African Wildlife Foundation

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The African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) n’umuryango mpuzamahanga uyobora ibidukikije wibanda gusa ku nyamaswa zo muri Afurika ndetse n’ubutaka bwo ku gasozi. Gahunda za AWF n'ingamba zo kubungabunga ibidukikije bigamije kurengera inyamaswa n’ubutaka bwa Afurika no guharanira ejo hazaza heza h’abatuye ba Afurika[1].

AWF irinda inyamaswa zo muri Afurika n'ubutaka bwo ku gasozi ziherereyemo n'umutungo kamere. Kuva ryashingwa mu 1961, uyu muryango warinze amoko n’ubutaka bigenda byangirika, uteza imbere imishinga yo kubungabunga ibidukikije ifasha abaturage bo muri Afurika, kandi ihugura abenegihugu b’Afurika babungabunga ibidukikije.

Amateka ya AWF[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ingwe

Fondasiyo Nyafurika Yita ku Buzima bw'inyamaswa (AWLF) yashinzwe mu 1961 na Russell E. Train, umucamanza ukize akaba n'umuhigi, akaba n'umwe mu bagize club ya Washington Safari[2]. Abandi banyamuryango bashinze Club ya Safari ni Nick Arundel, wahoze ari umusirikare w’ingabo z’Amerika zirwanira mu mazi akaba n’umunyamakuru; Kermit Roosevelt Jr. wo muri CIA; James S. Bugg, umucuruzi; na Maurice Stans, nyuma aba umuyobozi ushinzwe imari ya Richard Nixon[3][4][5][6]

Train yari ifite impungenge ko abashinzwe parike y’iburayi bazasimburwa n’abanyafurika batujuje ibyangombwa mu bikorwa byo kubungabunga ibidukikije mu gihe ibihugu bya Afurika byabonye ubwigenge. Ibihugu 20 byo muri Afurika byigenga mu 1960 na 1961. Train yaranditse ati: "Muri Tanganyika honyine, guverinoma iherutse gutegeka ko Abanyafurika 100% binjira muri serivisi y’imikino bitarenze 1966! Yumvaga ko byihutirwa gutoza Abanyafurika kuba inzobere mu nyamaswa[7]

Ibyagezweho[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Inzovu nimwe mu inyamaswa zitabwaho na AWF

Inkunga ya mbere yatanzwe na AWLF ni $ 47,000 yo gufasha kubona Ishuri Rikuru ry’imicungire y’ibinyabuzima muri Afurika i Mweka, muri Tanzaniya mu 1963. Iri shuri ryateguwe na Bruce Kinloch[8], Umuyobozi mukuru w’imikino ya Tanganyika, nk’ikigo cy’ubupayiniya cyo guhugura abayobozi b’inyamanswa zo muri Afurika. Inkunga ya Mweka nayo yatanzwe n’ikigo cy’Amerika gishinzwe iterambere mpuzamahanga[9], hamwe n’umuryango w’ibinyabuzima wa Frankfurt, hamwe n’ibikoresho byatanzwe na guverinoma ya Tanganyika. Kugeza mu mwaka wa 2010, iryo shuri ryari rimaze guhugura abashinzwe inyamaswa zirenga 4.500 baturutse mu bihugu 28 bya Afurika ndetse n’ibihugu 18 bitari Afurika[10]

Mu 1963, AWLF yatangije gahunda yo gutanga buruse yo kuzana abanyafrika bato muri kaminuza zo muri Amerika aho bashoboraga kwiga ibijyanye n’ibinyabuzima n’imicungire y’ibinyabuzima. AWLF yubatse ikigo cyigisha kubungabunga ibidukikije muri uwo mwaka, giherereye ku bwinjiriro bwa parike ya Nairobi. Mu 1967, AWLF yatanze $ 50.000 yo gutera inkunga yo kubaka ikigo cy'ubushakashatsi muri Tanzaniya. Mu 1970, AWF yashinze ishuri rishinzwe gucunga inyamaswa i Garoua, muri Kameruni, ritanga inyigisho mu gifaransa. Mu myaka ya za 1970 na 1980, AWLF yakomeje gutera inkunga abanyeshuri, kandi inafasha mu bikorwa byo kubungabunga ibidukikije, akenshi itanga ibikoresho nk'amahema, ibikoresho by'ibinyabiziga, pompe y'amazi, n'ibikoresho bifotora aho gutanga amafaranga[11].

Giraffe Ithala KZN South Africa Luca Galuzzi 2004

Mu 1969, AWLF yafashe iyambere mubukangurambaga bushigikiwe nandi matsinda yo kubungabunga imvubu. Mu 1974, fondasiyo yatangiye gahunda yo kwiga ingwe. Mu 1983, AWF yaretse "Ubuyobozi" mu izina ryayo. Train yababajwe nimpinduka, yizera ko umuryango wabuze umwimerere w'inshingano zawo. Kuri we, ryari ryarahindutse irindi shyirahamwe ryo kubungabunga ibidukikije, ritanga inkunga ku burengerazuba bwo gukora ubushakashatsi ku nyamaswa. Nyamara, ubushakashatsi nkibikorwa bya Dian Fossey ku ngagi na Cynthia Moss ku nzovu, byombi byashyigikiwe na AWF, biragaragara ko byari ingirakamaro[12]

Fondasiyo yaharaniye gushaka amafaranga. Mu 1968, ingengo yumwaka yari munsi y $ 250.000 USD[11]. Mu 1988, umwaka AWF yatangiriyeho ubukangurambaga bwo kurwanya guhiga inzovu, fondasiyo yari ifite abakozi batandatu ningengo yumwaka ingana na miliyoni 2 gusa. Igihe AWF yujuje imyaka 30 mu 1991, akanama gashinzwe umutekano gakomeje kwiganjemo Abanyamerika bakomeye kandi bakize, benshi muri bo bakoreraga ku zindi nzego zidaharanira inyungu[13].

Icyicaro muri Afurika[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Icyicaro gikuru cya African Wildlife Foundation kiri i Nairobi, muri Kenya gifite ibiro muri Afurika y'Epfo, Tanzaniya, Uganda, Zambiya na Washington, DC. Ishirahamwe risonewe umusoro hakurikijwe ingingo ya 501 (c) (3) yigitabo c'imisoro n'amahoro. Kugeza mu 2009 hari 36 bagize Inama y'Ubutegetsi n'abakozi 132 bahembwa. Amafaranga akusanywa binyuze mu butumwa butaziguye, gutanga ibyifuzo, kujurira kuri interineti, gutanga gahunda, kwamamaza bijyanye n'impamvu, no kujurira abanyamuryango[14]. Abayobozi bakuru ba fondasiyo babaye[15][16][17]

Indanganturo[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAbout_AWF-1
  2. http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/russelletrain/timeline.html
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEVirginia_Assembly...-3
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrain200344-4
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#CITEREFHarrison2009
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBonner199356%E2%80%9357-6
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBonner199357-7
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Kinloch
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEyeball_to_eyeball...-9
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTELast_Stand...-10
  11. 11.0 11.1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEConserving_Wildlife_-_14_years-11
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBonner199359-12
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBonner199360-13
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBBB_Wise_Giving...-17
  15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAWF's_History-48
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Wildlife_Foundation#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrain200344-4
  17. http://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/kenya/campaign-update-kenya-documentary-blasts-conservation-organizations-abusing-indigenous-pe