Itungo

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Itungo (ubuke : Amatungo )

Intama n’ihene[edit | edit source]

Ihene n’intama zifatwa nk’inka z’abakene kubera ko zitanga inyama, amata , impu n’imyenda bihagije ku byo umworozi aba acyeneye iwe, binashobotse akaba yasagurira isoko kubisigaye. Hari impamvu nyinshi ziri nyamanswa ziboneye kurusha inka k’uborozi bato. Zirahendutse muu kuzigura kandi kuzibona ziroroshye kurusha inka.

  • zibyara vuba, kandi kenshi n’abana benshi
  • zitanga ingano y’inyama, amata, impu, imyenda icungikwa mu kuribwa cyangwa kugurisha. Zifite ubushobozi bwo gukomeza kubaho zirya ibiryo bibi no mu gihe gito.
  • zimenyereza byoroshye ku myaka no kuyandi matungo
  • ubuto bwazo butuma byorohera abagore n’abana kuzicunga.

Aya matungo kandi atuma uzigama ukaninjiza muburyo bworoshye. Aho aborozi batagera ku ma banki, ihene n’intama ni ishoramari ribarinda kugwa mu bukene.

Amoko y’amatungo[edit | edit source]

Amoko Itariki Ahantu Purpose
Imbwa
(Canis lupus familiaris)
15,000 BC [1] Afurika y’uburasizuba hunting, shepherding, herding, companionship, pest control, inyama, transportation
Intama
(Ovis orientalis aries)
between 11,000 BC and 9000 BC[2][3] Southwest Asia wool, inyama, amata, leather, vellum
Ingurube
(Sus scrofa domestica)
9000 BC[4] Near East, Ubushinwa inyama, leather, companionship
Ihene
(Capra aegagrus hircus)
8000 BC [5] Irani amata, inyama
Inka
(Bos primigenius taurus) captive-bred
8000 BC[6][7] Ubuhinde, Middle East na Sub-Saharan Africa inyama, amata, leather, muscle, vellum, transportation, soil fertilization
Zebu
(Bos primigenius indicus)
8000 BC Ubuhinde inyama, amata, leather, muscle, vellum, transportation, soil fertilization
Injangwe
(Felis silvestris catus)
7500 BC [8][9][10][11] Near East pest control, companionship
Inkoko
(Gallus gallus domesticus)
6000 BC[12] Ubuhinde and Southeast Asia inyama, amagi, feathers
Guinea pig
(Cavia porcellus)
5000 BC[13] Peru inyama, companionship
Indogoba
(Equus africanus asinus)
5000 BC[14]<reseoger h, Template:PDFlink</ref> Misiri transportation, muscle, inyama
Igishuhe
(Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)
4000 BC Ubushinwa inyama/fat
Water buffalo
(Bubalus bubalis)
4000 BC Ubuhinde, Ubushinwa muscle, inyama, amata
Uruyuki
(Apis spp.)
4000 BC Multiple places honey, pollination, inyama
Ifarashi
(Equus ferus caballus)
4000 BC[15] Eurasian Steppes inyama, transportation, muscle, amata
Dromedary Camel
(Camelus dromedarius)
4000 BC Arabiya transportation, muscle, amata, inyama
Silkworm
(Bombyx mori)
3000 BC Ubushinwa silk, companionship
Reindeer
(Rangifer tarandus)
3000 BC [16] Uburusiya inyama, amata, muscle, antlers
Rock pigeon
(Columba livia)
3000 BC Mediterranean Basin show, messenger, inyama
Goose
(Anser anser domesticus)
3000 BC [17] Misiri inyama/fat, feathers, guarding
Yak
(Bos grunniens)
2500 BC Tibeti amata, muscle, inyama, wool
Bactrian camel
(Camelus bactrianus)
2500 BC Central Asia amata, transportation, inyama
Lama
(Lama glama)
2400 BC [18] Peru transportation, muscle, inyama
Alpaca
(Vicugna pacos)
2400 BC [18] Peru amata, transportation, wool, inyama
Guineafowl
(Numida meleagris)
2400 BC [19] Afurika inyama, amagi
Asian Elephant
(Elephas maximus)
2000 BC Pakisitani muscle, transportation
Ferret
(Mustela putorius furo)
1500 BC Burayi hunting, companionship
Fancy mouse
(Mus musculus)
1100 BC Ubushinwa companionship
Fallow Deer
(Dama dama)
1000 BC Mediterranean Basin inyama, antlers
Muscovy Duck
(Cairina moschata)
700–600 BC [18] Amerika y’Epfo inyama/fat
Cochineal Insect
(Oactylopius coccus)
700–500 BC [18] Shili, Megizike red dye
Indian Peafowl
(Pavo cristatus)
500 BC Ubuhinde show, feathers, inyama
Barbary Dove
(Streptopelia risoria)
500 BC North Africa show
Banteng
(Bos javanicus)
Unknown Southeast Asia, Java inyama, amata, muscle
Gayal
(Bos gaurus frontalis)
Unknown Southeast Asia inyama, muscle
Mandarin Duck
(Aix galericulata)
Unknown Ubushinwa inyama, fat
Dendo
(Meleagris gallopavo)
180 AD [18] Megizike, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika inyama, feathers
Stingless Bee
(Melipona beecheii)
180 AD [18] Megizike, Amazon Basin honey
Goldfish
(Carassius auratus auratus)
300–400 Ubushinwa companionship
Urukwavu
(Oryctolagus cuniculus)
600 [20] Burayi inyama, fur, felt, companionship
Mute Swan
(Cygnus olor)
1000–1500 Burayi
Japanese Quail
(Coturnix japonica)
1100–1900 Ubuyapani inyama
Common carp
(Cyprinus carpio)
1200–1500 Burayi, East Asia inyama, show (koi)
Canary
(Serinus canaria)
1600 Canary Islands, Burayi companionship
Fancy rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
19th century Ubwongereza companionship
Burayian Mink
(Mustela lutreola)
19th century Burayi fur
Budgerigar
(Melopsittacus undulatus)
1850s Ositaraliya companionship
Cockatiel
(Nymphicus hollandicus)
1870s Ositaraliya
Zebra Finch
(Taeniopygia guttata)
20th century Ositaraliya
Hamster
(Mesocricetus auratus)
1930s Siriya companionship, research
Domesticated silver fox
(Vulpes vulpes)
1950s Repubulika Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti fur, research
Muskox
(Ovibos moschatus)
1960s Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika muscle, inyama, amata

