Umuceli

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia
umurima w'umuceri

IRIBURIRO[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Umuceli
Oryza sativa
Ubuhinzi bw'umuceri
Umuceri

Umuceli cyangwa Umuceri (izina ry’ubumenyi mu kilatini Oryza) bawutera aho amazi ali mu bibaya, aliko si mu mugezi hagati. iyo weze barawusarura, bakawuhura, bakawugosora. umuceli weze neza urererana. iyo bamaze kuwugosora, bawuhunika mu magunira, bakawubika ahameze, neza, ukaba wahamara igihe kirekire utononekaye.[1][2]

Aho igihingwa gikunda : Umuceri ukunda mu bishanga by’uturere dushyuha (tw’imirambi n’imisozi iringaniye), ubushakashatsi burakorwa ku moko yahingwa imusozi. Umuceri tuza kuvuga ni uhingwa mu butaka bw’ibumba n’ubundi bwose bu­dahitisha amazi.[2][3]

Gutegura umurima[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Mbere yo gutera umuceri, ni ngombwa kurwanya isuri ku mabanga y’imisozi akikije igishanga kigiye guhingwamo umuceri. Icya kabiri, ubutaka bugomba kuba bumeze neza kugira ngo igihingwa kizakure neza kandi buringaniye. Gutegura umurima habamo gutabira no gusanza, kuvanga amazi n’ibyondo no kuringaniza.[2][1]

Kanchanaburi, Thailand, Asian rice (Oryza sativa) grass

Gutegura umurima ni ukuwutunganya kugira ngo uterwemo umuceri. Bikorwa mu byiciro binyuranye: gutabira no gusanza ( inshuro 1 kugeza kuri 2), kuvuruga no kuringaniza (inshuro 2 kugeza kuri 3) umurima kugira ngo umuceri uzamere neza. Iyo mirimo ishobora gukorwa ubutaka bwumutse cyangwa burimo amazi.[3][4][5]

Gutera[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Gufumbira
  • Gutegura imitabo (imirenzo cyangwa udutanda) yo guhumbikamo iteganyirijwe umurima wa m2500            

Udutanda 3 twa m 1 y’ubugari, uburebure = m 6

  • Intera iri hagati y’imitabo = cm 40-50 by’inzira ituma bashobora gukora  isuku
  • Kuringaniza neza udutabo dukoresheje igiti cyangwa akabaho
  • Gushyiramo ifumbire ya NPK gr 12.5 kuri buri m2 1 cyangwa udufuniko 2 tw’agacupa kazamo amazi kuko agafuniko 1 kagira gm 6 , ifumbire uhita uyivanga n’igitaka ukoresheje intoki. cyangwa ifumbire y’imborera yaboze neza.[6]
  • Gutegura imbuto n’ifumbire (imbuto ziba zimeze gute, ifumbire ikoreshwa ryari)
  • Kujonjora(gutoranya) no guhungira imbuto
  • Gutoranya imbuto nziza dukoresheje uburyo bwo kuzinika mu mazi menshi iz’ibihuhwe  zikareremba, tukazivanamo.
  • Inzima zibiye (zagiye) mu mazi nizo zonyine zishyirwa mu muti wa kitazine ufunguye mu gihe cy’amasaha 24. Uwo muti ufungurwa ku buryo bukurikira .[7]

-Litiro 1 y’amazi + ml 10 z’umuti wa Kitazine cyangwa gm 5 za Beam( udufuniko 5 tw’icupa rya fanta)

-Igerambuto kuri Ha : kg 25-30 cyangwa kg 1.25 – 1.5 kuri m2 500 (boroke).

