Imyemerere gakondo mu Rwanda

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Mu Rwanda rwo hambere, kuva rwahangwa, abanyarwanda babayeho bafite ukwemera kwarangwaga n’uko mu myumvire yabo bumvaga ko hari ugenga ibintu byose n’abantu bitaga “Imana”.[1] Icyo gihe bemeraga ko nta kintu cyapfuye kwitura ku isi kidafite uwagishyizeho ari we abanyarwanda bafataga nk’Usumba byose. Imyemerere rero ni kimwe mu biranga Umurage w’abanyarwanda.[2]

Abanyarwanda bemeraga ko umuntu ugaragara ufite ubwenge, uhumeka, ukora n’ibindi, arimo ibice bibiri bigizwe n’umubiri ndetse n’igicucu kitagaragarira amaso. Aha ni ho baheraga bavuga ko iyo umuntu atakiri mu buzima, umubiri uhinduka umurambo ariko cya gicucu cye kikaba umuzimu udafatishwa intoki maze ukajya kwiturira I kuzimu ariko kubera urukundo wabaga ugikomeje kugirira ibyasigaye ku isi ukaba wajya uza kubisura.[3]

Kera abanyarwanda bemeraga ko nyuma y’ubu buzima hari ubundi bugizwe n’abakurambere bagwa neza bitwaga Ingabwa n’abagwa nabi.[4]

Kwemera Imana[edit | edit source]

Abanyarwanda bemeraga ko batihagije ahubwo ko hari ikindi kintu kiruta ibintu byose biriho kikanabigenga, ari cyo bitaga Imana. Kwemera iyi Mana binagaragarira mu byo bavugaga dore ko hari n’amazina afatiye kuri yo abanyarwanda bitaga ababo.[5]

KamereMana yagaragazwaga n’amazina atatu bayitaga: IYAMBERE (Bashaka kwerekana ko ari yo isumba byose kandi ko nta n’umwe isangiye na we kamere), IYAKARE (Bivuze ko yahozeho kandi izabaho iteka ryose bitandukanye n’uko ibintu bisanzwe bigira igihe bitangirira kubaho n’ikindi birangiriraho) na RUGABO (Bisobanuye ko ishobora byose, mbese nta kintu na kimwe cyayinanira).[6]


Abazimu[edit | edit source]

Hagendewe ku nkomoko y’iri zina, Umuzimu riva ku nshinga kuzima, bisobanura ko ikintu cyakaga umuriro,  wagikongoye, kigasigara ari ivu ritagifite ubushyuhe. Iyo bavuga umuntu batyo rero, biba bihamya ko atagifite ubushyuhe bw’ubuzima, umubiri we wahindutse ubutita ndetse atakiri umuntu, bakamwita intumbi.[7]

Ubundi igice cy’umuntu kidapfa ni cyo cyitwaga “Umuzimu”. Iyo umuntu yitabaga Imana, Umuzimu we wajyaga I kuzimu ariko rimwe na rimwe ukazajya ujya kureba ibyasigaye I musozi ari na ho wasabaga abe kumwubaha no kumwiyambaza kandi na wo ukabahozaho ijisho kugira ngo batazata umuco karande ndetse n’abagerageje kuwutatira bagahanwa kuko uwo muzimu wabatezaga ibyago bitandukanye nk’indwara n’ibindi.[8]


Kwambaza Nyabingi[edit | edit source]

Uyu Nyabingi bamwe bitaga Nyabingi Nyiramubyeyi (Umubyeyi), Biheko cyangwa Nyirabiheko bitewe n’uduce, hari abavuga ko yaba afite inkomoko mu Ndorwa cyangwa I Karagwe ndetse ko Rurema yamuhaye ububasha bwo kubaho iteka ryose. Ngo yari umugore utarigeze ushaka umugabo.[9][10]

Kwiyambaza Nyabingi ubundi ngo byari uburyo bwo kumusaba ngo abantu babone ibyo bifuza mu buryo butagoranye nk’urubyaro, gukira uburwayi butandukanye, kweza imyaka, n’ibindi.[11] Bivuze ko ubufasha n’uburinzi bwe bwasabwaga mu gihe cy’ibyago no mu bigoye.[12]

Umwihariko wo kwiyambaza Nyabingi uzi cyane mu Majyaruguru ndetse no mu Majyaruguru ashyira Uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda kugeza mu Mutara no mu Bwishya, mu Bufumbira no muri Kigezi.[13]

Guterekera[edit | edit source]

Kuba abanyarwanda baremeraga ko abazimu bashobora kubatera bakaba banabateza ibyago, byatumaga bakora ibishoboka ngo babagushe neza ari na byo bitwaga Guterekera. Kubaterekera rero kwari ukubaho mu buryo bifuza, kugira ngo batuze, be guteza ibyago abazima.Mu rwego rwo kugusha neza abo bazimu, abanyarwanda babubakiraga inzu (Izwi cyane ni iyitwaga kwa Cyirima) cyangwa bakabagondera indarondetse bagashyira amaturo ku nzu cyangwa mu ziko (byitwaga kubasetsa) nk’ibishyimbo,amata inzoga n’ibindi. Gusa byose bakabikora babanje kubitera amazi n’ingwa no kubitongera.

