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Ubuhinzi

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Ubuhinzi
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Ubuhinzi n’Iterambere

[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ubunzi ni imirimo ijyanye no gutera ibimera, gusarura nindi mirimo bijyanye. Urwego rw’ubuhinzi ni ingirakamaro mu bukungu bw’u Rwanda. Urwego rw’ubuhinzi rwariyongereye rugira impuzandengo ya 9,5 ku ijana mu bihe bya 1996 - 2000; ariko, iryo zamuka ryagabanutse mu kigero cya 4,8 ku ijana z’ubwiyongere buri mwaka mu 2001-2006 aho bwabaye ku buryo bugoranye igice cy’ubwiyongere bwabonetse mu gihe kibanziriza cy’imyaka 5 (ROR 2007).[1][2][3]

Umusaruro w'ibigoli

Umusaruro w’ibihingwa mu 2008 wabaye munini cyane muri rusange, 14,8 ku ijana. Habayeho na none ubwiyongere ku musaruro w’ibiribwa no ku bihingwa bijyanwa mu mahanga bwa 16,4 na 13,5 ku ijana kuri buri cyiciro.Mu 2001, uruhare rwo mu urwego rw’ubuhinzi muri PIB rwari hafi 46 ku ijana mu buryo nyakuri, rukaba rwari rugize 80 ku ijana ry’ibicuruzwa bisohoka. - Uruhare rwo mu urwego rw’ubuhinzi mu mizamukire rusange ya PIB mu mwaka w’i 2007 rwari 6.3 ku ijana. - Malgré la baisse de sa contribution au PIB, l’ubuhinzi reste encore importante (ROR 2007). Elle fournit de l’emploi pour 86,3 ku ijana de la abaturage ouvrière du Igihugu (NISR et. al. 2008), - Kuri ubu, urwego rw’ubuhinzi rufite hafi uruhare rwa 30 ku ijana mu mizamukire y’u Rwanda, bityo ruza kuba urwego rw’ingirakamaro mu iterambere ry’igihugu. Ni ngombwa mu gushyira mu bikorwa intego zivugwa muri EDPRS no mu Cyitegererezo 2020.[4][5]

Ibibazo by’ibidukikije by’ingenzi

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Ibibazo by’ibanze binaniza iboneka ry’umusaruro mu buhinzi bigizwe n’ubucucike buhanitse bw’abaturage ku mutungo w’ubutaka udahagije. Ibi byaganishije ku isaranganywa ry’ubutaka n’igabanuka ry’ubugari bw’ahanfu habyazwa umusaruro, ku gukomeza guhinga ibihingwa byinshi ku butaka butarazwa kandi bufite imbogamizi y’isuri, ku ihingwa ry’ubutaka risubirwamo kandi hatongerwamo ibitunga ubutaka, ku mihingire y’uburyo burambuye no kuri za serivisi z’ubushakashatsi zidahwitse no ku ibura rikabije rw’ubusugire igihe cy’ingorane zikomoka ku mihindagurikire y’ikirere nk’imeshyi cyangwa amahindu y’imvura ari byo bitera igabanuka ry’uburumbuje bw’ubutaka n’igabanuka ry’itangwa ry’umusaruro amaherezo.[6][7]

Girinka

Gahunda y’Umuryango Umwe Inka Imwe (Gira Inka) yabaye ingairakamaro mu guteza imbere amoko y’inka za kijyambere hagati y’abanyarwanda bitari gusa mu kugira imirire myiza n’inyungu zijyanye n’umusaruro w’amata n’uw’ibicuruzwa, ariko na none mu kubona ifumbire ikomoka ku binyabuzima igakoreshwa mu kunoza umusaruro ukomka ku buhinzi.[8][9]

Amasambu

Amasambu ni mato cyane muri rusange, kuba hari ingo zirenzeplus 60 ku ijana zihinga mu nsi ya 0,7 ha, 50 ku ijana zihinga mu nsi ya 0,5 ha, n’izirenze 25 ku ijana zihinga mu nsi ya 0,2 ha (ROR 2008). - Iki kibazo kirushaho gukomezwa n’ukuntu amenshi mu masambu afite amapariseli anyuranye kandi anyanyagiye, amenshi muri yo akaba manzunyu. Ubuto bw’amasambu buturuka ku ngufu nyinshi cyane zisabwa ubutaka kubera ubwiyingere bukabije bw’abaturage ku buso butabifitiye ubushobozi. Hejuru y’ibyo, imico n’imigenzereze y’izungura igizwe no kugaba ubutaka hagati y’abana umuntu yabyaye na byo byongereye ikibazo.[10]