  • Nyuma yo kuzikura mu muti, imbuto zigomba kumutswa zakuwe mu mufuka kugira ngo  

umuti uzifateho (kumutsa imbuto mbere yo kuzinika mu mazi, bifata igice cy’umusi      

  • Kwinika imbuto mu mazi mu gihe cy’amasaha 48 – 72 duhindura amazi buri munsi
  • Gutindikira imbuto zinuwe mu mazi, mu gihe cy’amasaha 24 ahantu hahehereye kugirango  zihange (ziseke). [8]

Ibindi:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Guhungira imbuto bigira akamaro ko gukingira imbuto uduhumyo dutera indwara nk’indwara yitwa Bakanae cyangwa gukururumba, n’iya Cyumya (Uburima), n’iy’ibidomo by’ikigina (brown spot), n’ifata  impeke ( grain rot). [9]

  • Guhumbika
  • Igerambuto n’ubucucike bwazo

• Batera kg 0.15 Kg - 0.2 kuri Ari bitewe n’ubwoko bw’imbuto.

  • Biba imbuto uzinyanyagiza ku buryo bumwe mu mitabo

Guhumbika imbuto z’umuceri mu mitabo

Gutata neza ubuhumbikiro nyuma yo kubiba imbuto mu dutabo/uturenzo

  • Gutwikira aho wabibye imbuto mu dutabo n’ibyatsi byumye cyangwa amashara(amashangara) kugirango ubutaka bukomeze buhehereye, butumagara no kwirinda ko inyoni zakwangiza imbuto
  • Gutwikurura (kuvanaho) ibyatsi hashize iminsi 4-5 uteye igihe ingemwe zatangiye kuzamuka(kumera) ( Ifoto ya 16).
  • Amazi ari hagati y’udutabo agomba guhora areshya n’udutabo kuko bituma ibyatsi bitamera mu buhumbikiro no gutuma udutabo duhora duhehereye

Kugemura[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Gushyiramo ifumbire y’ibanze: gr 70/m2
  • Umuceri ugemurwa umaze ibyumweru 3 uhumbitswe
  • Batera ingemwe z’umuceri ku mirongo iteganye, itandukanyijwe na cm 25. Ingemwe na zo ziba zitandukanyijwe na cm 25.
  • Batera ingemwe 2-3 mu kobo.[10]

Gufata neza umuceri[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoreshwa ry’ifumbire mu buhinzi bw’umuceri[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

1 Ifumbire y’ibanze NPK (17-17-17)

                   

10kg/ 500 m2 -Ishyirwa mu murima mbere yo gutera.

-Ifasha gukura neza mu ntangiriro no kubyara.

-Umunyungugu wose wa fosifore n’uwa Potasiyumu nk’ifumbire y’ibanze.

2 Ifumbire mbaturamusaruro ya mbere: mu gihe cyo kubyara Ire (46%) 2.5kg/

500 m2

-Gushyiramo Ire hashize iminsi 30 bateyemu murima.

-Kongerera umuceri ubushobozi bwo kubyara bituma amahundo yiyongera kuri m2

3 Ifumbire mbaturamusaruro ya kabiri: mu gihe cy’ikorwa ry’amahundo Ire (46%) 2.5kg/

500 m2

- Gushyiramo  Ire mu gihe umuceri utangiye guhaga (gutwita)

-Kugabanya ibihuhwe biterwa no kutibangurira cyangwa kutabangurirana cyangwa kuramburura k’umuceri

-kongera umubare w’intete ku ihundo no kugabanya ibihuhwe

Gucunga neza amazi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Amazi ni ikintu gikomeye mu buhinzi bw’umuceri, ni yo mpamvu amazi yuhira umuceri agomba gukoreshwa neza mu buryo butuma atanga umusaruro.
  • Umuhinzi w’umuceri agomba gukora uko ashoboye amazi akenewe akaboneka mu byiciro binyuranye by’imikurire y’igihingwa cy’umuceri:

-  Mu gihe cyo kugemeka no byara: igihingwa cy’umuceri cyakwangirika kibuze amazi ahagije, kikagwingira cyangwa se ntigifate rwose.

-Mu gihe cyo kubyara no gutangira kuzana amahundo:  muri iki gihe, igihingwa cy’umuceri gishobora kwihanganira amazi make. Igipimo cy’amazi kigomba kuguma hasi kugira ngo kubyara byihute.

