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Ibirori bikina kottabos numukobwa ukina aulos . Ubugereki ( c. 420 BGC )



Ibirori n'umuziki byakomeje kuba imyidagaduro ibiri y'ingenzi kuva kera. Imyidagaduro nuburyo bwibikorwa bikurura ibitekerezo byabashitsi cyangwa bitanga umunezero nibyishimo. Birashobora kuba igitekerezo cyangwa umurimo, ariko birashoboka cyane kuba kimwe mubikorwa cyangwa ibintu byateye imbere mumyaka ibihumbi nibihumbi hagamijwe gukomeza gutega amatwi abumva. Nubwo abantu bitabwaho nibintu bitandukanye, kuberako abantu bafite ibyifuzo bitandukanye mubyimyidagaduro, uburyo bwinshi buramenyekana kandi buramenyerewe. Kuvuga inkuru, umuziki, ikinamico, imbyino, nuburyo butandukanye bwibikorwa bibaho mumico yose, byashyigikirwaga mu nkiko zumwami, bigatera imbere muburyo buhambaye kandi igihe cyagiye kiboneka kubenegihugu bose. Ibikorwa byihutishijwe mugihe cya none ninganda zidagadura zandika kandi zigurisha ibicuruzwa byimyidagaduro. Imyidagaduro ihindagurika kandi irashobora guhuzwa nu rwego urwo arirwo rwose, uhereye kumuntu ku giti cye uhitamo imyidagaduro yihariye kuva murwego runini rwibicuruzwa byanditswe mbere; ku birori byahujwe na bibiri; ku bunini cyangwa ubwoko bw'ibirori, hamwe n'umuziki n'imbyino bikwiye; ku bitaramo bigenewe ibihumbi; ndetse no kubantu bose bumva isi.





Ubunararibonye bwo kwidagadura bwaje guhuzwa cyane no kwinezeza, kuburyo imyumvire imwe ihuriweho nigitekerezo ishimishije no gusetsa, nubwo imyidagaduro myinshi ifite intego ikomeye. Ibi birashobora kumera muburyo butandukanye bwimihango, ibirori, ibirori byamadini, cyangwa gusebanya urugero. Kubwibyo, haribishoboka ko ikigaragara nkimyidagaduro gishobora no kuba inzira yo kugera kubushishozi cyangwa gukura mubwenge.

Ikintu cyingenzi cyimyidagaduro ni abumva, bihindura imyidagaduro yihariye cyangwa imyidagaduro. Abumviriza barashobora kugira uruhara rudahwitse, nkuko bimeze kubantu bareba ikinamico, opera, televiziyo, cyangwa firime; cyangwa uruhare rwabateze amatwi rushobora kuba rukora, nko mugihe cyimikino, aho uruhare rwabitabiriye / abumva rushobora guhinduka. Imyidagaduro irashobora kuba rusange cyangwa iyigenga, irimo ibikorwa byemewe, byanditswe, nkuko bimeze mumikino cyangwa ibitaramo; cyangwa bitanditswe kandi byizana, nkuko bimeze mumikino y'abana. Uburyo bwinshi bwo kwidagadura bwakomeje mu binyejana byinshi, bigenda bihinduka bitewe nimpinduka zumuco, ikoranabuhanga, nimyambarire urugero hamwe nubumaji bwa stage. Filime nudukino twa videwo, kurugero, nubwo bakoresha itangazamakuru rishya, komeza kuvuga inkuru, kwerekana ikinamico, no gucuranga. Ibirori byeguriwe umuziki, firime, cyangwa imbyino bituma abumva bishimisha muminsi itari mike.

Imyidagaduro imwe n'imwe, nk'iyicwa rusange, ubu ntibyemewe mu bihugu byinshi. Ibikorwa nko kuzitira cyangwa kurasa, bimaze gukoreshwa mu guhiga cyangwa mu ntambara, byahindutse siporo yo kureba. Muri ubwo buryo, ibindi bikorwa, nko guteka, byateye imbere mubikorwa byabanyamwuga, byateguwe nkamarushanwa yisi yose hanyuma bigatangazwa kwidagadura. Niki imyidagaduro kumurwi umwe cyangwa umuntu ku giti cye irashobora gufatwa nkakazi cyangwa igikorwa cyubugome nundi.


Uburyo bwo kwidagadura bumenyerewe bufite ubushobozi bwo kwambuka ibitangazamakuru bitandukanye kandi bwerekanye ubushobozi busa nkaho butagira imipaka bwo guhanga remix. Ibi byashimangiye gukomeza no kuramba kwinsanganyamatsiko nyinshi, amashusho, nuburyo.


Contents 1 Imitekerereze na filozofiya 2 Amateka 2.1 Imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko 2.2 Igihano rusange 3 Abana 4 Ifishi 4.1 Ibirori 4.2 Umuziki 4.3 Imikino 4.4 Ubuvanganzo 4.5 Urwenya 4.6 Imikorere/Imyiyerekano 4.6.1 Kuvuga inkuru 4.6.2 Ikinamico 4.6.3 Sinema na firime 4.6.4 Imbyino 4.6.5 Inyamaswa 4.6.6 Circus 4.6.7 Ubumaji 4.6.8 Imikorere/Imyiyerekano yo mumuhanda 4.6.9 Parade 4.6.10 Fireworks 4.7 Siporo 4.8 Imurikagurisha, imurikagurisha, guhaha 5 Umutekano 6 Inganda 7 Ubwubatsi 7.1 Ubwubatsi bwo kwidagadura 7.2 Ubwubatsi nk'imyidagaduro 8 Ingaruka ziterambere mubitangazamakuru bya elegitoroniki 8.1 Kuba isi ihinduka 8.2 Ubusaza (Absolescence) 8.3 Guhuriza hamwe 9 Reba kandi 10 References Imitekerereze na filozofiya[edit | edit source] Imyidagaduro irashobora gutandukanywa nibindi bikorwa nkuburezi no kwamamaza nubwo bamenye gukoresha uburyo bwo kwidagadura kugirango bagere ku ntego zabo zitandukanye. Rimwe na rimwe, imyidagaduro irashobora kuba imvange kuri bombi. Akamaro n'ingaruka zo kwidagadura bizwi nintiti kandi ubuhanga bugenda bwiyongera byagize ingaruka mubikorwa mubindi bice nka museology.


Abahanga mu by'imitekerereze ya muntu bavuga ko umurimo wo kwidagadura mu bitangazamakuru ari "kugera ku byishimo". Nta bindi bisubizo cyangwa inyungu zishobora gupimwa mubisanzwe (usibye wenda amanota yanyuma mumyidagaduro ya siporo). Ibi bitandukanye nuburezi (bwateguwe hagamijwe guteza imbere imyumvire cyangwa gufasha abantu kwiga) no kwamamaza (bigamije gushishikariza abantu kugura ibicuruzwa byubucuruzi). Ariko, itandukaniro riba urujijo mugihe uburezi bushaka kurushaho "kwishimisha" no kwidagadura cyangwa kwamamaza bishakisha "uburezi". Imvange nkiyi izwi cyane na neologism "edutainment" cyangwa "infotainment". Imitekerereze yimyidagaduro kimwe no kwiga yakoreshejwe kuriyi nzego zose. Bimwe mubyigisho-imyidagaduro nikigeragezo gikomeye cyo guhuza ibintu byiza byombi. Abantu bamwe bashimishwa nububabare bwabandi cyangwa igitekerezo cyo kutishima kwabo (schadenfreude).


Imyidagaduro irashobora kurenga kunyurwa kandi igatanga ubushishozi mubayumva. Imyidagaduro irashobora gusuzuma ubuhanga ibibazo bya filozofiya ku isi hose nka: "Kuba umuntu bisobanura iki?"; "Ni ikihe kintu cyiza cyo gukora?"; cyangwa "Nabwirwa n'iki ibyo nzi?". "Ubusobanuro bw'ubuzima", nk'urugero, ni ingingo mu buryo butandukanye bwo kwidagadura, harimo filime, umuziki n'ubuvanganzo. Ibibazo nkibi bitera inkuru nyinshi namakinamico, yaba yatanzwe muburyo bwinkuru, film, ikinamico, igisigo, igitabo, imbyino, urwenya, cyangwa umukino. Ingero zidasanzwe zirimo Shakespeare ikinamico ikomeye Hamlet, intwari ye igaragaza izo mpungenge mubisigo; na firime, nka The Matrix, isobanura imiterere yubumenyi kandi yasohotse kwisi yose. Ibitabo bitanga umwanya munini wo gukora iperereza kuri izi nsanganyamatsiko mugihe zishimisha abasomyi babo. Urugero rwibikorwa bihanga bitekereza kubibazo bya filozofiya bishimishije kuburyo byatanzwe muburyo butandukanye ni igitabo cyitwa Hitchhiker to the Galaxy. Ubusanzwe urwenya kuri radio, iyi nkuru yamenyekanye cyane kuburyo yagaragaye nkigitabo, firime, serivise za tereviziyo, kwerekana ibyerekanwa, urwenya, igitabo cyamajwi, LP record, umukino wo kwinezeza numukino wo kumurongo, ibitekerezo byayo byabaye ibyamamare (reba Amagambo yo muri The Igitabo cya Hitchhiker kuri Galaxy) kandi cyahinduwe mu ndimi nyinshi. Insanganyamatsiko zayo zikubiyemo ubusobanuro bwubuzima, kimwe n "" imyitwarire yimyidagaduro, ubwenge bwubuhanga, isi myinshi, Imana, nuburyo bwa filozofiya ".

Amateka[edit | edit source]

Albert Bierstadt's Campfire yerekana inkuru, uburyo bwo kwidagadura kwisi yose

Mosaic yerekana imyidagaduro y'Abaroma yari gutangwa mumikino ya gladiator, kuva mu kinyejana cya 1 "Ubukorikori bwa kera bwo kumenyekanisha ibyabaye nubunararibonye, ​​ukoresheje amagambo, amashusho, amajwi n'ibimenyetso" mu kuvuga inkuru ntabwo aribwo buryo abantu banyuzemo indangagaciro z'umuco n'imigenzo n'amateka yabo kuva mu gisekuru kugera mu kindi, byabaye an igice cyingenzi cyimyidagaduro myinshi kuva kera. Inkuru ziracyavugwa muburyo bwambere, kurugero, hafi yumuriro mugihe ukambitse, cyangwa mugihe wunvise inkuru zumuco wundi nkumukerarugendo. "Urutonde rwa mbere rwo kuvuga inkuru dufite, ubu birumvikana ko twiyemeje kwandika, nta gushidikanya ko mu ntangiriro twavugaga umunwa ku gutwi n'imbaraga zabo nk'imyidagaduro ikomoka ku bintu bimwe na bimwe twishimira muri filime no mu bitabo." Kuvuga inkuru nigikorwa cyahindutse kandi gitera imbere "kugana ibintu bitandukanye". Imyidagaduro myinshi, harimo kuvuga inkuru ariko cyane cyane umuziki namakinamico, ikomeza kumenyera ariko yateye imbere muburyo butandukanye kugirango ihuze ibintu byinshi bikunda kugiti cyawe no kwerekana umuco. Ubwoko bwinshi bwahujwe cyangwa bushyigikiwe nubundi buryo. Kurugero, ikinamico, inkuru no gusangira (cyangwa kurya) bikunze kuzamurwa numuziki; siporo n'imikino byinjijwe mubindi bikorwa kugirango byongere ubujurire. Bamwe bashobora kuba barahindutse bava mubikorwa bikomeye cyangwa bikenewe (nko kwiruka no gusimbuka) mumarushanwa hanyuma bahinduka imyidagaduro. Bivugwa, nk'urugero, ko guterera inkingi "bishobora kuba byarakomotse mu Buholandi, aho abantu bakoresheje inkingi ndende kugira ngo bazenguruke hejuru y'imigezi migari aho kurambika utuzu twabo bagenda ibirometero bigana ku kiraro cyegereye. Abandi bakomeza bavuga ko gutera inkingi byakoreshejwe mu ntambara. kuzenguruka inkike z'igihome mu gihe cy'intambara. " Ibikoresho by'imikino nkiyi byarushijeho kuba byiza. Urugero, inkingi zubatswe, zabanje gukorwa mu mashyamba nka ivu, hickory cyangwa hazel; mu kinyejana cya 19 imigano yakoreshejwe kandi mu kinyejana cya 21 inkingi irashobora gukorwa muri fibre karubone. Ibindi bikorwa, nko kugenda kuri stil, biracyagaragara mubikorwa bya sirusi mu kinyejana cya 21. Imirwano ya Gladiator, izwi kandi ku izina rya "imikino ya gladiator", izwi cyane mu gihe cy'Abaroma, itanga urugero rwiza rw'igikorwa gihuza siporo, ibihano, n'imyidagaduro.