Umuntu arebye neza asanga uyu muhango wo Guterekera waratumaga ubumwe n’urukundo hagati y’abazima n’ababo bapfuye waragumagaho bikanerekana ko urupfu rudakwiye kuba umupaka cyangwa inzitizi hagati y’abazima n’abatakiri mu buzima.[14]

Uko baterekeraga: Ku buryo busanzwe, uterekera ni nyirurugo, aterekerera abo mu muryango w’urugo rwe. Abazimu aterekera, nabo ni abakurambere bo muri uwo muryango. Mu ngo z’abanyarwanda ba kera, wasangaga hari uturaro ahantu hiherereye ho murugo. Utwo turaro rero tukaba ari two baterekereramo abazimu. Uterekera yarazaga akakicaramo, akazana ifumba y’umuriro agashyira mu nkono,agahekenya amasaka, agacira muri uwo muriro, nuko ayo masaka agaturika. Uterekera akavuga ati: Seka Gasani k’i Rwanda, seka gororoka mukurambere nyir’igicumbi, tsinda umwanzi, tsinda umurozi! Yashoboraga kuvuga n’andi magambo asa n’ayo. Iyo yamaraga kuvuga interuro y’iryo sengesho, yahitaga abwira uwo mukurambere ibyo yaje kumubwira byose.[15][16]

Kubandwa[edit | edit source]

Kubandwa ubundi umuntu ashingiye ku nkomoko y’ijambo ubwaryo byakabaye ari “kumandwa” bisobanuye guterekera abazimu b’imandwa.[17] Izi mandwa bivugwa ko zaje mu Rwanda ziyobowe n’umutware wazo Ryangombe rya Babinga ba Nyundo zivuye mu gace ka Gitara mu Gihugu cya Uganda, ubu ni hafi y’ikiyaga cya Rwicanzige. N’ubwo nta wuzi neza igihe ibi byabereye ariko hari abavuga ko ngo byaba byari ahagana mu kinyejana cya 16 ku ngoma y’umwami w’u Rwanda Ruganzu Ndoli.[18]

Ryangombe amaze gupfa, ngo abantu batangiye kujya bamwiyambaza (kumubandwa), ababikora (ababandwa) bagasaba kugira impagarike, ubugingo n’uburumbuke.[19] Kubandwa ni ugukora uwo muhango mukuru utuma umuntu yinjira mu muryango w’imandwa. Icya kabiri ni ukubahiriza imandwa wigana urusaku n’imihango yazo, ikindi ni ugukomeza gukora iyo mihango igihe wemerewe burundu.[20] Kubera ko imandwa zakomotse I mahanga bitari abakurambere b’abanyarwanda, kubandisha byabaga ari umuhango wo kugira umunyarwanda usanzwe umwana w’abazimu b’imandwa.[21] Gusa bamwe mu banyarwanda bagiye bitabira uyu muhango abandi ntibabikozwa ari na byo byatumye abatarawitabiraga baritwaga Inzigo.[22]

Uyu muhango warimo inzego eshatu (nk’uko ubu muri Kiliziya Gatolika haba amasakaramentu atatu: Batisimu, Ugukomezwa n’Ukarisitiya):

Intambwe ya mbere yari Ukwatura aho umuntu wari usanzwe ari inzigo, bamugiriraho imihango yo kumwaturaho umuzimu w’imandwa, kandi uwo muzimu bakamuvuga izina, akaba abaye umurinzi w’uwo mubandwa mushya ubaye umwana we. Nk’uko ubatijwe ahabwa Umutagatifu uzamubera umurinzi kandi akitwa n’izina rye. Intambwe ya Kabiri yari Ugusubizaho, bivuga kuzuza ububasha bw’Imandwa kuri uwo mubandwa, bigasa nk’Isakramentu ryo Gukomezwa ry’abakirisitu. Intambwe ya gatatu yitwa Gutonoora aho Umubandwa umaze gusubizwaho yemererwaga kujya mu muhango wo kumara urubanza. Kumara urubanza bikaba ari ukwica imfizi y’inka, bakayitura umuzimu bashaka kugusha neza, uwashubijweho akarya kuri iyo nyama y’iyo mfizi bamajije urubanza. Niyo baha umaze gukomezwa mu muryango w’Imandwa ngo ayirye bwa mbere, azajye akomeza no kuyirya igihe cyose uwo muhango uzaba wabaye. Birumvikana ko Gutonoora bisa n’umuhango w’Isakramentu ry’Ukaristiya muri Kilizia Gatolika. Iyo mihango yose yari yerekeye ukubandisha, yakorerwaga mu muhango witwa Ugutereka,yahurirwagamo n’ababandwa bose, igasa na ya Misa yo mu ba Kristu.[23]

