  4. Christopher Ehret. The Civilizations of Africa. University Press of Virginia, 2002.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks.
  6. Burroughs, William J. (2007) "Climate Change in Prehistory: the end of the reign of chaos" (Cambridge University Press)
  7. "Desert-Adapted Crocs Found in Africa", National Geographic News, 18 June 2002
  8. Discover Magazine, 2006-Oct.
  9. National Geographic News, 17 June 2006.
  10. The History of Astronomy. PlanetQuest
  11. Wendorf, Fred (1998) Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa.
  12. Fayum, Qarunian (Fayum B, about 6000–5000 BCE?), Digital Egypt.
  13. Predynastic (5,500–3,100 BCE), Tour Egypt.
  14. Mattingly et al. (2003). Archaeology of Fazzan, Volume 1
  15. Trans-Saharan Africa in World History, Ch. 6, Ralph Austin

Ibitabo Byifashishijwe[edit | edit source]

  • Brett, Michael; Prentess, Elizabeth (1996). The Berbers. Blackwell Publishers.
  • Bulliet, Richard W. (1975). The Camel and the Wheel. Harvard University Press. Republished with a new preface Columbia University Press, 1990.
  • Gearon, Eamonn (2011). The Sahara: A Cultural History. Signal Books (UK), Oxford University Press (US).
  • Julien, Charles-Andre (1970). History of North Africa: From the Arab Conquest to 1830. Praeger.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (1996). Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Longman.
  • Laroui, Abdallah Laroui (1977). The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essay. Princeton.
  • Scott, Chris (2005). Sahara Overland. Trailblazer Guides.
  • Wade, Lizzie (2015). "Drones and Satellites Spot Lost Civilizations in Unlikely Places". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaa7864.

Imiyoboro[edit | edit source]