Impinduka kubintu bifatwa nkimyidagaduro irashobora kubaho mugusubiza impinduka zumuco cyangwa amateka. Guhiga inyamaswa zo mu gasozi, byinjijwe mu Bwami bw'Abaroma kuva i Carthage maze biba imyidagaduro n'imyidagaduro ikunzwe cyane, bishyigikira ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga mu nyamaswa zo mu gasozi.


Imyidagaduro nayo yagiye ihinduka muburyo butandukanye no kwerekana imvugo biturutse ku mvururu zishingiye ku mibereho nk'intambara na revolisiyo. Urugero, mu gihe cy’impinduramatwara y’umuco w’Abashinwa, opera y’impinduramatwara yemerewe n’ishyaka rya gikomunisiti n’Intambara ya Mbere y'Isi Yose, Ihungabana rikomeye na Revolution y'Abarusiya byose byagize ingaruka ku myidagaduro.

Ugereranije impinduka ntoya kumiterere n'ahantu ho kwidagadurira bikomeje kuza no kugenda kuko bigira ingaruka kubihe, imyambarire, umuco, ikoranabuhanga, nubukungu. Kurugero, inkuru ivugwa muburyo butangaje irashobora gutangwa mumikino yikinamico, inzu yumuziki, inzu yerekana sinema, multiplex, cyangwa nkibishoboka byikoranabuhanga byateye imbere, ukoresheje ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki nka mudasobwa ya tablet. Imyidagaduro itangwa kubantu benshi mubikorwa byubatswe nkikinamico, inzu yimyidagaduro, cyangwa stade. Kimwe mu bibuga bizwi cyane mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba, Colosseum, "yeguriye AD 80 hamwe n’imikino ijana, yakiriye abantu ibihumbi mirongo itanu," kandi muri yo abayitabiriye "bishimiye siporo y’amaraso hamwe n’imitego yerekana ibitaramo". Ibirori, amarushanwa, amasiganwa, na siporo bigeze gutangwa muriki kibuga cyubatswe nkimyidagaduro rusange. Stadia nshya ikomeje kubakwa kugirango ihuze ibisabwa bikenewe cyane kubantu bose bumva isi.

Imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko[edit | edit source]

Irushanwa imbere yabateze amatwi n'abacuranzi (ikinyejana cya 14)

Ralph Hedley Irushanwa (1898) Abana bahuza imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko Inkiko n’ibwami zatanze ikibuga cyamahugurwa ninkunga kubanyamwuga babigize umwuga, bafite imico itandukanye bakoresheje ingoro, ibigo n'ibihome muburyo butandukanye. Urugero, mu mujyi wa Maya, "" akenshi ibitaramo byaberaga mu bibuga binini imbere y’ingoro; imbaga y'abantu yateraniye aho haba cyangwa ahantu hagenewe bashobora kurebera kure. " Imyidagaduro y'urukiko nayo yarenze imico. Kurugero, durbar yamenyekanye mubuhinde nabamogali, hanyuma ijya mubwami bwabongereza, hanyuma bukurikiza imigenzo yabahinde: "ibigo, amazina, imigenzo, imihango yashizweho na Maharaja cyangwa Nawab ... guhana impano zemewe ... gahunda y'ibanze ", nk'urugero," bose barazwe kuva ... Abami ba Delhi ". Muri Koreya, "imbyino y'imyidagaduro y'urukiko" "yabanje gukorerwa mu ngoro yo kwidagadura mu birori by'urukiko."


Imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko yakunze kuva mu kwifatanya n’urukiko ikoreshwa cyane muri rusange. Uku niko byagenze kuri "imbyino zipfundikirwa mu maso" muri Koreya, "zatangiriye ku mihango ya shaman yo mu mudugudu kandi amaherezo yaje kuba uburyo bwo kwidagadura kuri rubanda". Ababyinnyi ba Nautch mu bwami bwa Mughal baririmbye mu nkiko zo mu Buhinde. Ubundi bwihindurize, busa n'ubwavuye mu myidagaduro yo mu rukiko ujya mu bikorwa bisanzwe, ni uguhinduka kuva mu mihango y'idini ukajya mu myidagaduro y'isi, nk'ibyabaye mu gihe cy'ingoma ya Goryeo n'umunsi mukuru wa Narye. Ubusanzwe "gusa abanyamadini cyangwa imihango, igice cyisi cyongewe kumusozo". Imyidagaduro yahoze mu rukiko, nko gusetsa, akenshi nayo yarokotse mu mikino y'abana


Mu nkiko, nka birya gihe Byzantine Empire, rikoresheje bari bwacagamo mu mashule yo haruguru, kugira ngo "nibura imbere gihe mu Komnenoi " (1081-1185) abagabo gutandukana n'abagore ku mihango aho hari myidagaduro nk'ibirori n'ibirori.

Imihango yurukiko, ibirori byumwami nibirori bifitanye isano nayo, ntabwo byakoreshejwe gusa kwishimisha ahubwo no kwerekana ubutunzi n'imbaraga. Ibintu nkibi bishimangira umubano hagati yumutegetsi nubutegetsi; hagati y'abafite imbaraga n'abadafite, bakorera "kwerekana itandukaniro riri hagati y'imiryango isanzwe n'iy'umutegetsi". Uru nirwo rubanza nko mu nkiko gakondo nkuko bimeze ku mihango y'iki gihe, nk'imihango yo guhererekanya Hong Kong mu 1997, aho imyidagaduro myinshi (harimo ibirori, parade, fireworks, ibitaramo by'ibirori ndetse n'ubuhanzi. ) bashyizwe muri serivisi yo kwerekana impinduka mubutegetsi bwa politiki. Imyidagaduro y'urukiko ubusanzwe yakorwaga ku bwami no mu bami ndetse no "gushimisha abanyacyubahiro baho kandi basuye". Inkiko z'umwami, nk'iz'Abanyakoreya, nazo zashyigikiraga imbyino gakondo. Muri Sudani, ibikoresho bya muzika nkibyo bita "slit" cyangwa "kuvuga" ingoma, rimwe "igice cya orchestre yurukiko rwumutware ukomeye", byari bifite intego nyinshi: byakoreshwaga mu gukora umuziki; "vuga" mu birori; shyira ahagaragara ibikorwa byabaturage; ohereza ubutumwa burebure; kandi uhamagare abagabo guhiga cyangwa kurwana


Imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko irerekana kandi isano itoroshye hagati yimyidagaduro nindorerezi: abantu barashobora kuba abashimisha cyangwa igice cyabateze amatwi, cyangwa barashobora guhinduranya inshingano nubwo mugihe cyimyidagaduro imwe. Mu rukiko ku ngoro ya Versailles, "ibihumbi by'abanyacyubahiro, barimo abagabo n'abagore babaga mu nzu zayo, bakoze nk'abahanzi ndetse n'abarebera mu mihango ya buri munsi ishimangira urwego rw'imiterere".


Kimwe n'imyidagaduro yo mu rukiko, ibihe byumwami nko kwimikwa nubukwe byatanze amahirwe yo gushimisha abanyacyubahiro ndetse nabantu. Kurugero, ibirori byiza 1595 byo kwizihiza umunsi wokwinjira kwumwamikazi Elizabeth wa mbere natanze amarushanwa, urwenya hamwe nibindi birori byakozwe "atari imbere yurukiko rwateraniye hamwe, mubyiza byabo byose, ariko no mubihumbi n’ibihumbi byabanya Londres bifuza kwidagadura umunsi mwiza. Kwinjira kuri Uwiteka ibirori byumunsi kuri Tiltyard muri Whitehall byashyizwe kuri 12d "

Igihano rusange[edit | edit source]

Tike yo kwicwa Jonathan Wild (1725) Nubwo uburyo bwinshi bwo kwidagadura bwagiye buhinduka kandi burakomeza uko ibihe bigenda bisimburana, uburyo bumwe bwamamaye ntibukiri bwemewe. Kurugero, mu binyejana byabanjirije i Burayi, kureba cyangwa kugira uruhare mu guhana abagizi ba nabi cyangwa ababana n’imibereho byari uburyo bwo kwidagadura bwemewe kandi buzwi. Uburyo bwinshi bwo gusuzugura rubanda nabwo bwatangaga imyidagaduro yaho kera. Ndetse igihano cyo kwicwa nko kumanika no gucibwa umutwe, gihabwa rubanda nk'ikuburira, nacyo cyafatwaga nk'imyidagaduro. Ibihano by'urupfu byamaraga igihe kirekire, nko gutera amabuye no gushushanya no muri kimwe cya kane, byatanze abantu benshi. "Kumanika byari karnivali itayoboye abashomeri gusa ahubwo n'abashomeri. Burugumesitiri mwiza cyangwa abanyacyubahiro bafite amatsiko washoboraga kubigura babireba muri gare cyangwa bakodesha icyumba." Igihano rusange nkimyidagaduro cyakomeje kugeza mu kinyejana cya 19 icyo gihe "ibintu biteye ubwoba byo kumanikwa kumugaragaro byakuruye urwango abanditsi nabafilozofe". Dickens na Thackeray bombi banditse ibijyanye no kumanikwa muri gereza ya Newgate mu 1840, kandi "bigisha abantu benshi ko kwicwa ari imyidagaduro iteye isoni."

Abana[edit | edit source]

Pieter Bruegel Imikino Yabana (1560) Imyidagaduro y'abana ishingiye ku gukina kandi ifite akamaro mu mikurire yabo. Imyidagaduro nayo itangwa kubana cyangwa ikabigishwa nabakuze kandi ibikorwa byinshi bibashimisha nkibipupe, clown, pantomimes na karato nabyo bikundwa nabakuze.


