Jump to content

Ihuriro ry’ubukungu n’amafaranga

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia

Ihuriro ry’ubukungu n’ifaranga ( economic and monetary union, EMU ) ni ubwoko bw’ubucuruzi bugizwe n’isoko rusange, ihuriro rya gasutamo, n’ubumwe bw’amafaranga . EMU yashyizweho binyuze mu masezerano y’ubucuruzi, EMU igizwe na gatandatu mu byiciro birindwi mu nzira yo kwishyira hamwe mu bukungu . Amasezerano ya EMU m'ubisanzwe ahuza ubumwe bwa gasutamo nisoko rusange. Ubusanzwe EMU ishyiraho ubucuruzi bw'ubuntu n'igiciro rusange cyo hanze mububasha bwacyo. Yagenewe kandi kurengera ubwisanzure mu kugenda kw'ibicuruzwa, serivisi, n'abantu. Iyi gahunda itandukanye n’ubumwe bw’amafaranga (urugero, Ubumwe bw’amafaranga y’ikilatini ), ubusanzwe ntabwo bukubiyemo isoko rusange. Kimwe n’ubumwe bw’ubukungu n’amafaranga bwashyizweho mu bihugu 27 bigize Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi (EU), EMU irashobora kugira ingaruka ku bice bitandukanye by’ububasha bwayo mu buryo butandukanye. Uturere tumwe na tumwe tugengwa n’amabwiriza ya gasutamo n’utundi turere tugengwa na EMU. Izi gahunda zitandukanye zirashobora gushirwaho mumasezerano yemewe, cyangwa zirashobora kubaho m'ubyukuri . Kurugero, ntabwo ibihugu byose bigize Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi bikoresha amayero yashyizweho n’ubumwe bw’ifaranga, kandi ntabwo ibihugu byose bigize Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi biri mu gace ka Schengen . Bamwe mu bagize Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi bitabira ihuriro ry’amashyirahamwe yombi, ndetse na bamwe muri bo.

Amateka[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ibihugu byinshi byabanje kugerageza gushinga EMU mu nama y'i La Haye muri 1969. Nyuma, hatangajwe umushinga wa gahunda. Muri icyo gihe, umunyamuryango nyamukuru wayoboye iki cyemezo ni Pierre Werner, Minisitiri w’intebe wa Luxembourg . [1] Icyemezo cyo gushinga Umuryango w’ubukungu n’ifaranga ry’umuryango w’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi ( EMU ) cyakiriwe mu December 1991, nyuma kiza kuba kimwe mu masezerano ya Maastricht ( Amasezerano y’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi ). [2]

Urutonde rwamashyirahamwe yubukungu nifaranga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Ihuriro ry’ubukungu n’ifaranga ry’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi ( EMU ) ( 1999/2002 ) hamwe na Euro ku banyamuryango ba Eurozone
  • de facto ibihugu byigenga muri OECS Ihuriro ry’ifaranga ry’iburasirazuba bwa Karayibe hamwe n’idolari rya Karayibe y’iburasirazuba muri CSME ( 2006 ) [3]
  • mu byukuri Ubusuwisi - Liechtenstein [4]

Basabye[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Umuryango Ifaranga Intara Itariki ntarengwa Inyandiko
Umuryango w’ubukungu n’ifaranga muri Afurika yo hagati (CEMAC) Afurika yo hagati CFA franc Afurika Ntabwo ikora isoko rusange
Ihuriro ry’ubukungu n’ifaranga rya Afurika y’iburengerazuba (UEMOA) Afurika y'Iburengerazuba CFA franc Afurika Ntabwo ikora isoko rusange
Inama y’ubufatanye mu kigobe (GCC) Khaleeji Uburasirazuba bwo hagati Birashoboka ko zahabu yashyigikiwe, ariko igasubikwa kubera ikibazo cyamafaranga yo muri 2007–2008 .
Umuryango w'Afurika y'Iburasirazuba (EAC) Amashiringi yo muri Afrika yuburasirazuba Afurika 2015 Gukoreshwa na Federasiyo ya Afrika yuburasirazuba
Isoko rimwe rya Karayibe nubukungu (nkigice cya CARICOM ) Amerika y'Epfo



