Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

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Inyandikorugero:Infobox writerInyandikorugero:Infobox writerChimamanda Ngozi Adichie ( /ˌ tʃ ɪ m ɑː m ɑː n d ə ə n ɡ oʊ z i ə d i tʃ eɪ / (link=|Ibyerekeye iri jwi / ) ; [note 1] yavutse 15 Nzeri 1977) ni umwanditsi Nigeria ufite ibikorwa kuva ku bitabo imigani gito birimo inkuru. Yavuzwe mu kinyamakuru The Times Literary Supplement nk '"icyamamare" mu "mutambagiro w’abanditsi b’ururimi rwa anglophone uzwi cyane [ukaba] urimo gukurura igisekuru gishya cy’abasomyi mu buvanganzo nyafurika". [1]

Umwanditsi w'ibitabo ufite inkomoko muri Nigeria Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Ubuzima bwe nuburere[edit | edit source]

Adichie yavukiye mu mujyi wa Enugu muri Nijeriya, akura ari umwana wa gatanu mu bana batandatu bo mu muryango wa Igbo mu mujyi wa Nsukka muri Leta ya Enugu . Igihe yari amaze gukura, se, James Nwoye Adichie, yakoraga ari umwarimu w’ibarurishamibare muri kaminuza ya Nijeriya . Nyina, Grace Ifeoma, yari muri kaminuza mbere yabagore ya Gerefiye . [2] Uyu muryango watakaje ibintu hafi ya byose mu gihe cy’intambara yo muri Nijeriya, harimo na ba sekuru. Umudugudu w'abasekuruza b'umuryango we uri i Abba muri Leta ya Anambra . [3]

Yarangije amashuri yisumbuye muri kaminuza ya Nigeriya yisumbuye, Nsukka, aho yakuye ibihembo byinshi by'amasomo. Yize ubuvuzi na farumasi muri kaminuza ya Nijeriya umwaka nigice. Muri icyo gihe, yahinduye ikinyamakuru The Compass, ikinyamakuru kiyobowe n’abanyeshuri b’ubuvuzi gatolika bo muri kaminuza. Ku myaka 19, Adichie yavuye muri Nijeriya yerekeza muri Amerika kwiga itumanaho na siyanse ya politiki muri kaminuza ya Drexel muri Philadelphia . Bidatinze, yimukiye muri kaminuza ya Leta ya Eastern Connecticut kugira ngo abe hafi ya mushiki we Uche, [4] wari ufite ubuvuzi i Coventry, muri leta ya Connecticut . Mu gihe umwanditsi w'ibitabo yakuriye muri Nijeriya, ntabwo yari amenyereye kumenyekana n'ibara ry'uruhu rwe rwahindutse mu buryo butunguranye ageze muri Amerika muri kaminuza. Nkumunyamerika wumwirabura muri Amerika, Adichie yahise ahura nicyo bisobanura kuba umuntu wamabara muri Amerika. Irushanwa nkigitekerezo cyahindutse ikintu yagombaga kuyobora no kwiga. [5] Yanditse kuri ibi mu gitabo cye cyitwa Americanah . Yabonye impamyabumenyi ihanitse muri kaminuza ya Leta ya Eastern Connecticut, itandukanya summa cum laude mu 2001.

Adichie yari mugenzi wa Hodder muri kaminuza ya Princeton mu mwaka w'amashuri wa 2005–2006. Muri 2008 yahawe igihembo cya MacArthur . Yahawe kandi ubusabane bwa 2011–2012 n'ikigo cya Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Universite ya Harvard .

Adichie agabanya igihe cye hagati y’Amerika, na Nijeriya, aho yigisha amahugurwa yo kwandika. Muri 2016, yahawe impamyabumenyi y'icyubahiro - Umuganga w’inyuguti za Humane, honouris causa, na kaminuza ya Johns Hopkins . [6] [7] Muri 2017, yahawe impamyabumenyi y'icyubahiro - Dogiteri w'inzandiko za Humane, honoris causa, na Haverford College [8] na kaminuza ya Edinburgh . [9] Muri 2018, yabonye impamyabumenyi y'icyubahiro, Dogiteri w'Amabaruwa ya Humane, yakuye muri Amherst College . Yabonye impamyabumenyi y'icyubahiro, umuganga honis causa, yakuye muri Université de Friborg, mu Busuwisi, mu 2019. [10]