Abana bamye bakina imikino. Biremewe ko kimwe no kwinezeza, gukina imikino bifasha iterambere ryabana. Imwe mu nkuru zizwi cyane zerekana amashusho y'imikino y'abana ni igishushanyo cya Pieter Bruegel Umusaza cyitwa Imikino y'abana, cyashushanijwe mu 1560. Irerekana abana bakina imikino itandukanye byitwa ko byari bisanzwe muri kiriya gihe. Imikino myinshi muriyi mikino, nka marble, kwihisha-gushakisha, kuvuza amasabune menshi hamwe no gutwara ingurube bikomeje gukinwa.


Urugero rwa sisitemu yo gusuzuma igaragaza imyaka ikwiye (Isiraheli) Uburyo bwinshi bwo kwidagadura burashobora cyangwa bwahinduwe kugirango buhuze ibyo abana bakeneye. Mu kinyejana cya 20, duhereye ku bikorwa byakunze kunengwa ariko nyamara ari ngombwa bya G. Stanley Hall, "wateje imbere isano iri hagati yo kwiga iterambere na psychologiya" nshya ", cyane cyane n'ibikorwa bya Jean Piaget, we." yabonye iterambere ryubwenge risa niterambere ryibinyabuzima ", byumvikanye ko iterambere ryimitekerereze yabana riba mubyiciro kandi ko ubushobozi bwabo butandukanye nabakuze. Niyo mpamvu, inkuru n'ibikorwa, haba mubitabo, firime, cyangwa imikino yo kuri videwo byateguwe byumwihariko kubantu bumva abana. Ibihugu byashubije ibibazo byihariye by’abana ndetse n’izamuka ry’imyidagaduro hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga nka sisitemu yo gusuzuma ibipimo bya tereviziyo, kugira ngo bayobore rubanda n’imyidagaduro.


Mu kinyejana cya 21, kimwe nibicuruzwa bikuze, imyidagaduro myinshi iraboneka kubana kuri enterineti kugirango bakoreshwe wenyine. Ibi bigize impinduka zikomeye kuva kera. Umwanya umara abana bamara mu nzu mu myidagaduro ishingiye kuri ecran no "gusenyuka gutangaje kwabana kwabana na kamere" byamaganye ingaruka mbi zabyo mubitekerezo, kumenya abantu bakuru no kumererwa neza mumitekerereze.

Ifishi[edit | edit source] Ibirori[edit | edit source] Ibirori byabaye ahantu ho kwidagadura, kwidagadura cyangwa kwinezeza kuva kera, bikomeza kugeza mu kinyejana cya 21, igihe bigikoreshwa mu ntego zabo za mbere - gushimisha abashyitsi, cyane cyane ibyingenzi kwerekana ubwakiranyi ; nkumwanya wo kwerekana imyidagaduro ishigikira nkumuziki cyangwa imbyino, cyangwa byombi Bagize uruhare rukomeye mu myidagaduro y'urukiko kandi bafasha abidagadura guteza imbere ubumenyi bwabo Nibindi bintu byingenzi bigize ibirori nko kwimikwa , ubukwe ,iminsi y'amavuko ibyagezweho mubenegihugu cyangwa ibya politiki kwishora mubikorwa bya gisirikare cyangwa intsinzi kimwe n'inshingano z'idini . Muri iki gihe cya none, ibirori biraboneka mubucuruzi, urugero, muri resitora kandi bigahuzwa nibikorwa mubyumba byo gusangiriramo. Guteka nabatetsi babigize umwuga nabyo byahindutse uburyo bwo kwidagadura mu rwego rwamarushanwa yisi yose nka Bocuse d'Or.

Banquets across 10 centuries and cultures

1 Ibirori byabereye muri Egiputa ya kera (bivuye ku rukuta rwa Thebes )


2 Byzantine bahanzi birori ikwereka na ibikoresho bitandukanye by'umuzika (1204-1453)


3 Jean Fouquet, Ibirori bya Charles V w'Ubufaransa (1455–1460)

4 Ibirori birimo ingagi zokeje zahawe Babur na Mirzas mu 1507 (miniature Template:Circa )


5 Bartholomeus van der Helst, Amahoro ya Münster Amsterdam (1648)


6 Victory birori by w'abami Qian Long gusuhuza bapolisi bitabiriye kurwanya Tayiwani . (mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 18)

7 bakodeshaga kuza mu bukwe abaturage 'ibirori (Nyakwigendera 18 kinyejana)


8 Inzu y'ibirori mu ngoro y'Umwami Sahle Selassie ishushanya ku ifoto, Etiyopiya (1852)


9 Ibirori byo kwimika George IV muri salle ya Westminster (1821)

Ibirori 10 by'Abashinwa muri salle y'ibirori byatanzwe nk'umunsi mukuru w'amavuko (2012) Umuziki[edit | edit source]

Inzu yuzuye kuri Metropolitan Opera mu mujyi wa New York, itegereje ko imyidagaduro ya muzika itangira (1937) Umuziki nikintu gishyigikira ubwoko bwimyidagaduro nubwoko bwinshi bwimikorere. Kurugero, ikoreshwa mugutezimbere inkuru, ni ntangarugero mubyino na opera, kandi mubisanzwe byinjizwa muma firime cyangwa amakinamico


Umuziki kandi nubwoko bwimyidagaduro kwisi yose kandi izwi cyane yonyine, igizwe nibikorwa byose nkigihe ibitaramo byatanzwe . Ukurikije injyana, igikoresho, imikorere nuburyo, umuziki ugabanijwe mubwoko bwinshi, nka classique, jazz, rubanda, rock, umuziki wa pop cyangwa gakondo . Kuva mu kinyejana cya 20, umuziki wakozwe, umaze kuboneka gusa kubashobora kwishyura abahanzi, washoboye kuboneka kubantu ku giti cyabo n’imyidagaduro, iyitangaza cyangwa ikayandika mbere yo kugurisha.


Ubwoko butandukanye bwibitaramo bya muzika, byaba byongerewe ubuhanga , byose bitanga imyidagaduro hatitawe ku kuba ibitaramo bituruka ku baririmbyi , chorale cyangwa amatsinda ya orchestre , cyangwa itsinda . Igitaramo cya Live gikoresha ibibuga byihariye, bishobora kuba bito cyangwa binini; mu nzu cyangwa hanze; ubuntu cyangwa bihenze. Abateze amatwi bafite ibyifuzo bitandukanye kubahanzi kimwe n'uruhare rwabo mubikorwa. Kurugero, bamwe mubateze amatwi biteze gutega amatwi bucece kandi bashimishwa nubwiza bwumuziki, uko uhindura cyangwa ibisobanuro . Abandi bumva ibitaramo bya Live bashimishwa nibidukikije n'amahirwe yo kwitabira . Ndetse nabandi benshi bumva bashimishwa numuziki wanditswe mbere bakumva wenyine .


Ibikoresho bikoreshwa mu myidagaduro yumuziki ni ijwi ryabantu gusa cyangwa ibikoresho gusa cyangwa bimwe bihuza byombi . Niba ibitaramo bitangwa nabaririmbyi cyangwa abacuranga ibikoresho, abahanzi bashobora kuba baririmbyi cyangwa igice cyitsinda rito cyangwa rinini, nabo bagashimisha abumva bashobora kuba umuntu ku giti cye , unyuze kuri , muto cyangwa binini . Kuririmba muri rusange biherekejwe nibikoresho nubwo uburyo bumwe, cyane cyane acappella hamwe no kuririmba birenze, ntibiherekejwe. Ibitaramo bigezweho akenshi bikoresha ingaruka zidasanzwe hamwe nandi makinamico aherekeza ibitaramo byo kuririmba no kubyina.

Musical entertainment – 10 types of audience engagement

1 Traditional instruments used to accompany dance (Tibet, 1949)


2 Children's choir providing musical entertainment (Soviet Union, 1979)


3 Ensemble entertains travellers in the Paris Métro (2002)

4 Drummer playing Boduberu (Maldives, 2010)


5 Choir and orchestra in ecclesiastical setting (Italy, 2008)


6 Contemporary audience in ancient outdoor stadium (Greece, 2009)

7 A concert with a 3D enhanced stage (Singapore, 2010)


8 Concert hall audience (Netherlands, 2010)


9 Crowd surfing at a concert (France, 2011)

10 Woman listening privately to music through headphones (Russia, 2010) Imikino[edit | edit source] Imikino ikinirwa imyidagaduro - rimwe na rimwe gusa kwidagadura, rimwe na rimwe kubigeraho cyangwa ibihembo nabyo. Barashobora gukinishwa bonyine, mumakipe, cyangwa kumurongo; nabakunzi cyangwa nababigize umwuga. Abakinnyi barashobora kugira abumva abadakina, nkigihe abantu bashimishwa no kureba shampiyona ya chess. Kurundi ruhande, abakinyi mumikino barashobora kuba ababateze amatwi mugihe bafashe umwanya wo gukina. Akenshi, igice cyimyidagaduro kubana bakina umukino ni uguhitamo uwaba mubateze amatwi ninde mukinnyi.


Ibikoresho bitandukanye nu mukino. Imikino y'ubuyobozi, nka Go, Monopoly cyangwa backgammon ikenera ikibaho cyera. Imwe mumikino izwi cyane ni Senet, umukino ukinirwa muri Egiputa ya kera, ukundwa na farawo Tutankhamun. Imikino yamakarita, nk'ifirimbi, poker na Bridge imaze igihe kinini ikinwa nk'imyidagaduro nimugoroba n'inshuti. Kuri iyi mikino, icyo ukeneye ni ikarita yumukino. Indi mikino, nka bingo, yakinwe nabantu benshi batazi, yagenewe kureba uruhare rwabatari urusimbi. Byinshi byaremewe abana, kandi birashobora gukinirwa hanze, harimo hopscotch, guhisha no gushaka, cyangwa bluff man. Urutonde rwimikino yumupira wamaguru ni nini. Harimo, kurugero, croquet, gukubita ibyatsi na ballball kimwe na siporo myinshi ukoresheje imipira itandukanye. Guhitamo guhuza ubumenyi nubuzima butandukanye. Imyitozo ngororangingo irashobora kuzamura ubumenyi nubushobozi bwa moteri. Imikino yimibare nka Sudoku nimikino ya puzzle nka cube ya Rubik irashobora kunoza ubwenge.


Imikino ya videwo ikinwa hifashishijwe umugenzuzi kugirango itange ibisubizo kuri ecran. Barashobora kandi gukinishwa kumurongo hamwe nabitabiriye bifatanya kure. Mu gice cya kabiri cy'ikinyejana cya 20 no mu kinyejana cya 21 umubare w'imikino nk'iyi wariyongereye cyane, utanga imyidagaduro itandukanye ku bakinnyi ku isi. Imikino ya videwo irazwi kwisi yose.