Karayibe
2015 Kuzuza OECS Iburasirazuba bwa Karayibe
Ihuriro ry’amahoro muri Afurika yepfo (SACU) Rand yo muri Afrika yepfo Afurika 2015 de facto kubanyamuryango ba CMA mugihe hashyizweho ubumwe bwubukungu bwa SADC
Umuryango w’iterambere ry’Afurika yepfo (SADC) Rand yo muri Afrika yepfo



(icyifuzo cy'agateganyo)
Afurika 2016 Kuzuza cyangwa gutsinda urugaga rwa gasutamo ya CMA na Afrika yepfo
Ishyirahamwe rya Aziya yepfo ryubufatanye bwakarere Aziya yepfo 2016 [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2010)">citation ikenewe</span> ]
Ubumwe bw’ibihugu byo muri Amerika yepfo (UNASUR) Latino [5] Amerika y'Epfo



Karayibe
2019
Umuryango w’ubukungu w’ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo hagati (ECCAS) Afurika Kuzuza Umuryango w’ubukungu n’ifaranga muri Afurika yo hagati (CEMAC)
Umuryango w’ubukungu w’ibihugu bya Afurika y’iburengerazuba (ECOWAS) Afurika 2020 Kugirango utsinde UEMOA na WAMZ
Umuryango w’ubukungu nyafurika Afurika 2028 Reba Ubumwe bw'Afurika
Ubumwe bw'Uburusiya na Biyelorusiya Uburusiya Uburayi
Umuryango w’abarabu Icyarabu Ibihugu by'Abarabu Icyarabu Dinar cyasabwe kuva hashyirwaho ikigega cy’imari cy’abarabu, giteganijwe kuri gahunda zikomeye zo kubikora, nyuma y’ishyirwaho ry’ubumwe bw’Abarabu .
Ubumwe bw’ubukungu bwa Aziya Altyn Aziya 2025 Perezida wa Qazaqistan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, yari yasabye bwa mbere, mu 2009, gushyiraho ifaranga risanzwe ridafite amafaranga ryitwa "yevraz" ku muryango w’ubukungu bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi. Bivugwa ko byari gufasha mu gukumira ibihugu ibibazo by’ubukungu ku isi. [6] Mu mwaka wa 2012, igitekerezo cy’ifaranga rishya ryahurijwe hamwe cyabonye inkunga ya Vladimir Putin na Dmitry Medvedev maze mu 2014 hategurwa ibyifuzo mu nyandiko za komisiyo y’ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’Uburayi kugira ngo hashyizweho Banki Nkuru y’Uburayi ndetse n’ifaranga risanzwe ryitwa intangiriro rigomba gutangizwa. muri 2025. [7]

EMU zabanje[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Ihuriro ry’ifaranga ry’Ububiligi - Luxembourg Union Union (1922–2002), ryasimbuwe na EMU y’Uburayi.

Reba kandi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Ubumwe bw’Amerika y'Amajyaruguru hamwe n’ubumwe bw’amafaranga yo muri Amerika y'Amajyaruguru (Amero) [8]
  • Ubumwe bwa Pasifika (icyifuzo kimwe ku madorari ya Ositarariya )

Reba[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  1. "The Hague Summit (1–2 December 1969): completion, enlargement, deepening - Pierre Werner and the European integration process: from the Schuman Plan to the Fontainebleau Summit - CVCE Website". www.cvce.eu. Retrieved 2019-10-29.
  2. "What is the Economic and Monetary Union? (EMU)". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  3. The states participating in both initiatives are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  4. Single market through participation in the internal market of the European Union, customs union since 1924, informal currency union since 1920.
  5. Proposed by Ecuador's President Rafael Correa on December 15, 2007
  6. "Kazakhstan Suggests a New Currency - News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  7. "Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus to have new joint currency". 10 April 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
  8. Not currently on any political agenda, based mostly off conspiracy theories.

Ibindi gusoma[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ihuza ryo hanze[hindura | hindura inkomoko]