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. en:Origin of the domestic dog
  2. Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions & Discoveries of the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
  3. Simmons, Paula; Carol Ekarius (2001). Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC
  4. Giuffra E, Kijas JM, Amarger V, Carlborg O, Jeon JT, Andersson L (April 2000).
  5. Melinda A. Zeder, Goat busters track domestication (Physiologic changes and evolution of goats into a domesticated animal), April 2000.
  6. Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt.
  7. Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France [1], Template:Fr icon.
  8. [2], domestication of the cat on Cyprus, National Geographic.
  9. "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 95DOGGIES00-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  10. Muir, Hazel (2004-04-08). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat". New Scientist. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  11. Walton, Marsha (April 9, 2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat". CNN. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  12. West B., Zhou B-X. (1989). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication" (PDF). World’s Poultry Science Journal 45 (3): 205–18. doi:10.1079/WPS19890012. 
  13. History of the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) in Amerika y’Epfo, a summary of the current state of knowledge
  14. Beja-Pereira, Albano, et al. (18 June 2004). "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey". Science 304 (1781). [New Scientist Lay summary]. 
  15. The Domestication of the Horse; see also Domestication of the horse
  16. Domestication of Reindeer
  17. Geese: the underestimated species
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 D.L Johnson and B.K. Swartz, Jr. Evidence for Pre-Columbian Animal Domestication in the New World
  19. Guinea Fowl
  20. Interesting Rabbit Domestication History