Games

Sofonisba Anguissola Umukino wa Chess (1555) Umukino wubwenge


Théophile Emmanuel Duverger (mbere ya 1901) Hopscotch Umukino wumubiri


Umukino wa tereviziyo ya StarCraft (2006) Koreya yepfo Umukino wa elegitoroniki Ubuvanganzo[edit | edit source] Template:Quote boxTemplate:Quote box Gusoma byabaye isoko yimyidagaduro igihe kinini cyane, cyane cyane mugihe ubundi buryo, nkimyidagaduro yimikorere, bwari (cyangwa burahari) butaboneka cyangwa buhenze cyane. Ndetse iyo intego yibanze yinyandiko ari ukumenyesha cyangwa kwigisha, gusoma bizwi cyane kubushobozi bwayo bwo kurangaza amaganya ya buri munsi. Byombi inkuru namakuru byanyujijwe mumigenzo yimvugo n'imigenzo mvugo ibaho muburyo bwimivugo yimikorere urugero. Ariko, baranze rwose. "Kumenya gusoma no kwandika bimaze gukomera, nta gusubira mu burenganzira bwo mu kanwa." Kuza kw'icapiro, kugabanuka kw'ibiciro by'ibitabo no kongera gusoma no kwandika byose byagize uruhare mu gutuma abantu benshi basoma. Byongeye kandi, uko imyandikire yari isanzwe kandi inyandiko zikarushaho gusobanuka, "gusoma byaretse kuba inzira ibabaza yo gusobanura kandi byabaye igikorwa cyo kwinezeza". Mu kinyejana cya 16 mu Burayi, abantu bashimishijwe no gusoma mu myidagaduro.


Mubitabo byubwoko bwinshi harimo bimwe byateguwe, byose cyangwa igice, kubwimyidagaduro. Limericks, kurugero, koresha umurongo muburyo butajegajega, buteganijwe, injyana nigitekerezo cyo gukora urwenya no gushimisha abumva cyangwa abasoma. Ibitabo byungurana ibitekerezo nka "hitamo ibyakubayeho" birashobora gutuma imyidagaduro yubuvanganzo irushaho kugira uruhare.


Umusaza usoma ikinyamakuru i Basantapur. Ibitekerezo na karato ni ubwoko bwubuvanganzo bukoresha ibishushanyo cyangwa ibishushanyo, mubisanzwe bifatanije ninyandiko, kugirango bitange inkuru ishimishije. Ibitekerezo byinshi byiki gihe bifite ibintu bya fantasy kandi bikozwe namasosiyete agize imyidagaduro. Abandi bafite abanditsi badasanzwe batanga ibitekerezo byihariye, filozofiya yisi nibibazo abantu bahura nabyo. Byendagusetsa kubyintwari nka Superman nubwoko bwambere. Ingero z'ubwoko bwa kabiri zirimo umurimo ku giti cye mu myaka 50 ya Charles M. Schulz wakoze comic izwi cyane yitwa Peanuts ivuga ku mibanire hagati y'abakinnyi b'abana; na Michael Leunig wishimisha mugukora amakarito ashimishije nayo arimo kunegura imibereho. Imyiyerekano ya Manga yubuyapani itandukanye nuburyo bwiburengerazuba kuko ikubiyemo ubwoko butandukanye bwinsanganyamatsiko hamwe ninsanganyamatsiko kubasomyi b'imyaka yose. Caricature ikoresha ubwoko bwimyidagaduro ishushanyije kubintu bitandukanye nko gushyira inseko mumaso yabareba, kugeza kumenyekanisha imibereho, kwerekana ibimenyetso biranga umuntu kuba karikatire.

Urwenya[edit | edit source]

Umunyarwenya Charlie Chaplin yigana Hitler kubera ingaruka zisekeje muri filime isebanya The Great Dictator (1940) Urwenya ni ubwoko bwimyidagaduro nibigize, butanga ibitwenge no kwinezeza, byaba urwenya niyo ntego yonyine cyangwa ikoreshwa muburyo bwo gutandukanya ikindi gice gikomeye. Numuterankunga ufite agaciro muburyo bwinshi bwo kwidagadura, harimo mubuvanganzo, ikinamico, opera, film n'imikino. Mu nkiko z'umwami, nko mu rukiko rwa Byzantine, kandi birashoboka ko no mu ngo zayo zikize, "mimes niyo yibandaga cyane ku gusetsa byateguwe, byari byitezwe cyangwa bitegekwa gusetsa abantu bose mu rukiko, kabone nubwo usibye umwami w'abami n'abagize ubwami. umuryango. Uru ruhare rwubatswe cyane rwabashinyaguzi rwari rugizwe no gusetsa mu magambo, harimo gutereta, urwenya, gutukana, gushinyagurira, no gutukana no gusetsa mu magambo nko gukubita inshyi no gukina ifarashi imbere yabateze amatwi. " Mu gihe cyagati, ubwoko bwose busetsa - buffoon, jester, hunchback, dwarf, urwenya, bose "babonaga ko ari ubwoko bumwe busekeje: umuswa", nubwo bidashoboka ko asetsa, yagereranyaga "amakosa yumuntu".


Shakespeare yanditse inkuru zisetsa cumi na zirindwi zirimo tekinike nyinshi zikoreshwa n'abahanzi n'abanditsi b'urwenya - nk'urwenya, ibihano, parody, ubwenge, urwenya rwo kwitegereza, cyangwa ingaruka zitunguranye z'icyuma . Urwenya rumwe gusa na satire nabyo bikoreshwa mugusetsa mubuvanganzo. Muri farce, urwenya nintego yibanze.

Ubusobanuro bwijambo "comedi" nibitekerezo byabateze amatwi byahindutse mugihe kandi biratandukanye ukurikije umuco. Urwenya rworoshye rwumubiri nka slapstick rurashimishije kubantu benshi bingeri zose. Ariko, uko imico igenda irushaho kuba indashyikirwa, imiterere yigihugu igaragara muburyo no kwerekanwa kugirango ibishimishije mumuco umwe bishobora kutumvikana mubindi.

Imikorere/Imyiyerekano[edit | edit source] Ibitaramo bya Live mbere yabateze amatwi bigize uburyo bwimyidagaduro, cyane cyane mbere yo kuvumbura amajwi n'amashusho. Imikorere ifata uburyo butandukanye, harimo ikinamico, umuziki n'ikinamico. Mu kinyejana cya 16 na 17, inkiko z’ibwami z’i Burayi zerekanaga masike yari imyidagaduro igoye irimo kubyina, kuririmba no gukina. Opera nuburyo busaba imikorere yuburyo bukomeza gukundwa. Irimo kandi uburyo bwose uko ari butatu, busaba urwego rwohejuru rwubuhanga bwumuziki namakinamico, ubufatanye kandi nka masque, ubuhanga bwo gukora kimwe.


Icyapa cyerekana 1908 yakozwe na opera Aida ya 1871 ya Verdi, ikorwa na Hippodrome Opera Company ya Cleveland, Ohio Abateze amatwi muri rusange berekana ko bashimira imikorere ishimishije bakoma amashyi. Ariko, abahanzi bose bafite ibyago byo kunanirwa gukurura ababateze amatwi bityo, bakananirwa kwinezeza. Kutanyurwa kwabumva akenshi ni inyangamugayo kandi zitaziguye.

Kuvuga inkuru[edit | edit source]

Ubuhungu bwa Raleigh na Sir John Everett Millais, amavuta kuri canvas, 1870.



Umusare abwira umusore Sir Walter Raleigh na murumuna we inkuru y'ibyabereye mu nyanja Kuvuga inkuru nuburyo bwa kera bwimyidagaduro bwagize ingaruka muburyo bwose. Ntabwo "atari imyidagaduro gusa, iranatekereza binyuze mu makimbirane y'abantu no kwivuguruza". Kubwibyo, nubwo inkuru zishobora gutangwa muburyo butaziguye kubantu bateze amatwi, zitangwa kandi nk'imyidagaduro kandi zigakoreshwa nk'igice icyo ari cyo cyose gishingiye ku nkuru, nka firime, ikinamico, ballet, na opera. Inkuru zanditswe zongerewe amashusho, akenshi kurwego rwo hejuru cyane mubuhanzi, kurugero, kumyandikire yandikishijwe intoki no kumuzingo wa kera nku Buyapani. Inkuru zikomeje kuba inzira isanzwe yo gushimisha itsinda riri murugendo. Yerekana uburyo inkuru zikoreshwa mu kurengana no gushimisha abitabiriye ingendo, Chaucer yakoresheje ingendo mu gitabo cye cy’ubuvanganzo cyitwa Canterbury Tales mu kinyejana cya 14, kimwe na Wu Cheng'en mu kinyejana cya 16 mu rugendo rwo mu Burengerazuba . Nubwo ubu ingendo zishobora kurangira vuba cyane, inkuru ziracyabwirwa abagenzi bagenda mumodoka nindege haba kumanwa cyangwa gutangwa muburyo bwikoranabuhanga.

mbaraga zinkuru zo kwinezeza zigaragara muri imwe mu zizwi cyane - Scheherazade - inkuru mu muco gakondo wo kuvuga inkuru mu Buperesi, y’umugore urokora ubuzima bwe avuga inkuru. Isano riri hagati yubwoko butandukanye bwimyidagaduro ryerekanwa nuburyo inkuru nkiyi itera gusubiramo ubundi buryo, nkumuziki, film cyangwa imikino. Kurugero, abahimbyi Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel na Szymanowski buri wese yatewe inkunga ninkuru ya Scheherazade ayihindura umurimo wa orchestre; umuyobozi Pasolini yakoze imiterere ya firime; kandi hari umukino wa videwo udushya ushingiye kumugani. Inkuru zishobora kuvugwa nta jambo, mumuziki, imbyino cyangwa igikinisho urugero, nko mumigenzo ya Javan ya wayang, aho igitaramo kijyana na orchestre gamelan cyangwa ibisa nkibisanzwe Punch na Judy.


Amagambo y'ibirangirire, ibisigo, sagas hamwe n'ibishushanyo biva mumico yose ivuga imigani itangaje kuburyo bahumekeye izindi nkuru zitabarika muburyo bwose bwo kwidagadura. Ingero zirimo Umuhindu Ramayana na Mahabharata; Homer's Odyssey na Iliad; igitabo cya mbere cy'icyarabu Hayy bin Yaqdhan; icyamamare mu Buperesi Shahnameh; aba Sagas bo muri Isilande hamwe n'Imigani yizihizwa ya Genji. Ibyegeranyo by'inkuru, nk'imigani ya Grimms cyangwa ibya Hans Christian Andersen, nabyo byagize uruhare runini. Mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 19, iki cyegeranyo cy'inkuru za rubanda kigira ingaruka zikomeye ku muco wa none uzwi cyane, waje gukoresha insanganyamatsiko, amashusho, ibimenyetso, n'ibikoresho byubaka mu buryo bushya bwo kwidagadura.


Zimwe mu nkuru zikomeye kandi ziramba ni inkuru zifatizo, nanone bita inkomoko cyangwa imigani y'ibyaremwe nk'imigani ya Dreamtime y'abasangwabutaka bo muri Ositaraliya, Epic ya Mesopotamiya ya Gilgamesh, cyangwa inkuru zo muri Hawayi zivuga inkomoko y'isi. Ibi nabyo byatejwe imbere mubitabo, firime, umuziki nimikino muburyo bwongera kuramba no kuzamura agaciro kabo kwidagadura.