Aho uyu muhango wari utandukaniye n’uwo kwiyambaza Nyabingi, ni uko kuri Nyabingi batabandishaga.[24]

Icyaziraga mu Rwanda ariko ni uko umwami yabandwa kuko kuba yapfukamira undi mwami, akamukomera mu mashyi, kwaba ari ukumuhakwaho kandi akaba amuhaye igihugu cy’u Rwanda, ibyo bikaba bizira! Cyakora umwami yashoboraga gushyizeho umusimbura kuri uwo murimo wo kubandwa.  Uwo musimbura, agahabwa izina ryo kwitwa umwami w’Imandwa kandi agatorwa mu muryango w’abayumbu.[25]


Kuragura[edit | edit source]

Ubundi Kurangura bisobanuye kumenya ikintu cyihishe (ikintu kiriho ariko kitagaragara) ndetse no gufindura (kumenya ibizaza). Uko gufindura icyo abazimu b’abakurambere bifuza byafashaga kugena uko abantu bakwiye kwitwara mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi.[26]

Muri uyu muhango, Umupfumu yari afite uruhare rukomeye kuko yafatwaga nk’uzi gutandukanya ibimenyetso byo ku isi bigaragara n’ubushake bw’Imana.[27] Hari uburyo bunyuranye bwo kuragura burimo: kuraguza umutwe (guhanura), Kuragura urugimbu, inka cyangwa intama, imihundwa, inkoko, igikondo (kuragura inzuzi), amavuta n’ibindi.[28]

Agaciro kari muri iyi myemerere yo kuragura ni uko byerekana ko abanyarwanda bari bafite umutima n’ubwenge bwumva ko kugisha inama uwufite icyo arusha undi bigira umumaro ukomeye mu mibereho yabo.[29]

Mu gihe hirya no hino ku isi imyemerere yamenyekanye cyane igiye ifite abo yakomotseho (nk’Abakirisitu bava kuri Yezu Kirisitu, Abasiramu bakava kuri Muhamadi, imyemerere y’Abayuda kuri Musa, …), mu Rwanda si ko biri kuko nta muntu uzwi ufatwa nk’inkomoko y’imyemerere gakondo y’abanyarwanda ahubwo iva ku Mana bita Rurema. Ibi bivuze ko Imana bwite ari yo yishyiriye iyo myemerere mu bwenge bw’abantu bayo yiremeye bakagira imyemerere karemano bitandukanye no mu yindi myemerere usanga ifite uwo ishingiyeho witwa ko yatumwe n’Imana. Iyo Mana kandi bemeraga ko ari yo yashyizeho uburyo buyobora umutima wa muntu.[30]

Mu yindi myemerere usanga bafite aho basengera, abayobozi ndetse n’uburyo buzwi bwo gusenga. Mu myemerere gakondo, urusengero rwafatwaga nk’umutima n’ubwenge bya muntu kandi akiyambariza Imana aho ari ho hose no mu byo yaba arimo byose, abayobozi bakaba buri muntu kuko bumvaga ko buri wese ashobora gushyikirana na Rurema (n’ubwo rimwe na rimwe hari abo bemeraga ko bashobora kubavugira ku Mana nk’Ababyeyi mu muryango ndetse n’Abategetsi) maze isengesho rikagaragarira mu mihango inyuranye bakoraga.[31]

Isoko y’ibiri muri iyi Nyandiko[edit | edit source]

  1. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 153
  2. Indangagaciro z’umuco w’u Rwanda – Igitabo nyobozi, Inteko nyarwanda y’ururimi n’umuco, 2018, ISBN: 978-99977-787-03, p. 11
  3. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 77
  4. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 153
  5. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 154
  6. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 1
  7. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 30
  8. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 77
  9. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 162
  10. Sobanukirwa itandukaniro riri hagati y’imyemerere Gakondo ndetse n'iyo muri iki gihe,ese ni iyihe y’ukuri? http://www.rwandatoday.rw/p.php?id=4305
  11. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 85
  12. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 163
  13. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 162
  14. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 156
  15. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 31
  16. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 157
  17. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 158
  18. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 32
  19. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 86
  20. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 159
  21. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 11
  22. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 160
  23. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 33
  24. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 85
  25. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 33
  26. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 78
  27. Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX, Deo Byanafashe na Paul Rutayisire, Komisiyo y’igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (CNUR), Kigali, 2016, p. 158
  28. KANIMBA MISAGO Celestin na LODE VAN PEE, Rwanda Umurage ndangamuco kuva kera kugeza magingo aya, Institute of national museums of Rwana, 2012, p. 79-84
  29. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 34
  30. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 28
  31. Bernardin Muzungu, o.p., LA RELIGION TRADITIONNELLE DES RWANDAIS COMPAREE AUX AUTRES RELIGIONS,                                                Edit. Les cahiers Lumière et Société, No 60 Janvier 2019, KIGALI-RWANDA, p. 24

Reba kandi[edit | edit source]