- Mu gihe cyo gutangira kuzana amahundo- Kurabya: irinde ko umurima w’umuceri uburamo amazi.

- Mu gihe cyo kurabya-kwera: mu gihe cyo kwagika no kurabya n’igihe gikurikiraho  gututubikana ku muceri biba biri ku rwego rwo hejuuru. Kubura kw’amazi mu murima bituma intete ziba ibihuhwa kandi umuceri ukera nabi. Amazi avanwa mu murima hagati y’iminsi 15 na 20 nyuma yo kwagika mu rwego rwo kwihutisha kwera  no kugira ngo hirindwe ko umuceri ukurura Azote nyinshi.

  • Kubagara hakoreshwa ikibagazo  kizenguruka
  • Uburyo bw’imihingire: gutegura umurima neza cyane cyane kuvuruga, kuzuza amazi mu murima.
  • Uburyo bwo kwirinda ibyatsi mbere: Gukoresha imbuto z’umuceri zitarimo imbuto z’ibyatsi bibi, no guhora ukora isuku ku miyoboro n’amadige (guhora uyiharura, ukuraho ibyatsi).
  • Gukoresha ikibagazo ni ukugisunika hagati y’imirongo nk’uko bigaragara ku ifato. Ibi bigabazo bigira akamaro ko kuvangavanga ibyatsi bikuze (ariko bidakuze cyane) ndetse n’imbuto zabyo mu gitaka (mu cyondo) bikabuza ibyatsi kumera mu murima

Kunyuza ikibagazo gisunikwa hagati y’imirongo

Imiyoboro n’amadige

  • Guhinga umuceri bigendana n’ibikorwaremezo nk’imiyoboro n’amadige. Umuhinzi agomba kubifata neza no kubikoresha ku buryo butanga umusaruro kuko amazi ari ikintu cy’ingenzi ku burumbuke bw’umuceri.[11][12]

Indwara[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

1.Kirabiranya y'umuceri(Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Iyi ndwara iterwa n’udukoko twa bagiteri (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), ikarangwa no kurabirana kw’amababi cyangwa kw’igihingwa cyose. Igice gifashwe gihinduka icyatsi kijujuka, kikazahinduka umuhondo weruruka. Umuceri ukiri muto urababuka burundu. Isoko y’ubwandu ishobora kuba ibyatsi byo ku mpande y’igishanga, ibicericeri (ibishogoshogo) cyangwa umuceri  wo mu gasozi. Iyi ndwara yinjirira mu bikomere by’igihingwa mu gihe cyo kugemūra cyangwa se iyo umuceri ukomerekejwe n’umuyaga cyangwa imvura.[13]

Kuyirinda no kuyirwanya:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gukoresha imbuto zihangana; kwirinda ibintu byose bibika ubwandu; kutarenza urugero rw’umunyungugu wa azote; kurinda ko ibitanda n’imirima birengerwa n’amazi.

2.Uburima[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Uburima : Pyriculariose du riz (Pyricularia Oryzae):[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ni indwara mbi cyane, iterwa n’agahumyo gato katabonwa n’amaso. Ifata ingingo zose : ibibabi, uduti, indabo n’impeke. Ikunda gukara cyane mu buhumbikiro, umuceri ugeze igihe cyo guhagika, guterera n’igihe cyo kurabya.

Ibiranga indwara y’Uburima:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

amababi azaho amabara y’ikigina cyijimye, ajya kuba maremare, asongoye, y’ikijuju hagati, ku mababi kandi hazaho utudomo tw’icyatsi cyenda kuba ikijuju dusa nkaho turimo amazi dufite ishusho y’uruziga cyangwa imeze nk’igi, amabara akuze aba nk’afite inkovu; ku bufubiko bw’indabo haza ho utubara tw’ikigina; mu gihe cyo guterera, ku ipfundo rya nyuma riri hasi y’indabo hazaho uruziga rwirabura, agati ko hejuru y’iryo pfundo kakuma, ihundo ntirizemo impeke; uruti (igikenyeri) ruruma; mu buhumbikiro, ingemwe zirashya zikababuka zose.[14]

Ibituma iyo ndwara yiyongera:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gukoresha azote nyinshi mu murima; ubushyuhe bwinshi buvanze n’ubutohe; ivu ryinshi rirunze hamwe.