Telling stories

Igishushanyo cya William Blake cyabashitsi muri The Canterbury Tales


Scheherazade abwira amateka ye Umwami Shahryar mu ijoro ry'Abarabu


Kuvuga inkuru ukoresheje ibipupe bya Wayang golek muri Java

Tosa Mitsuoki yerekana Umugani we wa Genji Ikinamico[edit | edit source]

Ku wa gatandatu nijoro abitabiriye ikinamico ya Victoria, London (1872) Ibitaramo, ubusanzwe ikinamico cyangwa umuziki, byerekanwa kuri stade kubantu bose kandi bifite amateka asubira mubihe byabagiriki igihe "abahanzi nabacuranzi bakomeye" bakinnye cyane "amarushanwa yubusizi", urugero kuri "Delphi, Delos, Efeso ". Aristote n'umwarimu we Platon bombi banditse ku nyigisho n'intego by'ikinamico. Aristote yabajije ibibazo nka "Ni ubuhe butumwa bukorwa mu buhanzi mu gushiraho imico? Ese umwe mu bagize itsinda riri ku butegetsi akwiye kureba gusa ibitaramo cyangwa kugira uruhare no gukora? Ni ubuhe bwoko bw'imyidagaduro igomba gutangwa ku batari mu ntore? ? " "Ptolémée muri Egiputa, Abaselewusi muri Perugamo" na bo bari bafite umuco gakondo w'ikinamico, nyuma, abakire b'abakire i Roma bategura "ibihangano byiza cyane".

Ibiteganijwe ku mikorere no kwishora hamwe nabyo byahindutse mugihe (1). Kurugero, mu Bwongereza mu kinyejana cya 18, "urwikekwe ku bakinnyi ba filime rwari rwaragabanutse" no mu Burayi muri rusange, kujya mu ikinamico, byahoze ari ibikorwa biteye amakenga mu mibereho, byabaye "imyidagaduro yo mu rwego rwo hagati yubahwa cyane" mu mpera za 19 na kare. Ikinyejana cya 20, iyo imyidagaduro itandukanye ikunzwe. Inzu ya Operetta na salle byabonetse, maze inzu yimikino ikinamico nka Theatre yubuhanzi ya Moscou hamwe n’ikinamico ya Suvorin mu Burusiya. Muri icyo gihe, ibinyamakuru by’ubucuruzi "byatangiye gutwara inkingi n’ibisobanuro" byafashaga guhindura ikinamico "ingingo yemewe y’impaka zishingiye ku bwenge" mu biganiro rusange byerekeye ubuhanzi n’umuco. Abateze amatwi batangiye guterana ngo "bashimire ibyagezweho mu guhanga, gutangazwa no gushimishwa n '" inyenyeri "zikomeye. Vaudeville n'inzu z'umuziki, zizwi cyane muri iki gihe muri Amerika, Ubwongereza, Kanada, Ositaraliya na Nouvelle-Zélande, ubwazo zaje gusimburwa.


Ibikinisho, imiziki, monologues, pantomimes, hamwe nubusizi bwibikorwa biri mumateka maremare cyane yikinamico, ari naho habereye ubwoko bwibitaramo bizwi nka stand-up comedie. Mu kinyejana cya 20, amaradiyo na televiziyo, akenshi byerekanaga imbonankubone, byaguye imigenzo yikinamico yakomeje kubaho hamwe nuburyo bushya.


Ibikinisho, imiziki, monologues, pantomimes, hamwe nubusizi bwibikorwa biri mumateka maremare cyane yikinamico, ari naho habereye ubwoko bwibitaramo bizwi nka stand-up comedie. Mu kinyejana cya 20, amaradiyo na televiziyo, akenshi byerekanaga imbonankubone, byaguye imigenzo yikinamico yakomeje kubaho hamwe nuburyo bushya.

Theatrical entertainment – stages, staging and stagecraft

1 Kwerekana urwenya rwerekana abumva (1809)


2 Improvised stage kugira imikorere rusange ku buboneye (1642)


3 Icyiciro cyateguwe kuri teatre yo murugo

4 Icyiciro cyo hanze mbere yo kwerekana


5 Ikinamico y'ibitaramo yiteguye gucuranga wenyine


6 Ikinamico yo hanze yakozwe kuva Edinburgh castle forecourt

7 Traditional stage kuko Japanese Noh ikinamico


8 Icyiciro cya teatre muruziga


9 Teatro Colón, ikinamico nziza cyane, inzu yimikino

10 StagecraftTemplate:Sndgari ya moshi ifunga inyuma Sinema na firime[edit | edit source]

Abareba firime mubisanzwe bicaye mu ntebe nziza zitondekanye kumurongo wa hafi mbere ya ecran ya ecran. Noruveje (2005) Filime nuburyo bukomeye bwimyidagaduro, nubwo film zose zidafite imyidagaduro nkintego yabo yibanze: film documentaire, kurugero, igamije gukora inyandiko cyangwa kumenyesha, nubwo intego zombi akenshi zikorana. Ikigereranyo cyari ubucuruzi ku isi kuva mu ntangiriro: " Abavandimwe ba Lumière ni bo ba mbere bohereje kamera ku isi hose, babategeka gufata amashusho yose ashobora kugirira rubanda akamaro." Mu 1908, Pathé yatangije akanakwirakwiza amakuru kandi mu Ntambara ya Mbere y'Isi Yose, filime zari zikeneye cyane imyidagaduro. "Mu myaka icumi ya mbere ya gahunda ya sinema yo mu kinyejana cya 20 yahurijwe hamwe, ku bushake, ibihimbano ndetse no mu makuru." Abanyamerika babanje "gutekereza uburyo bwo kubyara igitekerezo binyuze mu mashusho akurikirana," ariko "Abafaransa bashoboye guhindura ihame rya siyansi mu buryo bwinjiza amafaranga mu bucuruzi". [90] Filime rero yabaye igice cyimyidagaduro kuva kera. Ubuhanga bugezweho bwakoreshejwe muburyo bwa firime kugirango bishimishe kandi bashimishe abareba. Animation, kurugero, ikubiyemo kwerekana umuvuduko wihuse mubikorwa byubuhanzi, ni bumwe muri ubwo buryo bukurura cyane cyane abakiri bato. Kuza kw'amashusho yakozwe na mudasobwa (CGI) mu kinyejana cya 21 byatumye "bishoboka gukora indorerezi" bihendutse kandi "ku rugero rutigeze urota" na Cecil B. DeMille . Kuva mu myaka ya za 1930 kugeza 1950, firime na radiyo byari "imyidagaduro yonyine" ariko mu myaka icumi ya kabiri yo mu kinyejana cya 21, impinduka z’ikoranabuhanga, ibyemezo by’ubukungu, kwirinda ingaruka ndetse n’isi yose byagabanije ubwiza n’urwego rwa firime zikorwa. Ingaruka zinoze ziboneka hamwe nubuhanga bwa CGI, kurugero, aho kuba abantu, ntabwo byakoreshejwe gusa mugukora amashusho yukuri yabantu, ibibera hamwe nibyabaye (haba mubyukuri kandi bitangaje ) ariko no mubuzima bwibintu bitabaho nka Lego bisanzwe bikoreshwa nkimyidagaduro nka umukino muburyo bwumubiri. Abakoze Filime ya Lego "bifuzaga ko abayitabiriye bemera ko bareba amatafari nyayo ya Lego ku gisate cyarashwe na kamera nyayo, atari ibyo twakoze mu by'ukuri, cyaremye ibidukikije binini n'amatafari ya mudasobwa imbere muri mudasobwa." Ihuriro rya mudasobwa na firime byatumye imyidagaduro itangwa mu buryo bushya kandi ikoranabuhanga ryemereye kandi abafite umutungo bwite kwerekana amashusho mu nzu y’imikino yo mu rugo, bakisubirira ahantu hihariye ubwiza n'uburambe bw'ikinamico rusange. Ibi birasa nuburyo abanyacyubahiro mubihe byashize bashoboraga kwerekana ibitaramo bya muzika byigenga cyangwa gukoresha amakinamico yo murugo mumazu manini kugirango bakine amakinamico mu binyejana byashize.

Filime kandi yongeye gutekereza imyidagaduro ivuye mubundi buryo, guhindura inkuru, ibitabo n'imikino, urugero, mubyishimo bishya. Inkuru ya Filime, documentaire ivuga ku mateka ya firime, itanga ubushakashatsi ku byagezweho ku isi no guhanga udushya mu buryo bwo hagati, ndetse n'impinduka mu myumvire yo gukora film. Irerekana ko mugihe ama firime amwe, cyane cyane ayo mumigenzo ya Hollywood ahuza "realism na melodramatic romantism", agamije nkuburyo bwo guhunga, izindi zisaba gusezerana byimbitse cyangwa igisubizo gitekereje kubateze amatwi. Kurugero, film Xala yatsindiye ibihembo Xala ifata ruswa ya leta nkinsanganyamatsiko. Filime ya Charlie Chaplin The Great Dictator yari intwari kandi igezweho, nayo ku nsanganyamatsiko ya politiki. Inkuru zimaze imyaka ibihumbi, nka Nowa, zongeye gusobanurwa muri firime, zikoresha ibikoresho byubuvanganzo bimenyerewe nka allegoryi na personnasiyo hamwe nubuhanga bushya nka CGI kugirango ushakishe insanganyamatsiko nini nka "ubupfu bwabantu", icyiza n'ikibi, ubutwari no kwiheba, urukundo, kwizera, n'urupfu - insanganyamatsiko zabaye umwanya-nyamukuru wo kwidagadura muburyo bwose.


Kimwe no mu bindi bitangazamakuru, kuba indashyikirwa no kugeraho muri filime bizwi binyuze mu bihembo bitandukanye, harimo n'ibyavuye mu Ishuri Rikuru ry’Abanyamerika ryigisha amashusho y’ubukorikori n’ubumenyi, Ishuri rikuru ry’amafirime na televiziyo mu Bwongereza, iserukiramuco mpuzamahanga rya sinema rya Cannes mu Bufaransa no muri Aziya Ibihembo bya Pasifika.

Imbyino[edit | edit source] File:Peterborough Snow Ball 2008 silent video.ogv Contra dancers at a ball in New Hampshire, United States (silent video) Uburyo bwinshi bwo kubyina butanga imyidagaduro kumyaka yose n'imico. Imbyino irashobora kuba ikomeye mumajwi, nkigihe ikoreshwa mukugaragaza amateka yumuco cyangwa inkuru zingenzi; birashobora gushotorana; cyangwa irashobora gushira muri serivisi yo gusetsa. Kubera ko ihuza uburyo bwinshi bwo kwidagadura - umuziki, ingendo, kuvuga inkuru, ikinamico - itanga urugero rwiza rwuburyo butandukanye ubwo buryo bushobora guhurizwa hamwe kugirango habeho imyidagaduro kubikorwa bitandukanye nababumva.