Mu kiganiro cyasohotse mu kinyamakuru cyitwa Financial Times muri Nyakanga 2016, Adichie yatangaje ko afite umwana w'umukobwa. Mu mwirondoro wa Adichie, wasohotse mu kinyamakuru The New Yorker muri Kamena 2018, Larissa MacFarquhar yaranditse ati: "umugabo yarangije gushaka mu 2009 yari akwiriye gusetsa: umuganga wo muri Nijeriya wakoraga imyitozo muri Amerika, se akaba yari umuganga akaba n'inshuti ya ababyeyi be. " Adichie ni Umugatolika kandi yakuze ari Umugatolika akiri umwana, nubwo abona ko ibitekerezo bye, cyane cyane ibyo ku gitsina gore, rimwe na rimwe bivuguruza idini rye. Mu birori byabereye muri kaminuza ya Georgetown mu 2017, yavuze ko idini "atari ikigo cyita ku bagore" kandi ko "ryakoreshejwe mu gutsindishiriza igitugu gishingiye ku gitekerezo cy'uko abagore batangana n'abantu." Yahamagariye abayobozi b'Abakristu n'Abayisilamu muri Nijeriya kwamamaza ubutumwa bw'amahoro n'ubumwe.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 9363

Umwuga wo kwandika[edit | edit source]

Umwimerere wa Ngozi Adichie kandi wambere waturutse kuri Chinua Achebe, nyuma yo gusoma nyakwigendera Prof. "Ibintu Bitandukana" bya Chinua Achebe, afite imyaka 10. Adichie yatewe inkunga no kubona ubuzima bwe bugaragara kurupapuro. Adichie yasohoye icyegeranyo cy'imivugo mu 1997 ( Ibyemezo ) n'ikinamico ( Kubwurukundo rwa Biafra ) mu 1998. Yari yatoranyijwe mubazahabwa igihembo mu 2002 Caine Prize kubwigitabo cye "wowe muri Amerika", [11] [12] kandi inkuru ye "Uwo ibimutunga Morning" Byahiswemo ari wegukanye yahuje 2002 BBC World Service Short Story Ibihembo. [13] Mu 2003, yatsindiye igihembo cya O. Henry kubera "Ambasade y'Abanyamerika", na David T. Wong International Story Story Award 2002/2003 (Igihembo cya PEN Centre). [14] Inkuru ze nazo zasohotse muri Zoetrope: Byose-Inkuru, n'ikinyamakuru Topic Magazine . [15]

Igitabo cye cya mbere, Purple Hibiscus (2003), cyashimiwe cyane; yashyizwe ku rutonde rw'igihembo cya Orange kubera ibihimbano (2004) kandi gihabwa igihembo cy'abanditsi ba Commonwealth kubera igitabo cya mbere cyiza (2005). Purple Hibiscus atangiye afite quote wagutse kuva Chinua Achebe 's Ibintu Fall .

Igitabo cye cya kabiri, Igice cya kabiri cy'izuba ry'umuhondo (2006), cyiswe ibendera ry'igihugu cya Biafra igihe gito, cyashyizwe mbere ndetse no mu gihe cy'intambara yo muri Nijeriya. Yakiriye igihembo cya Orange 2007 cyo guhimbano hamwe na Anisfield-Wolf Book Award . [16] Kimwe cya kabiri cy'izuba ry'umuhondo cyahinduwe muri filime yitiriwe izina rimwe iyobowe na Biyi Bandele, yakinnye na BAFTA wegukanye igihembo ndetse n'umukandida wahawe igihembo cya Akademiki Chiwetel Ejiofor na Thandie Newton wegukanye BAFTA, akaba yararekuwe mu 2014. [17]

Igitabo cya gatatu cya Adichie, The Thing Around Your Neck (2009), ni icyegeranyo cy'inkuru 12 zerekana isano iri hagati y'abagabo n'abagore, ababyeyi n'abana, Afurika na Amerika.

Mu mwaka wa 2010, yashyizwe ku rutonde rw'abanditsi ba New Yorker "20 munsi ya 40". Inkuru ya Adichie "Ceiling" yashyizwe mu gitabo cy’umwaka wa 2011 cyiza cyane cyo muri Amerika .