Uburima bwo ku mababi

Amahundo arwaye

Uko wakwirinda indwara y’Uburima bw’Umuceri:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gutera imbuto zihangana; gutera imbuto umuti mbere yo guhumbika(Thiram-Benomyl,..); gukoresha ifumbire mvaruganda ku rugero nyarwo; kuyobora amazi ahagije mu murima; isuku mu murima n’ahawegereye; gutwika ibikenyeri by’umuceri nyuma yo gusarura; gutera imiti (Tebuconazole, Benomyl, Kitazine,...); kubahiriza igihe cy’ihinga; no kubahiriza amabwiriza y’ubuhinzi (ubucucike bw’imbuto mu murima, ifumbire nyayo ku rugero nyarwo, amazi mu murima ku rugero...).[15]

3. Indwara iterwa na virusi y’umuceri (RYMV)[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Indwara ya Virusi y’umuceri (RYMV) ni icyorezo cyibasiye umuceri mu bihugu byo ku mugabane wa Afurika, ikaba igaragara mu bihugu hafi ya byose bihinga umuceri. Iyi ndwara iterwa na Virusi yagaragaye no mu gihugu cya Tutukiya.

Umuceri wafashwe n’indwara iterwa na virusi.

Indwara iterwa na Virusi y’umuceri (RYMV) ikwirakwizwa n’amoko menshi y’udukoko, inka, imbeba n’indogobe. Iyo udukoko dukwirakwiza virusi  turiye umuceri wafashwe  duhita tuyikwirakwiza ku muceri utarandura n’indi mirima  igiterwa aho hafi cyangwa ubuhumbikiro. Umuceri, ibihingwa virusi zihishamo zigakuriramo n’ibishibu cyangwa ibimera byimeza mu mirima hagati y’ibihembwa by’ihinga bituma virusi zikomeza kuguma mu murima. Indwara iterwa na virusi ishobora no gukwirakwizwa n’amatembabuzi ava ku gihingwa ajya ku kindi ( amazi yo kuhira, amazi ava ku gututubikana kw’igihinwa  no gukoranaho kw’ibice by’igihingwat birwaye n’ibizima ndetse no ku bisigazwa by’ibihibgwa).

Virusi ishobora no kuboneka mu mizi y’ibihingwa byafashwe kandi ishobora kwanduza ibindi bihingwa binyuze mu bikomere by’imizi.[16]

Ibimenyetso:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Ibimenyetso by’indwara ya virusi y’umuceri mbere na mbere bigaragara nk’imirongo y’amabara y’umuhondo n’icyatsi kibisi aza ku ntangiriro y’amababi akiri mato,. Ayo mabara agenda akura ateganye n’imitsi y’amababi akagaragara nk’amabara y’umuhondo cyangwa oranje.
  • Amababi aje nyuma y’uko igihingwa gifatwa aza afite amabara kandi akenshi aba yizingazinze.
  • Iyi ndwara ishobora gutuma amababi ahinduka ikigina cyijimye  kandi n’amahundo ntasohoke neza.
  • Umuceri warembejwe na virusi uragwingira, ukabyara ibyana bike, ukagira amahundo atarimo impeke kandi akenshi uruma.
  • Umuceri wafashwe nyuma y’minsi 20-50 ugemuwe ushobora kugaragaza amabara y’umuhondo, ukarabya ukazana n’imbuto ariko ukagwingira.[17]

Ni gute wayirwanya[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gukoresha imbuto zihanganira iyi ndwara ni bwo buryo buboneye bwo kurwanya indwara ya virusi y’umuceri (RYMV).