Imbyino "ni uburyo bwo kwerekana umuco" butarimo ababyinnyi gusa, ahubwo " abakora choreografiya, abateranye, abakunzi hamwe na impresarios ... guturuka ku isi yose no mu bihe bitandukanye cyane. " Haba muri Afurika, Aziya cyangwa Uburayi, imbyino zihora ziganira ku bijyanye na politiki, imibereho, iy'umwuka ndetse n'ubuhanzi. " [99] Nubwo imigenzo yo kubyina ishobora kugarukira ku muco umwe, bose baratera imbere. Kurugero, muri Afrika, hariho "Imbyino za Dahomean, imbyino za Hausa, imbyino za Masai nibindi." [100] Ballet ni urugero rwimbyino zateye imbere cyane zo mu Burengerazuba zimukiye mu makinamico kuva mu rukiko rw’Ubufaransa mu gihe cya Louis XIV, ababyinnyi babaye abahanzi bakina amakinamico. Imbyino zimwe na zimwe, nka quadrille, imbyino ya kare "yagaragaye mu myaka ya Napoleon mu Bufaransa" [102] n'indi mbyino zo mu gihugu zigeze gukundwa mu materaniro mbonezamubano nk'imipira, ariko ubu ni gake byakozwe. Ku rundi ruhande, imbyino nyinshi za rubanda ( nk'imbyino zo muri Scottish Highland n'imbyino zo muri Irilande ), zahindutse mu marushanwa, mu kwiyongera ku babumva, zongereye agaciro imyidagaduro. "Ikinamico yo muri Irilande, rimwe na rimwe igaragaramo intambwe gakondo n'umuziki bya Irlande, yateye imbere mu mbyino ikomeye kandi izwi ku rwego mpuzamahanga."

Kubera ko imbyino akenshi "zifitanye isano numubiri wumugore nubunararibonye bwabagore", ababyinnyi b’abakobwa, babyina kwidagadura, rimwe na rimwe babonaga ko batandukanye n’abagore "biyubashye" kuko "bakoresha imibiri yabo kugira ngo babeho aho kubihisha bishoboka cyane ". Imyitwarire ya societe kubabyinnyi b'abakobwa iterwa n'umuco, amateka yarwo n'imyidagaduro ubwayo. Kurugero, mugihe imico imwe n'imwe ifata imbyino iyo ari yo yose yakozwe nabagore nk "" uburyo bwo kwidagadura buteye isoni ", indi mico yashyizeho ibibuga nka clubs za strip aho imbyino zishingiye ku bushake cyangwa zishingiye ku mibonano mpuzabitsina nka striptease zikorwa mu ruhame n’ababyinnyi b’abagore babigize umwuga ahanini abagabo bumva.


Ubutegetsi butandukanye bwa politiki bwashatse kugenzura cyangwa kubuza kubyina cyangwa ubwoko bwihariye bwo kubyina, rimwe na rimwe kubera kutemera umuziki cyangwa imyenda bifitanye isano nayo. Gukunda igihugu, gutegekesha igitugu n'ivanguramoko byagize uruhare mu guhagarika imbyino cyangwa kubyina. Kurugero, mugihe cyubutegetsi bwabanazi, imbyino zabanyamerika nka swing, zifatwa nk "" Abadage rwose "," zabaye icyaha rusange kandi cyari gikenewe guhagarikwa ". Mu buryo nk'ubwo, i Shanghai, mu Bushinwa, mu myaka ya za 1930, "kubyina no mu tubyiniro twa nijoro byari bigamije kwerekana ikirenga cyugarije umuryango w'Abashinwa" kandi abayobozi bibajije niba "ubundi buryo bwo kwidagadura nk'uburaya" nabwo bugomba guhagarikwa. Kubuza byagize ingaruka zo gukora "kubyina craze" kurushaho. Muri Irilande, Itegeko ry’imbyino rusange ryo mu 1935 "ryabujijwe - ariko ntiryigeze rihagarara - kubyina ku masangano no mu zindi mbyino zizwi cyane nko kubyina inzu n'imbyino." Muri Amerika, imbyino zitandukanye zigeze kubuzwa, haba kubera nka burlesque, batangaga ibitekerezo, cyangwa kubera ko, nka Twist, bari bafitanye isano nabanyamerika. "Ababyinnyi b'Abanyamerika b'Abanyamerika basanzwe babujijwe gukora ibitaramo bya minstrel kugeza nyuma y'intambara y'abenegihugu.


Imbyino zirashobora gukorwa wenyine (1, 4) muri babiri, (2, 3); mu matsinda, (5, 6, 7); cyangwa n'abahanzi benshi (10). Bashobora gutezimbere (4, 8) cyangwa koreografiya cyane (1, 2, 5, 10); bidatinze kwidagadura kugiti cyawe, (nkigihe abana batangiye kubyinira ubwabo); abumva ku giti cyabo, (4); abumva bishyura (2); isi yose (10); cyangwa abumva bashishikajwe nimbyino runaka (3, 5). Bashobora kuba igice cyibirori, nkubukwe cyangwa umwaka mushya (6, 8); cyangwa umuhango wumuco ufite intego yihariye, nkimbyino yabarwanyi nka haka (7). Imbyino zimwe, nk'imbyino gakondo muri 1 na ballet muri 2, zikeneye ubuhanga buhanitse cyane n'amahugurwa; abandi, nkibishobora, bisaba urwego rwo hejuru cyane rwingufu nubuzima bwiza. Gushimisha abumva ni igice gisanzwe cyimbyino ariko umubiri wacyo akenshi utanga umunezero kubabyinnyi ubwabo (9)

Dance – 10 types across 10 cultures

1 Umubyinnyi gakondo (Tayilande)


2 Harlequin na Columbine (Danemarke)


3 Kubyinira mu rubyiniro (Repubulika ya Ceki)

4 Umubyinnyi w'inda (Maroc)


5 Morris kubyina (Ubwongereza)


6 Highland ubukwe (Scotland, 1780)

Ababyinnyi 7 b'abarwanyi (Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée)


8 Fire Dragon kubyina umwaka mushya w'ubushinwa


Ababyinnyi 9 ba Bhangra mu iserukiramuco mpuzamahanga ry’abana

Abana 10 mu mikino rusange (Koreya y'Amajyaruguru) Inyamaswa[edit | edit source] Inyamaswa zakoreshejwe muburyo bwo kwidagadura imyaka ibihumbi. Bahigwaga kwidagadura (bitandukanye no guhiga ibiryo); yerekanwe mugihe bahiga umuhigo; barebye iyo bahanganye; bakareba mugihe bakora imyitozo yatojwe yo kwishimisha kwabantu. Urugero, Abanyaroma bashimishijwe n'amarushanwa arimo inyamaswa zo mu gasozi n'ibikorwa byakozwe n'inyamaswa zatojwe. Barebaga uko "intare n'idubu byabyinaga umuziki w'imiyoboro na cybali; amafarashi yatojwe gupfukama, kunama, kubyina no kwinezeza ... acrobats ihindura intoki hejuru y'intare zo mu gasozi no kuzerera hejuru y'ingwe." Habayeho "guhangana urugomo ninyamaswa zo mu gasozi" kandi "ibitaramo uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana no kumena amaraso".


Inyamaswa zikora imyitozo yatojwe cyangwa "ibikorwa" byo kwidagadura kwabantu zirimo ibihuru muri sirusi ya fla, dolphine muri dolphinariya, ninguge zikora amayeri kubateze amatwi mu izina ryumukinnyi wurwego rwumuhanda. Amatungo yabitswe muri pariki mu bihe bya kera yakundaga kubikwa kugirango akoreshwe mu kibuga nk'imyidagaduro cyangwa agaciro kabo ko kwidagadura nka exotica.


Amarushanwa menshi hagati yinyamaswa ubu afatwa nkimikino - urugero, gusiganwa ku mafarashi bifatwa nka siporo nisoko yingenzi yimyidagaduro. Ingaruka y’ubukungu bivuze ko nayo ifatwa nkinganda zisi, aho amafarashi atwarwa neza kwisi yose kugirango ahatane mumarushanwa. Muri Ositaraliya, isiganwa ry'amafarashi ryiruka ku munsi w'igikombe cya Melbourne ni umunsi w'ikiruhuko kandi abaturage bafata iryo siganwa nk'ibikorwa ngarukamwaka. Kimwe no gusiganwa ku mafarashi, gusiganwa ku ngamiya bisaba abatwara abantu, mu gihe kwiruka kwa gryhound sibyo. Abantu basanga bishimishije kureba inyamaswa ziruka kurushanwa, zaba zaratojwe, nk'amafarashi, ingamiya cyangwa imbwa, cyangwa idatojwe, nk'inyenzi.


Gukoresha inyamaswa mu myidagaduro akenshi ntibivugwaho rumwe, cyane cyane guhiga inyamaswa zo mu gasozi. Amarushanwa amwe hagati yinyamaswa, iyo imyidagaduro ikunzwe na rubanda, yabaye itegeko kubera ubugome burimo. Muri ibyo harimo siporo yamaraso nko kuroba idubu, kurwanya imbwa no kurwanya inkoko. Andi marushanwa arimo inyamanswa akomeje kutavugwaho rumwe kandi afite abayashyigikiye n'abayanga. Kurugero, amakimbirane hagati yabatavuga rumwe n’iraswa ry'inuma babona ko ari "imyitozo y'ubugome kandi iteye isoni mu kwerekana ibimenyetso, n'abayishyigikiye babona ko ari imyidagaduro" yageragejwe mu rukiko. Guhiga imbwebwe, bikubiyemo gukoresha amafarasi kimwe n’imbwa, no kurwanya ibimasa, bifite ibice bikomeye byerekana amakinamico, ni imyidagaduro ibiri ifite amateka maremare kandi akomeye. Byombi birimo inyamaswa kandi zifatwa nkimikino, imyidagaduro cyangwa umuco gakondo. Mu mashyirahamwe yashyizweho kugira ngo aharanira uburenganzira bw’inyamaswa harimo bamwe bafite impungenge zirimo gukoresha inyamaswa mu myidagaduro. Icyakora, "mu bihe byinshi by’amatsinda aharanira inyungu z’inyamanswa n’imiryango ishinjwa guhohotera inyamaswa, impande zombi zifite umuco."

Animals used for entertainment

'Ala'ud-Din na Mahima Dharma bahiga ingwe mu gihe bari bafitanye ubucuti bukomeye, Punjab, Aziya y'Epfo, 1790


Inguge yatojwe iririmbira abana (1900–20)


Imbaga y'abantu ireba Pharlap itwara igikombe cya Melbourne muri Ositaraliya, 1930

Imbaga y'abantu ireba ibimasa muri Mexico, 2010 Circus[edit | edit source]

Abana bashimishijwe numugenzi ugenda ukora igitaramo Sirus, isobanurwa ngo "bumwe mu buryo bwo kwinezeza cyane mu myidagaduro", ni ubwoko bwihariye bwo kwerekana amakinamico, burimo ubuhanga butandukanye bwumubiri nka acrobatics na jugling ndetse rimwe na rimwe bukora inyamaswa. Mubisanzwe bitekerezwa nkurugendo rwurugendo rwakozwe hejuru nini, sirusi yabanje gukorerwa ahantu hahoraho. Philip Astley afatwa nkuwashinze siki ya kijyambere mugice cya kabiri cyikinyejana cya 18 naho Jules Léotard numuhanzi wigifaransa washimiwe guteza imbere ibihangano bya trapeze, bifatwa nkibisobanuro bya sirusi. Astley yahurije hamwe ibitaramo byari bisanzwe bizwi mu imurikagurisha gakondo ry’Abongereza "byibuze kuva mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 17": "gutitira, kubyina imigozi, gukina, amayeri n'ibindi". Byaravuzwe ko "nta sano ihari iri hagati y’umuziki w’Abaroma na sirusi yo muri iki gihe. ... Hagati y’irimbuka rya 'sirus' y’Abaroma n’ishingwa rya Amphitheater ya Astley i Londres nyuma yimyaka 1300, ikintu cyegereye cyane ku mpeta ya sirusi yari uruziga rukomeye rwakozwe n'abarebaga amatsiko bateraniye hafi ya tumbler cyangwa jugler ku cyatsi kibisi. "

Ubumaji[edit | edit source] Uburyo bwo kwidagadura buzwi nkubumaji bwa stage cyangwa guhuza no kumenyekana nkibikorwa, bushingiye kumigenzo ninyandiko zimihango yubumaji na dogma zagiye zigizwe numuco gakondo kuva kera. .


