Islamu

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ISLAMU MU RWANDA[edit | edit source]

Islamu ni ryo dini rigizwe n'abayoboke bakeya cyane mu Rwanda ugereranije n'andi madini, rifite abayoboke bagejeje ki kigero kingana na 4,6% by'abaturage bose ukurikije ibarura rya 2006. Mubyukuri Abayisilamu bose mu Rwanda ni Abasuni. Islamu yaje bwa mbere mu Rwanda izanywe n'abacuruzi b'Abayisilamu baturutse ku nkombe y'Iburasirazuba bwa Afurika mu kinyejana cya 18. Kuva ryatangizwa, Abayisilamu babaye bake muri kariya gace, mu gihe Kiliziya Gatolika ya Roma, yinjije Abanyarwanda mu gihe cy'ubukoloni mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 19 ni ryo dini rinini muri iki gihugu.

Bwa mbere mu mateka yarwo mu Rwanda, Islamu ihabwa uburenganzira n'ubwisanzure nk'ubukristo. Ikigereranyo cyerekana ko mu bahutu hari umubare w’abayisilamu bangana kimwe n’abatutsi. Ikigereranyo ntigishobora kugenzurwa nyuma ya jenoside, kubera ko guverinoma imaze guhagarika ibiganiro byose by’amoko mu Rwanda mu rwego rwo kurinda abanyarwanda icyabateza ivangura rishingiye ku moko ndetse n'amacakubiri.

Amateka[edit | edit source]

Amateka ya gikoloni[edit | edit source]

Ugereranije n'ibihugu byo muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba nka Tanzaniya, Kenya, na Uganda, amateka y'Ubuyisilamu mu Rwanda ni amateka mashya. Mu gihe hari inyandiko nke zanditse zerekeye inkomoko yabyo, bivugwa ko Islamu yazanywe n'abacuruzi b'Abarabu baturutse muri Zanzibar binjiye bwa mbere muri iki gihugu mu 1901. Ubundi, byavuzwe ko Islamu yahageze mu gihe cy'ubukoloni igihe abanditsi b'abayisilamu, abafasha mu buyobozi, n'abacuruzi baturutse ku nkombe zivuga Igiswahiri cya Tanganyika bazanywe mu gihugu. Islamu kandi yashimangiwe n’abacuruzi b’abayisilamu bo ku mugabane w’Ubuhinde, washakanye n’Abanyarwanda. Abanyarwanda bubatse umusigiti wabo wa mbere mu 1913. Uyu musigiti uzwi ku izina ry'umusigiti wa Al-Fatah.

Mu mateka yarwo, hashyizweho ingufu nyinshi mu kubuza ikwirakwizwa rya Islamu mu Rwanda. Izi mbaraga muri rusange zakoresheje imyumvire yo kurwanya abarabu, kandi zerekana abayisilamu nkabanyamahanga. Abamisiyonari gatolika bakunze gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo barwanye icyo babonaga ko ari amadini ahanganye, nk'ubuyisilamu n'Abaporotesitanti.

Abayisilamu bakomeje guhezwa kubera ko Abayisilamu benshi batuye mu mijyi, mu gihe 90% by’abaturage bari icyaro. Nkuko abacuruzi b'Abarabu cyangwa Abahinde batigeze bagerageza gukomeza kwizera kwabo, nta mwuka muto wo kubwiriza mu Bayisilamu. Gusa habaye impinduka nke, cyane cyane mubatuye mu mijyi itandukanijwe: abagore bashakanye nabanyamahanga, abana batemewe nimpfubyi. Ndetse no guhinduka rimwe na rimwe wasangaga bitagaragara, biterwa no kwifuza umutekano w’ubukungu n’ubukungu Abayisilamu batangaga, kuruta kwizera idini mu myizerere ya kisilamu.