Igitabo cye cya gatatu cyitwa Americanah (2013), ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’umusore ukomoka muri Nijeriya wahuye n’amoko muri Amerika cyatoranijwe na The New York Times nka kimwe mu "Ibitabo 10 byiza bya 2013". [18]

Muri Mata 2014, yiswe umwe mu banditsi 39 bari munsi y’imyaka 40 [19] mu iserukiramuco rya Hay na Rainbow Book Club umushinga wa Afurika39, bizihiza Port Harcourt UNESCO Umurwa mukuru w’ibitabo by’isi 2014. [20]

Amagambo magufi ya Adichie, "Mama, Umusazi nyafurika" araganira ku bibazo bivuka iyo uhuye n'imico ibiri itandukanye rwose. Ku ruhande rumwe, hari umuco gakondo wo muri Nijeriya ufite uruhare rugaragara rw'uburinganire, mu gihe muri Amerika hari umudendezo mwinshi mu buryo uburinganire bw'umugabo n'umugore bakora, kandi ntibibuza abakiri bato. Ralindu, nyamukuru, ahura niki kibazo nababyeyi be mugihe yakuriye i Philadelphia, mugihe bakuriye muri Nijeriya. Adichie yibira cyane mubikorwa byuburinganire nimigenzo nibibazo bishobora kubaho kubera iki.

Muri 2015, yayoboye iserukiramuco rya PEN World Voices Festival .

Mu 2014 kiganiro, Adichie yavuze feminism (uburinganire)no kwandika: "Nibaza ubwanjye ari storyteller ariko sinashatse bwenge Ku Byose NIBA umuntu bari gutekereza yanjye nk'uko umwanditsi gore. . . Ndi umunyarwandakazi cyane muburyo mbona isi, kandi uko isi ibona bigomba kuba bimwe mubikorwa byanjye. "

Muri Werurwe 2017, Americanah yatowe nk'uwatsindiye gahunda ya "Igitabo kimwe, New York", [21] [22] muri gahunda yo gusoma abaturage bashishikariza abatuye umujyi bose gusoma igitabo kimwe . [23]

Muri Mata 2017, hatangajwe ko Adichie yatorewe kuba mu cyiciro cya 237 cy'Ishuri Rikuru ry'Ubuhanzi n'Ubumenyi rya Amerika, kikaba ari kimwe mu byubahiro bihebuje abanyabwenge bo muri Amerika, nk'umwe mu banyamuryango 228 bashya bazinjizwa ku ya 7 Ukwakira 2017 . [24]

Igitabo aheruka gukora, Nshuti Ijeawele, cyangwa Manifeste ya Feministi mu Cyifuzo Cumi na Gatanu, cyasohowe muri Werurwe 2017, cyaturutse mu ibaruwa Adichie yandikiye inshuti yari yarasabye inama z'uburyo yarera umukobwa we nk'umugore. [25]

Inyigisho[edit | edit source]

Adichie yavuze kuri "Akaga k'Inkuru imwe" ya TED mu 2009. Yabaye umwe mubantu icumi ba mbere bareba TED Ibiganiro byigihe cyose hamwe na miliyoni zirenga cumi neshanu. Ku ya 15 Werurwe 2012, yatanze ikiganiro "Guhuza imico" Inyigisho ya Commonwealth 2012 i Guildhall, London . Adichie yavuze kandi ku kuba umunyarwandakazi wa TEDxEuston mu Kuboza 2012, n'ijambo rye yise: "Twese tugomba kuba abategarugori". Yatangije ikiganiro ku isi hose ku gitsina gore kandi cyasohowe nk'igitabo mu 2014. Yatoranijwe ku ndirimbo " *** Flawless " ya 2013 n'umuhanzi w'umunyamerika Beyoncé, aho yakunze kwitabwaho.