Ubumaji bwa stage bukorerwa abumva mubitangazamakuru bitandukanye hamwe nahantu: kuri stage, kuri tereviziyo, mumuhanda, no gutura mubirori cyangwa ibirori. Bikunze guhuzwa nubundi buryo bwo kwidagadura, nka comedi cyangwa umuziki ndetse no kwerekana akenshi ni igice cyingenzi mubikorwa byubumaji. Ubumaji bukora bushingiye kuburiganya, gukoresha imitekerereze ya psychologiya, kwica amaboko nubundi buryo bwamayeri kugirango uhe abumva igitekerezo cyuko umuhanzi ashobora kugera kubidashoboka. Abateze amatwi batangajwe n'ibikorwa bya stunt no guhunga ibikorwa bya Harry Houdini, nk'urugero, bamufata nk'umupfumu.


Abapfumu ba Fantasy bafite umwanya wingenzi mubuvanganzo mu binyejana byinshi, batanga imyidagaduro kubasomyi babarirwa muri za miriyoni. Abapfumu b'ibyamamare nka Merlin mu migani ya Arthurian banditswe kuva mu kinyejana cya 5 n'icya 6, mu gihe mu kinyejana cya 21, umupfumu ukiri muto Harry Potter yabaye ibintu by'imyidagaduro ku isi igihe urukurikirane rw'ibitabo kuri we rwagurishije kopi zigera kuri miliyoni 450 (nko kuri Kamena 2011), kuyigira urutonde rwibitabo byagurishijwe cyane mumateka.

Imikorere/Imyiyerekano yo mumuhanda[edit | edit source]

Umukinnyi wa Didgeridoo ashimisha abahisi mumuhanda Imyidagaduro yo mumuhanda, imikorere yumuhanda cyangwa "busking" nuburyo bwo gukora bwagiye bukemura ibibazo byabaturage mu binyejana byinshi. Byari "ikintu cy'ingenzi mu buzima bwa Londres", nk'urugero, igihe umujyi mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 19 "wari wuzuye ibintu byinshi kandi bitandukanye". Minstrels cyangwa ibibazo biri mubice gakondo. Ubuhanzi nogukora bisi biracyizihizwa muminsi mikuru ya busking.


Hariho uburyo butatu bwibanze bwimikorere yumuhanda. Ifishi yambere ni "uruziga rwerekana". Ikunda guteranya imbaga, mubisanzwe ifite intangiriro nimpera yihariye, kandi bigakorwa hamwe namakinamico yo kumuhanda, gukinisha ibipupe, abapfumu, abanyarwenya, acrobats, jugler ndetse rimwe na rimwe n'abacuranzi. Ubu bwoko bufite ubushobozi bwo kuba bwinjiza amafaranga menshi kubabikora kuko hashobora kuba hari impano nyinshi zituruka kubantu benshi niba bashimishijwe nigikorwa. Abatwara bisi nziza bagenzura imbaga kugirango abakiriya batabuza kugenda ibirenge. Ifishi ya kabiri, kugenda-bikorwa, nta ntangiriro cyangwa iherezo ryihariye. Mubisanzwe, busker itanga ibidukikije bishimishije, akenshi hamwe nibikoresho bidasanzwe, kandi abumva ntibashobora guhagarara kureba cyangwa gushinga imbaga. Rimwe na rimwe, kugenda-byikora ubwabyo bihinduka uruziga. Ifishi ya gatatu, café busking, ikorwa ahanini muri resitora, muri salo, mu tubari no muri café. Ubu bwoko bwibikorwa rimwe na rimwe bukoresha transport rusange nkahantu.

Parade[edit | edit source] Parade ikorwa murwego rwintego, akenshi zirenze imwe. Niba imyifatire yabo yaba sombre cyangwa ibirori, kuba ibirori rusange bigamije gukurura ibitekerezo nibikorwa byanze bikunze byerekeza mumodoka isanzwe, parade ifite agaciro keza ko kwidagadura kubabumva. Cavalcades na variant kijyambere, ku motorcade, ni ingero ingendo Leta. Abantu bamwe bareba parade cyangwa umutambagiro bashobora kuba barashyizeho umwete udasanzwe wo kwitabira, mugihe abandi babaye bamwe mubateze amatwi bibaye. Ibyo ari byo byose uko bameze cyangwa intego yibanze, parade ikurura kandi igashimisha abantu babareba bahanyuze. Rimwe na rimwe, igitaramo kibera ahantu habera amakinamico (nka Trooping the Color in 8 ) kandi amatike agurishwa kubantu baboneka mugihe abitabiriye isi yose bitabira binyuze mukwamamaza.

Bumwe mu buryo bwa mbere bwa parade ni "intsinzi" - kwerekana bikomeye kandi byerekana ubutunzi bw'amahanga n'iminyago, byatanzwe n'abajenerali b'Abaroma batsinze kugira ngo bishimire intsinzi yabo. Berekanye ubwoko bwatsinzwe namahanga yazamuye icyubahiro cyuwatsinze. "Mu ci ryo mu 46 BGC Julius Sezari yahisemwo kwihimbaza intsinzi enye zabaye mu minsi itandukanye zimara ukwezi." Mu Burayi kuva mu myaka yo hagati kugeza muri Baroque Ubwinjiriro bwa cyami bwizihije uruzinduko rw’umwami mu mujyi hamwe na parade binyuze mu mihanda itatse neza, banyura mu bitaramo bitandukanye. Imurikagurisha ngarukamwaka rya Lord Mayor ryabereye i Londres ni urugero rwa parade yabenegihugu yabayeho kuva mu gihe cyagati.


Iminsi mikuru myinshi y’amadini (cyane cyane iyinjizamo ingendo, nk'icyumweru gitagatifu cyangwa umunsi mukuru wa Holi wo mu Buhinde) ifite imyidagaduro yiyongera ku ntego zabo zikomeye. Rimwe na rimwe, imihango y'idini yarahinduwe cyangwa ihinduka imyidagaduro y'isi, cyangwa nka Festa del Redentore muri Veneziya, bashoboye kwiyongera mu kwamamara mu gihe bafite intego z’isi ndetse n'izera. Icyakora, ingendo, nk'urugendo rutagatifu Gatolika rw'Abaroma rwinzira ya Mutagatifu James, Hija y'Abayisilamu na Kumbh Mela y'Abahindu, ishobora kugaragara ku bantu bo hanze nk'imyigaragambyo ishimishije cyangwa urugendo, ntabwo igamije nk'imyidagaduro: ahubwo ni hafi urugendo rwumwuka. Kubwibyo, umubano hagati yabarebera nuwitabira, bitandukanye nimyidagaduro ikwiye, iratandukanye. Uburyo Kumbh Mela, nk'urugero, "yatandukanijwe n'imico yarwo kandi igasubirwamo kugira ngo iburengerazuba bukoreshwe - bituma habaho abaterankunga bitera ikibazo cyane."


x

Muri rusange parade irashimisha kandi ikanezeza kenshi ushizemo imyambarire idasanzwe, amabara (7, 10). Rimwe na rimwe baribuka (5, 8) cyangwa bakizihiza (1, 4, 6, 8, 9). Rimwe na rimwe baba bafite intego ikomeye, nkigihe iyo contexte ari igisirikare (1, 2, 5), mugihe umugambi ari rimwe na rimwe gutera ubwoba; cyangwa abanyamadini, mugihe abumva bashobora kwitabira cyangwa bafite uruhare (6, 7, 10). Nubwo parade ikoresha ikoranabuhanga rishya kandi ikaba iri kure (9), birashoboka ko yakundwa cyane, ikurura abayireba kandi ikabashimisha

Parades – 10 types, six cultures

1 Intsinzi ya Sezari, Andreani (1588/9)


2 Alfred Jacob Miller Cavalcade nabahinde b'inzoka (1858–60)


3 Parade uhereye kubareba (1816)

File:William McKinley 1901 inauguration.ogv

4 Igitaramo cyo gutangiza Perezida wa Amerika McKinley (1897)


5 ikinyabupfura sinzi ku motorcade mu Canada (1945)


6 Ganesh Visarjan, Mumbai (2007)

Imyambarire 7 muri parade yumunsi wu Buhinde (2008)


8 Ibirori byo kwizihiza i Londres mbere yabicaye (2008)


9 Flypast (2012)

10 Ibirori byo kwizihiza iminsi mikuru muri Berezile (2014) Fireworks[edit | edit source]

Indorerezi kuri Bicentennial fireworks muri Kolombiya Fireworks ni igice cyimyidagaduro myinshi kandi yagumanye kwamamara kuva aho babaye "ikamba ryimyidagaduro yibirori" mu kinyejana cya 17. Byakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu Bushinwa, ibya kera bya kera ndetse n’Uburayi mu bikorwa bya gisirikare, imiriro yakunzwe cyane mu kinyejana cya 18 kandi hishyuwe ibiciro byinshi ku ba pyrotechniste, cyane cyane abataliyani babishoboye, bahamagajwe mu bindi bihugu kugira ngo bategure kwerekana. Umuriro n'amazi byari ibintu by'ingenzi byarebaga urukiko kubera ko ibyerekanwe "byatewe n'umuriro, urusaku rutunguranye, umwotsi n'ubwiza rusange muri rusange amarangamutima yatekerezaga ko akwiriye ingingo yo gushimisha umutegetsi we: ubwoba bwo gutinya no kumva ko afite icyubahiro gitandukanye n'imbaraga ze. . Amavuko, iminsi-izina, ubukwe na anniversaire byatanze umwanya wo kwizihiza. " Bumwe mu buryo buzwi cyane bwakoreshejwe mu rukiko gukoresha imirishyo ni imwe yakoreshejwe mu kwishimira ko Intambara yo kuzungura kwa Otirishiya irangiye kandi mu gihe inkongi y'umuriro ubwayo yateje inkongi y'umuriro, Umuziki uherekejwe na Royal Fireworks wanditswe na Handel wamamaye kuva icyo gihe. Usibye uruhare rwabo mu myidagaduro ijyanye no gutsinda kwa gisirikare, kwerekana mu rukiko no kwizihiza umuntu ku giti cye, fireworks nayo ikoreshwa mu rwego rw’imihango y’idini. Kurugero, mugihe cyumuhinde Dashavatara Kala wa Gomantaka "imana yurusengero irazenguruka mumyigaragambyo hamwe no kuririmba, kubyina no kwerekana imirishyo myinshi".