Ubundi buryo bwo kuyirwanya burimo ubu bukurikira:

  • Gukoresha uburyo bwo guhingira rimwe ahantu hanini hagatererwa rimwe umuceri, hanyuma wasarurwa hakararizwa hose kugira ngo virusi n’ibihingwa bizikwirakwiza bitiyongera,
  • Bakimara gusarura, gutaba mu butaka ibisigazwa by’umuceri, ibishibu by’umuceri n’uwimejeje kugira ngo bagabanye ibishobora kubika virusi mu murima no kugira ngo virusi n’ibizikwirakwiza bipfe,
  • Gutera mbere y’uko ibikwirakwiza virusi byiyongera,
  • Kurandura no gutwika umuceri wafashwe cyane cyane iyo ubwandu bukiri ku rugero rwo hasi,
  • Kubagara buri gihe umuceri ndetse na nyuma yo gusarura kugira ngo ugabanye isoko y’indiri za virusi.[18]

4. Ingenge z’imigongo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola)[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Iyi ndwara irangwa n’imirongo y’icyatsi cyijimye isa n’itose ku dutsi tw’ibibabi. Aya mabara agenda yaguka kandi yiyegeranya, agahinduka ikijuju gishyira umuhondo,akenshi ayo mabara akaba mu kibabi hagati. Indwara irakura, amababi agahinduka ikijuju cyeruruka, ubundi akuma.

Ibimenyetso by’ingenge z’amababi

Uburyo bwo kuyirinda no kuyirwanya:

  • Mu ngamba zo kwirinda iyi ndwara harimo: guterera igihe ingemwe zitarwaye zavuye ku mbuto zihanganira iyi ndwara no gukoresha ifumbire mvaruganda ku rugero ruringaniye. Ni ngombwa kandi kugira isuku mu murima n’ahawegereye, kuyobora amazi ahagije mu murima, gutera imbuto umuti mbere yo guhumbika (Thiram-Benomyl: gr 1 ya Thiram na gr 1 ya Benomyl muri kg y’imbuto, ukinika imbuto muri iyo mvange igihe cy’amsaha 24 mbere yo kuzitera mu buhumbikiro.
  • Igihe indwara yagaragaye, koresha imiti nka Propiconazole cyangwa Tebuconazole mu murima wafashwe, na Benomyl igihe indwara yagaragye mu buhumbikiro.[19]

Ibyonnyi, Udukoko n’ibyatsi bibi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

1.Nkongwa[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Inyo za nkongwa zinjira mu gikenyeri, zikarya umutima, zigapfumura mu mapfundo.

Iyo umuceri ufashwe ukiri muto ntukura neza, amababi aba umuhondo, akuma. Iyo umuceri ufashwe nyuma yo kubyara cyangwa urimo kurabya, impeke ntizizamo neza; zireruruka kandi zikaba ibihuhwe.

Mu gihe cy’isarura, nkongwa zitangira kwiyubururira mu gice cyo hasi

cy’igikenyeri. Iyo ihinga rihise rikurikira isarura, bituma nkongwa yiyongera

Ifoto igaragaza Nkongwa y’umuceri

Uko warwanya nkongwa:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gutaba mu mazi ibisigazwa byo mu murima kugira ngo bibore vuba; no gutera imiti igihe ari ngombwa.[20]

2. Isazi y’umuceri[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Isazi y’umuceri (Diopsis Thoracica) : Ni agakoko gafite amabara abiri : ahegereye umutwe ni umukara, naho ahandi ni nk’ikigina. Inyo ziva mu magi y’iyi sazi ni zo zangiza cyane nka nkongwa. Isazi n’inyo, byombi birya amababi, bikanyunyuza amazi. Inyo zizamuka mu ntimatima zihereye mu mizi, zikarya umutima w’igikenyeri. Umuceri utarabumbura uhinduka umuhondo. Iyo umuceri ufashwe umaze guhagika cyangwa mbere yo kuraba, amahundo ntiyirema neza, nta n’impeke  zizamo.

Ifoto igeragaza Isazi y’umuceri

  • Kuyirwanya: Umurima ugomba guhora urimo isuku. Byongeye kandi, ni ngombwa kongera amazi mu murima ukigaragaramo ibimenyetso by’ubwone bw’isazi y’umuceri. Hanyuma rero ni na ngombwa kurwanya isazi y’umuceri, cyane cyane ikoze mu bireti.  