Abanditsi bibitabo n'inkuru bakoranaga n'uyu mwanditsi w'umuhanga wo muri Nigeria

"Akaga k'Inkuru imwe"[edit | edit source]

Adichie yavugiye mu kiganiro TED yise "Akaga k'Inkuru imwe" yashyizwe muri Nyakanga 2009. Muri yo, yagaragaje ko ahangayikishijwe no kudahagararira imico itandukanye. Yasobanuye ko akiri umwana muto, yakunze gusoma inkuru z'Abanyamerika n'Ubwongereza aho abantu bavugaga ahanini bakomoka muri Caucase. Muri iyo nyigisho, yavuze ko kutagaragaza imico itandukanye bishobora guteza akaga: "Ubu, nakunze ibyo bitabo by'Abanyamerika n'Abongereza nasomye. Banteye gutekereza no kumfungurira isi nshya. Ariko ingaruka zitagenderewe yari ko sinari nzi abantu ko nkanjye ashobora kubaho mu bitabo. "

Mu nyigisho zose, yakoresheje anecdote kugiti cye kugirango yerekane akamaro ko gusangira inkuru zitandukanye. Yavuze muri make ibijyanye numuhungu wo murugo wakoreraga umuryango we witwa Fide avuga ko ikintu yamuziho ari ukuntu umuryango we wari umukene. Ariko, igihe umuryango wa Adichie wasuraga umudugudu wa Fide, nyina wa Fide yaberetse igitebo murumuna wa Fide yakoze, bituma amenya ko yatanze igitekerezo cye kuri Fide ashingiye kumateka imwe gusa. Adichie yagize ati: "Ntabwo nari natekereje ko umuntu uwo ari we wese mu muryango we ashobora gukora ikintu runaka. Ibyo numvise kuri bo nukuntu bakennye, kuburyo bitabaye ngombwa ko mbona ko ari ikindi kintu cyose uretse abakene. Ubukene bwabo ni yo nkuru yanjye yonyine kuri bo. " Yavuze kandi ko igihe yavaga muri Nijeriya akajya muri kaminuza ya Drexel, yahuye n'ingaruka z'umuco we bwite udahagarariwe. Umunyamerika babanaga yatunguwe no kubona Adichie azi icyongereza kandi ko atigeze yumva umuziki w'amoko. Yavuze kuri ibi: "Mugenzi wanjye twabanaga yari afite inkuru imwe ya Afurika: inkuru imwe y'ibiza. Muri iyi nkuru imwe, ntabwo bishoboka ko Abanyafurika basa na we mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, nta byashobokaga ko ibyiyumvo bigoye kuruta impuhwe, nta nubwo bishoboka ko abantu bahuza. "

Adichie yashoje inyigisho yerekana akamaro k'inkuru zitandukanye mumico itandukanye no guhagararirwa bikwiye. Yahamagariye kurushaho gusobanukirwa inkuru kuko abantu bigoye, avuga ko iyo usobanukiwe inkuru imwe gusa, umuntu asobanura nabi abantu, amateka yabo n'amateka yabo.

"Twese dukwiye kuba feministsn(abaharanira uburinganire)"[edit | edit source]

Mu mwaka wa 2012, Adichie yatanze ikiganiro cya TEDx yise: "Twese dukwiye kuba abategarugori", cyatangiwe kuri TedXEuston i Londres, kimaze kurebwa inshuro zirenga miliyoni eshanu. Yavuze ibyamubayeho byo kuba umunyafrica wigitsina gore, nigitekerezo cye kubijyanye no kubaka uburinganire nigitsina. Adichie yavuze ko ikibazo cyuburinganire ari uko gihindura abo turi bo. Yavuze kandi ati: “Ndarakaye. Uburinganire nkuko bukora muri iki gihe ni akarengane gakabije. Twese dukwiye kurakara. Uburakari bufite amateka maremare yo kuzana impinduka nziza, ariko usibye kurakara, nanjye mfite ibyiringiro kuko nizera cyane ubushobozi bwabantu bwo gukora no kwisubiraho neza. " [26]Inyandikorugero:Listen Bimwe mu biganiro bya TEDx bya Adichie byatoranijwe mu ndirimbo ya Beyoncé " flawless " mu Kuboza 2013. [27] Umutungo wa kane wasohoye inyandiko ishingiye ku mvugo nk'igitabo cyihariye, Twese Tugomba kuba Abagore, muri 2014. Nyuma Adichie mu kiganiro NPR yavuze ko "ikintu cyose cyatuma urubyiruko ruvuga ku gitsina gore ari ikintu cyiza cyane." [2] Nyuma yaje kwemeza aya magambo mu kiganiro yagiranye n’ikinyamakuru cyo mu Buholandi De Volkskrant : "Ikindi nanze ni uko nasomye ahantu hose: ubu abantu barangije kumumenya, babikesha Beyoncé, cyangwa: agomba gushimira cyane. Nasanze ibyo bitantengushye. Natekereje nti: Ndi umwanditsi kandi maze igihe runaka kandi nanze kuririmbira muri iyi charade bigaragara ko ntegerejwe: 'Ndashimira Beyoncé, ubuzima bwanjye ntibuzongera kubaho ukundi.' Niyo mpamvu ntigeze mbivugaho byinshi. "