Ku butegetsi bw'Ababiligi, Abayisilamu mu Rwanda bari barahawe akato. Kubera ko Abayisilamu nta mwanya bari bafite muri Kiliziya Gatolika, yakomezaga kugira uruhare runini kuri leta, Abayisilamu bakunze guhezwa mu burezi n'imirimo ikomeye muri guverinoma. Kubera iyo mpamvu, akazi k'abayisilamu ahanini kagarukiraga mu bucuruzi buciriritse, no gufata akazi nk'abashoferi.

Nyuma y'ubwigenge[edit | edit source]

Mu 1960, uwahoze ari minisitiri w’ubutegetsi, Isidore Sebazungu, yategetse gutwika icya kane cy’abayisilamu n’umusigiti i Rwamagana. Nyuma yibi birori, Abayisilamu bagize ubwoba maze benshi muri bo bahungira mu bihugu duturanye. Bavuga ko Kiliziya Gatolika yagize uruhare muri ibyo birori, byakajije umurego hagati y’abayisilamu n’abakristu.

Mbere ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yo mu Rwanda yo mu 1994, Abayisilamu bafatwaga nabi, kubera ko babonaga ko ari abacuruzi, mu gihugu abahinzi bubahwa cyane. Abaturage b’abayisilamu mbere ya jenoside bari 4% byari bike cyane ugereranije n’ibihugu bituranye. Abayisilamu nabo bagize ingaruka kuri jenoside. Ni gake gashoboka aho abatutsi bari barahungiye mumisigiti bagabweho ibitero. Urugero ruzwi cyane rwabereye ku musigiti mukuru wa Nyamirambo, aho abatutsi babarirwa mu magana bari bateraniye guhungira. Impunzi ziri mu musigiti zarwanije imitwe yitwara gisirikare y'Abahutu ikoresheje amabuye, umuheto n'imyambi, bituma barwanya bikomeye abasirikari n'interahamwe. Gusa abasirikare bamaze gutera imbunda ya mashini ni Interahamwe zashoboye kwinjira mu musigiti no kwica impunzi.

Uyu munsi[edit | edit source]

Umunara wa Al-Masidjid Q'ubah umusigiti i Butare, Rwanda

Umubare w’abayisilamu bo mu Rwanda wiyongereye nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yo mu 1994 kubera umubare munini w’abantu bahindutse. Abayisilamu benshi bari bahungiye mu mpunzi, Abahutu n'Abatutsi. Bamwe mu bahindutse bavuga ko bahindukiriye idini ya Islamu kubera uruhare abayobozi bamwe b'Abagatolika n'Abaporotesitanti bagize muri jenoside. Imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu yanditse ibyabaye byombi aho abanyamadini b'Abakristo bemeraga Abatutsi guhungira mu nsengero, hanyuma bakabashyikiriza itsinda ry’urupfu rw’Abahutu, ndetse n’aho abapadiri n’abakozi b’Abahutu bashishikarizaga amatorero yabo kwica abatutsi

Ubuhamya bwa bamwe mu bantu ku giti cyabo bwerekana uburyo abatutsi bamwe bahinduye imyemerere yabo kubw'umutekano wabo, kubera ko batinyaga gukomeza kwicwa n'abahezanguni b'Abahutu, kandi bari bazi ko Abayisilamu bazabarinda ibikorwa nk'ibi. Abahutu benshi bahinduye imyemerere yabo nabo, bashaka "kwezwa". Abahutu benshi bifuza gusiga amateka yabo yubugizi bwa nabi no kutagira "amaraso mu biganza". Hariho kandi uduce tumwe na tumwe twitaruye aho Abahutu bahindutse bizeye ko bashobora kwihisha mu muryango w’abayisilamu bityo bagahunga gutabwa muri yombi.

Igipimo cyo guhinduka cyatinze mu 1997. Nk’uko mufti w’u Rwanda abitangaza ngo umuryango wa kisilamu ntiwigeze wiyongera mu guhinduka mu 2002/2003. Ubukristo bukomeje kuba idini rikomeye mu gihugu. Gatolika (yageze mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 19 hamwe na ba papa bera ba kiliziya gatolika ya Roma) ikomeje kwinjizwa mu muco.