3. Imbeba:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Imbeba zo mu mazu n’iz‘igasozi, zose zibasha kwangiza umuceri mu murima k’urugero rwa 20%. Uburyo bwo kuzirwanya:

  • Kugirira umurima isuku n’ahawukikije
  • Gukoresha imitego, imiti n’izindi nyamaswa zirya imbeba.

4. Inyoni:[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Inyoni z’amoko atandukanye zona umuceri zigatera igihombo k’umusaruro kigera ku rugero rwa 25%-30%.

Uburyo bwo kuzirwanya:

  • Kurinda umuceri mu mirima hakoreshejwe abantu bazirukana,
  • Guterera igihe ukoresheje imbuto nziza zitarwaye z’ubwoko bwihanganira inyoni (NERICA) bufite amababi asongoye inyoni zidashobora kwitendekaho;

NB: Nta buryo buhamye bwo kubuza inyoni kwangiza umuceri uretse kuzirukana.[21]

Ibyatsi bibi:

Ibyatsi bibi bikunze kuboneka mu murima w’umuceri mu Rwanda biri mu bwoko bukurikira: umutete(Echnochloa crusgali, Echnochloa Colonum); urukangaga(Cyperus diformis); umurago (Cyperus rutondus) n’ibindi.

Uburyo bwo kubirwanya:

  • Gukoresha mu rugero imiti itwika ibyatsi
  • Kugirira umurima isuku n’ahawukikije;
  • Kuyobora amazi ahagije mu murima;
  • Guhungura imbuto ukoresheje umuti wa Thiran na Benomyl, (gr 1 ya Thiran na gr 1 ya Benomyl mu  kilo cy’imbuto. Kwinika imbuto mu mvange y’amazi n’umuti mu gihe cy’amasaha 24 mbere yo kubiba imbuto mu buhumbikiro;
  • Kuvura indwara igihe yagaragaye mu murima ukoresheje  imiti nka Propiconazole cyangwa Tebuconazole na Benomyl mu buhumbikiro.[22]

Gusarura[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  • Amazi agomba kuvanwa mu murima iminsi 7-10 days mbere yo gusarura, ariko ntibirenze iminsi 10.
  • Kuvanamo amazi mbere ho iminsi 10 byongera umuceri umenetse (ibimene)
  • Umuceri usarurwa nyuma y’iminsi 120-150 utewe kandi umusaruro uri hagati ya Toni 3 na Toni 9 z’umuceri udatonoye kuri Ha;
  • Gukata ibitsinsi by’umuceri ukoresheje Najoro (Akayuya) byibura kuri cm 10 hejuru y’ubutaka.

Guhura umuceri

  • Guhita uhura ako kanya ukimara kuwusarura kugira ngo twirinde unyanyagira.
  • Kuwuhura ukoresheje igihuzo banyongesha ikirenge cyangwa bakubita kuri shitingi irambuye  ku butaka neza birinda kuwuvanga n’amabuye n’ibindi bitari umuceri.[23]

  

Kwanika umuceri udatonoye ku zuba  (umuceri muwubika igihe kingana iki mu bubiko bwanyu)

  • Ingano y’amazi cyangwa ubutote bw’umuceri (GMC) usarurwa ugereranyije ni hagati  20 na 30 % bitewe n’imiterere y’ikirere.
  • Kuringaniza igipimo cy’amazi mu ntete (kwanika) kugeza kuri 14 % ni ngombwa ku muceri wo gutonorwa bigabanya intete zimenetse ndetse ukanabikika igihe kirekire.
  • kwanika umuceri udatonoye neza kugeza ku rugero rwizewe rw’ubutote rwa 14 % ni ukuwusanza neza utarundanyije cyane, byibura cm 5 ku mbuga ya sima cyangwa shitingi no kuwukorakora buri kanya (buri minota 30 - 60) kugirango wume kimwe wose.