Adichie yasobanuyeko ukuntu asobanura nukuntu ashimangira uburinganire bitandukanye n'uko Beyonce(umuhanzikazi) abikora, gusa yumvako bishimishije kuba umugore nkawe ahagarara mubya politiki n'imibereho y'abantu rusange mu myaka mike ishize. Ashimangirako umugore ushyira imbere umwuga we, ukora ibintu bye uko abyumva, afite imbaraga z'umwari. Ntwarwa cyane n'ibyo.

Ibihembo yakiriye[edit | edit source]

Ku ya 20 Gicurasi 2019, Ngozi Adichie yabonye impamyabumenyi y'icyubahiro yakuye muri kaminuza ya Yale .

Adichie ku gifuniko cy'ikinyamakuru Madamu muri 2014
  1. Copnall, James (16 December 2011), "Steak Knife", The Times Literary Supplement, p. 20.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Feminism Is Fashionable For Nigerian Writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie". NPR, 18 March 2014.
  3. "Biography", The Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie website.
  4. "Why Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Considers Her Sister a 'Firm Cushion' at Her Back", Vanity Fair, May 2016.
  5. "'Americanah' Author Explains 'Learning' To Be Black In The U.S.", Fresh Air, NPR, 27 June 2013.
  6. "Eight to receive Johns Hopkins honorary degrees at commencement ceremony", HUB, Johns Hopkins University, 22 April 2016.
  7. "You can now call her Dr Adichie", This Is Africa, 19 May 2016.
  8. "Commencement 2017 Honorary Degrees", Haverford College, 15 May 2017.
  9. "Acclaimed author receives honorary degree", The University of Edinburgh, 28 July 2017.
  10. "L'écrivaine nigériane Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie devient docteure honoris causa de l'Université de Fribourg", Université de Fribourg, 15 November 2019.
  11. "You in America", in Discovering Home: A selection of writings from the 2002 Caine Prize for African Writing, Jacana, 2003, pp. 27–34.
  12. "You in America", Kwanini? Series, 2006.
  13. "Short Story Competition 2002", BBC World Service.
  14. "Awards & Nominations", Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie website; PEN.org "Half of a Yellow Sun", full story.
  15. "Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: Home is Where the Heart Was", Topic Magazine, Issue 3, Winter 2003.
  16. "Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie | Half of a Yellow Sun", Winners, The 82nd Annual Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards, 2007.
  17. Felperin, Leslie (10 November 2013), "Half of a Yellow Sun: London Review", The Hollywood Reporter.
  18. "The 10 Best Books of 2013", The New York Times, 4 December 2013.
  19. List of artists, Africa39.
  20. Attree, Lizzy (10 April 2014), "Africa39 and Caine Prize authors", The Caine Prize Blog.
  21. Weller, Chris (16 March 2017), "New Yorkers just selected a book for the entire city to read in America's biggest book club", Business Insider.
  22. "One Book, One New York | And the winner is...", NYC.
  23. Williams, John (31 January 2017), "One Book for Five Boroughs", The New York Times.
  24. "American Academy of Arts and Sciences Elects 228 National and International Scholars, Artists, Philanthropists, and Business Leaders", American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  25. Allardice, Lisa (28 April 2018), "Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: 'This could be the beginning of a revolution'", The Guardian.
  26. "TED | We should all be feminists – Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie at TEDxEuston (transcript)". Vialogue, 30 December 2013.
  27. Raymer, Miles (4 September 2014), "'Billboard' Hot 100 recap: Beyonce's 'Flawless' finally hits the chart", Entertainment Weekly.