Ibikorwa[edit | edit source]

Abayisilamu bo mu Rwanda nabo bagira uruhare rugaragara mubikorwa byimibereho, nka umurava n'umuhate wabo mu bijyanye no "kubahana no gukundana" hagati yabo ubwabo. Abayisilamu benshi bo mu Rwanda bagira uruhare mu gukemura amakimbirane ashingiye ku moko nyuma ya jenoside n'imitwe ya kisilamu imaze kugera ku batishoboye, urugero nko gushinga amatsinda y'abagore atanga inyigisho ku kwita ku bana. Guverinoma z’iburengerazuba zahangayikishijwe n’uko Islamu igenda yiyongera, kandi bamwe mu bayobozi ba guverinoma bagaragaje impungenge z’uko imisigiti imwe n'imwe ihabwa inkunga na Arabiya Sawudite. Icyakora, hari ibimenyetso bike byerekana ko bitwara gisirikare. [1]

Umunsi mukuru w’idini ry’abayisilamu Eid al-Fitr ndetse na Eid al Adhuhha wizihizwa na guverinoma nkimwe mu minsi mikuru ine y’amadini (hamwe na Noheri, Umunsi w’abatagatifu bose, hamwe n’ibitekerezo). Abayisilamu kandi bagira amashuri yigenga ya kisilamu. Mu 2003, Ambasade y’Amerika yagenzuye ivugurura ry’ishuri ryisumbuye rya kisilamu i Kigali. Abayobozi ba Ambasade kandi bahuye n’abayobozi b’abayisilamu, hamwe n’abayoboke ba Kiliziya Gatolika n’Abangilikani, Abadiventisti bo ku munsi wa karindwi, n’Abahamya ba Yehova, kugira ngo bagirane ibiganiro by’amadini. [2]

U Rwanda rwahoze rufite ishyaka rya politiki ry’idini, ishyaka rya kisilamu riharanira demokarasi (PDI), hamwe n’abayoboke b’abatari abayisilamu. Icyakora, ryahinduye izina ryitwa Ishyaka Riharanira Demokarasi no Kurengera Ibidukikije, nyuma yuko itegeko nshinga ritegeka ko nta shyaka rishobora gushingwa hashingiwe ku idini. [2]

Abaturage[edit | edit source]

Hariho intera nini mubigereranyo byabaturage b’abayisilamu bo mu Rwanda. Nta barura nyaryo ry’abaturage b’abayisilamu ryakozwe.

Inkomoko Abaturage (000s) Abaturage (%) Umwaka Réf
Ikinyamakuru Washington 1,148 14 2002
Ikinyamakuru Washington 7 1993 "mbere yuko ubwicanyi butangira"
CIA Igitabo cyisi 456 4.6 2001
Ikinyamakuru New York Times 15 2004
Worldmark Encyclopedia yumuco & Ubuzima bwa buri munsi 350 5 1998 [3]
Ubuyobozi bwa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika ( Ubushakashatsi bw’ikigega cy’abaturage gishinzwe umutekano ) 1.1 1996
Ubuyobozi bwa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika (kwiga kaminuza) 4.6 2001

Raporo ya guverinoma y'u Rwanda yatangajwe ku ya 1 Ugushyingo 2006, ivuga ko 56.5% by'abatuye u Rwanda ari Abagatolika b'imyemerere y'Abanyeroma, 26% ni Abaporotesitanti, 11.1% ni Abadiventisti b'umunsi wa Karindwi, 4,6% ni Abayisilamu, 1.7% bavuga ko badafite idini, kandi 0.1% bakora imyizerere gakondo. [4]

Reba kandi[edit | edit source]

Reba[edit | edit source]

  1. Tiemessen, Alana (2005) From Genocide to Jihad: Islam and Ethnicity in Post-Genocide Rwanda Template:Webarchive. Paper presented at the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, London, Ontario.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rwanda - International Religious Freedom Report 2003, 2003 Report on International Religious Freedom.
  3. Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 360-361.
  4. International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Rwanda. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

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