Ubuhinzi bukorwa mu manga z’ibitwa n’iz’imisozi, n’uko bugenda bwiyongera ku itemwa ry’amashyamba, bwatumye habaho iyangirika ry’ubutaka n’isuri. Hafi 40 ku ijana by’igihugu cy’u Rwanda byafashwe na FAO nk’ibishobora guhura n’isuri ihambaye mu gihe ubuhinzi bugera kuri 37% bukeneye ingamba zijyanye no kuzitira ubutaka mbere yo guhinga. 23,4% gusa by’ubutaka bw’igihugu nta mbogamizi y’isuri bufite. - 31,2 ku ijana gusa by’ubuso bw’ubutaka buhingwamo bufite za tekinike zijyanye no kuburizamo isuri. Hafi 36,5% by’igihugu birinzwe n’amaterasi.[11][12]

kuhira

Muri rusange, igihugu kizwiho kuba cyatakaza toni miliyoni 1,4 y’ubutaka ku mwaka. Ibi bihwanye imanuka ry’ubushobozi bw’igihugu bwo kugaburira abantu 40.000 ku mwaka. - Nk’urugero, ingo zigeze kuri 80 ku ijana mu turere duhanamye nka Ruhengeri zisigaye zihura n’igabanuka ry’umusaruro bitewe n’isuri (Musahara 2006). - Ifumbire ikomoka ku binyabuzima ni yo ubu ikoreshwa na 69 ku ijana guse by’amasambu ahingwamo kuri 59 ku ijana by’ubuso buhingwaho ugereranije na 95 ku ijana na 70 ku ijana mbere y’intambara.Icyenda ku ijana by’abahinzi bakoreshaga imiti yica udukoko kuri 5 ku ijana by’ubutaka bwahinzwe igihe cy’ihinga cya 2000A. Imibare yerekeranye n’ifumbire n’ishwagara yerekana ko 5 ku ijana by’amasambu ahingwamo byakoreshaga uburyo bw’ifumbire kuri 3 ku ijana by’ubuso bwahinzwe. Iyi mibare ari gato mu nsi y’iya 1991 (7 ku ijana by’amasambu ajyanye n’ubuhinzi na 5 ku ijana by’ubuso).[13]

Akamaro k'ubuhinzi mu Rwanda

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ubuhinzi mu Rwanda

Ubuhinzi bufie akamaro kanini ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda kuko bwinjiza kimwe ca gatatu cy’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu. Uru rwego ruha akazi abarenga bibiri bya gatatu by’abakozi bose mu gihugu kandi iterambere rishingiye ku buhinzi ryyitezweho kugira uruhare runini mu kurwanya ubukene no guca ubukene bukabije. Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yiyemeje guhindura urwego rw'ubuhinzi rukava kukigero cyo guhinga ibitunga imiryango rukaba urwego rutanga umusaruro mwinshi kandi mwiza, rugemurira isoko kandi rufasha mu kuzamura izindi nzego z’ubukungu. Ibi bizagerwaho binyuze muri gahunda zitandukanye zishyirwa mu bikorwa na Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi (MINAGRI) n’ibigo biyishamikiyeho, ariko ikabifashwamo n’Urwego rw’Abikorera, abafatanyabikorwa mu iterambere ndetse n’abandi bireba bose.[14]

  1. https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubuhinzi/
  2. https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubuhinzi/ubuhinzi/
  3. https://www.intyoza.com/category/ubukungu/ubuhinzi/
  4. http://ingenzinyayo.com/category/ubuhinzi/
  5. https://www.rba.co.rw/post/Ubuhinzi-mu-Rwanda-ntibukiri-ubwo-kurwanya-inzara--Bamwe-mu-bahinzi
  6. https://www.bbc.com/gahuza/topics/cg7267zyv81t
  7. https://kura.rw/rw/ubuhinzi-bwamasaro-bwamuhinduriye-ubuzima/
  8. https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubuhinzi/ubuhinzi/
  9. https://kura.rw/rw/ubuhinzi-bwamasaro-bwamuhinduriye-ubuzima/
  10. https://www.minagri.gov.rw/updates/news-details/abagore-3000-bakora-umwuga-wubuhinzi-nubworozi-bahawe-telefoni-binyuze-muri-gahunda-ya-connect-rwanda
  11. https://www.minagri.gov.rw/updates/news-details/abagore-3000-bakora-umwuga-wubuhinzi-nubworozi-bahawe-telefoni-binyuze-muri-gahunda-ya-connect-rwanda
  12. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-18. Retrieved 2023-02-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. https://mobile.igihe.com/ubukungu/article/ubuhinzi-bw-icyayi-igisubizo-ku-rubyiruko-ruri-mu-bushomeri-mu-ntara-y
  14. http://www.ipar-rwanda.org/IMG/pdf/agatabo_ku_ishoramari_rya_leta_mu_buhinzi_n_ubworozi_mu_rwanda.pdf