 

  • Kuwanika ku zuba buhoro buhoro mu minsi 2-3 (amasaha 6-8 ku munsi bitewe n’imiterere y’ikirere bigabanya kumenagurikaa mu gihe cyo kuwutonoraNi ngombwa kwirinda kuwumisha vuba vuba mu gihe gito nk’umunsi umwe.
  • Gupima igipimo cy’ubuhehere bw’umuceri wavuyeho igishishwa
    • Gusebwa no kuwuhekenya n’iryinyo( byibura 20%)
    • Kumenagurwa no kuwuhekenya n’iryinyo nta jwi ryumvikanye (byibura 18%)
    • Kumenagurwan’iryinyo humvikana ijwi(15%)
Umugore urimo kubagara umuceli

Gutonora umuceri[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gutonora umuceri ni igikorwa cy’ingenzi mu gutunganya umusaruro w’umuceri. Intego nyamukuru yo gutonora umuceri  ni ubukuraho igishishwa cy’inyuma n’udushishwa tundi tutwikiriye intete kugira ngo ugere ku ntete iribwa ifite ibara ry’umweru, idafite ubundi busembwa.

Bitewe n’amahitamo y’abaguzi ku isoko, umuceri wagombye kuba urimo ibimene bike cyane.

Kugosora umuceri hakoreshejwe imashini cyangwa Urutaro[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ugosora umuceri uvanamo imyanda n’intete z’ibihuhwe, ukoresheje imashini cyangwa Urutaro rwa gakondo.[24]

Amashakiro[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

  1. 1.0 1.1 https://www.radiyoyacuvoa.com/a/mu-rwanda-abahinzi-b-umuceri-mu-bugarama-bari-mu-gihombo/5989217.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 https://umuseke.rw/2022/07/rusizi-umuceri-udatoneye-ikilo-ni-frw-410-abahinzi-bavuga-ko-bahojejwe-amarira/
  3. 3.0 3.1 https://muhaziyacu.rw/amakuru/abahinga-umuceri-i-mishenyi-bamenye-ibanga-ryo-gukoresha-ifumbire/
  4. https://rugali.com/tag/umuceri/
  5. https://bwiza.com/?Rusizi-Hegitari-nshya-950-zigiye-gutunganywa-mu-kibaya-cy-umuceri-cya-Bugarama
  6. https://www.isangostar.rw/bugesera-abahinzi-bumuceri-babangamiwe-namateme-make-mu-mirima-yabo
  7. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. https://www.amasezerano.com/umuceri-ni-ingenzi-mu-kurinda-indwara-zuruhu/
  9. https://umunsi.com/inkuru-yurupfu-rwumucuranzi-wacurangiraga-israel-mbonyi-yashenguy-benshi-ishimwe-etienne/
  10. https://www.bbc.com/gahuza/49507236
  11. https://www.rba.co.rw/post/MINGARI-yanzuye-ko-igiciro-cyumuceri-kigiye-kuba-kimwe-hose-mu-gihugu
  12. https://amahaho.com/fr/collections/rice-umuceri
  13. https://migro.co.rw/product/tanzania-no-1-1
  14. https://yegob.rw/waruziko-umuceri-ufite-ubushobozi-bwo-kurinda-indwara-zikomeye-nka-kanseri-ndetse-no-gutuma-ugira-uruhu-rwiza/
  15. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. https://igihe.com/abantu/success-stories/article/umwihariko-w-ifumbire-y-umwimerere-ikorwa-mu-isukari-n-umuceri
  18. https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubuhinzi/ubuhinzi/article/abashinwa-badukana-umuceri-mu-cyiri-hari-abangaga-kuwurya-bawita-amagi-y-ibimonyo
  19. https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubuhinzi/ubuhinzi/article/igiciro-cy-umuceri-udatonoye-cyiyongereye
  20. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fwJV9-Suzo
  23. https://inyarwanda.com/inkuru/96282/amakosa-6-abantu-bakunze-gukora-mu-guteka-umuceri-96282.html
  24. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)