"Umuriro, urusaku rutunguranye n'umwotsi" bya fireworks biracyafite uruhare runini mu kwizihiza no kwidagadura. Kurugero, fireworks yari bumwe muburyo bwibanze bwo kwerekana bwatoranijwe kugirango twizihize imyaka igihumbi ku isi. Mugihe isaha yakubise mu gicuku na 1999 iba 2000, kwerekana fireworks hamwe n’ibirori byo mu kirere byasuhuzaga umwaka mushya kuko ibihe byahindutse bikageza mu kinyejana gitaha. Fireworks, yateguwe neza kandi yerekana koreografiya, yarekuwe inyuma yinyubako nyinshi zizwi kwisi, harimo ikiraro cya Sydney Harbour, Pyramide ya Giza muri Egiputa, Acropolis muri Atenayi, Square Red i Moscou, Umujyi wa Vatikani i Roma, Irembo rya Brandenburg i Berlin, umunara wa Eiffel i Paris, n'umunara wa Elizabeth i Londres.

Siporo[edit | edit source]

Gusezerana kwabaterankunga kuva imbaga yabakunzi ba siporo yabataliyani

Gusezerana kwabaterankunga nabafana ba Afrika yepfo kugikombe cyisi cya 2010 Amarushanwa ya siporo yamye atanga imyidagaduro kubantu. Gutandukanya abakinnyi nabakurikirana, aba nyuma bazwi nkabareba. Iterambere mu bibuga bya sitade no mu nzu mberabyombi, kimwe no mu gufata amajwi no gutangaza amakuru, byatumye abarebera hanze y’ikibuga bareba siporo, bivamo ko umubare w’abaterana wagiye wiyongera kandi siporo y’abareba igenda ikundwa cyane. Imikino ibiri ikunzwe cyane kwisi yose ni umupira wamaguru hamwe na cricket. Amarushanwa yabo ya nyuma mpuzamahanga, igikombe cyisi cya FIFA nigikombe cyisi cya Cricket, aratangazwa kwisi yose. Kurenga umubare munini cyane ugira uruhare mu gukina iyi siporo, barazwiho kuba isoko nyamukuru yimyidagaduro kuri miliyoni nyinshi zabatari abakinnyi kwisi yose. Imikino igereranywa nibyiciro byinshi, birebire kandi bikunzwe kwisi yose ni Tour de France, ntibisanzwe kuko ibera hanze ya stade idasanzwe, ikorerwa aho mucyaro.


Usibye siporo ifite abantu benshi ku isi ndetse n'amarushanwa, nk'imikino Olempike, agaciro k'imyidagaduro ya siporo gashingiye ku muco ndetse n'igihugu abantu bakiniraho. Kurugero, muri Reta zunzubumwe zamerika, imikino ya baseball na basketball nuburyo bwo kwidagadura buzwi; muri Bhutani, siporo y'igihugu ni umuheto; muri Nouvelle-Zélande, ni ubumwe bwa rugby; muri Irani, ni ugusiganwa ku buntu. Ubuyapani budasanzwe bwa sumo kurwana burimo ibintu byimihango bikomoka mumateka maremare. Rimwe na rimwe, nk'itsinda mpuzamahanga ryiruka Hash House Harrier, abitabiriye amahugurwa bashiraho uruvange rwa siporo n'imyidagaduro ubwabo, ahanini batitaye ku ruhare rw'abareba, aho usanga imibereho ari ngombwa kuruta guhatana.


Ubwihindurize bwibikorwa muri siporo hanyuma imyidagaduro nayo igira ingaruka ku kirere cyaho. Kurugero, siporo igezweho yo guswera ifitanye isano na Hawaii naho iy'umukino wo gusiganwa ku rubura birashoboka ko yahindutse muri Scandinavia. Mugihe iyi siporo n'imyidagaduro baha abarebera hirya no hino ku isi, abantu bo mu bihugu byombi bikomokaho bakomeje kumenyekana kubera ubuhanga bwabo. Rimwe na rimwe, ikirere gitanga amahirwe yo guhuza indi siporo nko mu mukino wa Hockey - imyidagaduro ikomeye muri Kanada

Imurikagurisha, imurikagurisha, guhaha[edit | edit source] Imurikagurisha n’imurikagurisha byabayeho kuva kera na kera, byerekana ubutunzi, udushya nibintu byo gucuruza no gutanga imyidagaduro yihariye kimwe n’ahantu ho kwidagadurira ubwabo. Haba mu isoko ryo hagati cyangwa mu iduka rito, "guhaha buri gihe byatangaga uburyo bwo kwishima bwakuye umuntu kumunsi". Ariko, mw'isi ya none, "gucuruza byahindutse imyidagaduro: ibimenyetso bizunguruka, ibimenyetso bimurika, kuvuza umuziki ... ecran ya videwo, kiosque ya mudasobwa ikora, kwita ku munsi .. cafés".


Mu kinyejana cya 19, "expos" zashishikarizaga ubuhanzi, inganda n'ubucuruzi byari bimaze kuba mpuzamahanga. Ntabwo bari bakunzwe cyane ahubwo banagize ingaruka kubitekerezo mpuzamahanga. Kurugero, imurikagurisha ryabereye i Paris 1878 ryorohereje ubufatanye mpuzamahanga kubyerekeye ibitekerezo, guhanga udushya. Kuva i Londres 1851 kugeza i Paris 1900, "abashyitsi barenga miliyoni 200 bari binjiye mu modoka i Londres, Paris, Vienne, Philadelphia, Chicago ndetse n'ibitaramo byinshi bito ku isi." Kuva Intambara ya Kabiri y'Isi Yose "hasuwe miliyoni zirenga 500 zanditswe binyuze mu kwerekana imurikagurisha ku isi". Mu rwego rwo kwidagadura no kwidagadura, imurikagurisha ryagize ingaruka ku "bintu byose uhereye ku myubakire, ku buryo isi igenda ihinduka, kugeza ku bintu by'ibanze biranga umuntu" kandi muri icyo gihe hashyizweho umubano wa hafi hagati y '"imurikagurisha, izamuka ry’amaduka y’ibiro ndangamurage n’ubuhanzi", isi igezweho yo gukoresha imbaga ninganda zidagadura.

Entertainment in expositions and shops

Kwamamaza muri 1889 Paris Kumurikagurisha Ryose


Abateze amatwi batonze umurongo wa Qatar ku imurikagurisha ry’isi muri Shanghai World Expo 2010


Umupira wumupira wubwoko buteganyirizwa imyidagaduro y'abana mu maduka Umutekano[edit | edit source] Mu kinyejana cya 19, "expos" zashishikarizaga ubuhanzi, inganda n'ubucuruzi byari bimaze kuba mpuzamahanga. Ntabwo bari bakunzwe cyane ahubwo banagize ingaruka kubitekerezo mpuzamahanga. Kurugero, imurikagurisha ryabereye i Paris 1878 ryorohereje ubufatanye mpuzamahanga kubyerekeye ibitekerezo, guhanga udushya. Kuva i Londres 1851 kugeza i Paris 1900, "abashyitsi barenga miliyoni 200 bari binjiye mu modoka i Londres, Paris, Vienne, Philadelphia, Chicago ndetse n'ibitaramo byinshi bito ku isi." Kuva Intambara ya Kabiri y'Isi Yose "hasuwe miliyoni zirenga 500 zanditswe binyuze mu kwerekana imurikagurisha ku isi". Nuburyo bwo kwidagadura no kwidagadura, imurikagurisha ryagize ingaruka ku "bintu byose uhereye ku bwubatsi, ku buryo isi igenda iba, ku bintu by'ibanze biranga umuntu" kandi muri icyo gihe hashyizweho umubano wa hafi hagati y "imurikagurisha, kuzamuka o Imyidagaduro imwe n'imwe, nko mu minsi mikuru minini ( yaba abanyamadini cyangwa ab'isi), ibitaramo, clubs, ibirori n'ibirori, birimo imbaga nyamwinshi. Kuva kera, imbaga y'abantu mu myidagaduro yagiye ihuza ibyago n'akaga, cyane cyane iyo bihujwe no kwidagadura mu buryo bwo kwidagadura busindisha nk'inzoga. Abagereki ba kera bari bafite Dionysian Amayobera, nk'urugero, hamwe n'Abaroma bari bafite Saturnalia.Ingaruka zo gukabya hamwe n'imbaga y'abantu zirashobora kuvutsa amahame mbwirizamuco mbonezamubano, rimwe na rimwe bigatera gukomeretsa cyangwa no gupfa, nk'urugero, mu gitaramo cya Altamont Free Concert, ibirori byo hanze. urutonde rwibintu bikomeye byabereye muri clubs nijoro birimo ibyatewe na stampede; ubucucike bwinshi; iterabwoba, nkibisasu byaturikiye muri Bali 2002 yibasiwe nijoro; cyane cyane umuriro. Iperereza, nk'iryo ryakorewe muri Amerika nyuma y’umuriro w’ijoro rya sitasiyo ya Sitasiyo akenshi ryerekana ko amasomo twize "ku bijyanye n’umutekano w’umuriro muri clubs nijoro" uhereye ku byabaye mbere nk’umuriro wa Cocoanut Grove "ntabwo byanze bikunze bivamo impinduka zirambye". Imbaraga zo gukumira ibyo bibazo zirimo gushyiraho abapolisi badasanzwe, nka Nyagasani wa Misrule wo mu kinyejana cya 5 cyangwa mu bihe bya none, abashinzwe umutekano bagenzura uburyo bwo kwinjira; kandi no gukomeza kunoza ibipimo bifatika nkibyubaka umutekano. Inganda z’ubukerarugendo ubu zifata umutekano n’umutekano aho imyidagaduro ari umurimo w’ingenzi mu micungire.f amaduka y’ishami n’ingoro ndangamurage ", isi igezweho yo gukoresha imbaga n’imyidagaduro.

Inganda[edit | edit source] Nubwo abami, abategetsi n'abantu bakomeye bahoraga bashoboye kwishyura imyidagaduro ibateganyirijwe kandi akenshi bishyuye imyidagaduro rusange, abantu muri rusange bakoze imyidagaduro yabo cyangwa igihe bishoboka, bitabira igitaramo cya Live. Iterambere rya tekinoloji mu kinyejana cya 20 ryasobanuraga ko imyidagaduro ishobora gukorwa itisunze abayireba, igapakira kandi igurishwa ku bucuruzi n’inganda zidagadura. Rimwe na rimwe byitwa ubucuruzi bwerekana, inganda zishingiye kubikorwa byubucuruzi kugirango bitange umusaruro, isoko, gutangaza cyangwa gukwirakwiza ubundi buryo bwa gakondo, harimo nibikorwa byubwoko bwose. Inganda zabaye indashyikirwa kuburyo ubukungu bwarwo bwabaye igice cyihariye cyo kwiga amasomo.


Inganda za firime nigice cyimyidagaduro. Ibigize muri byo harimo inganda za firime za Hollywood na Bollywood, ndetse na sinema yo mu Bwongereza ndetse na sinema zose z’Uburayi, harimo Ubufaransa, Ubudage, Espagne, Ubutaliyani n’abandi. Inganda zishingiye ku mibonano mpuzabitsina ni ikindi kintu kigize inganda zidagadura, zikoresha uburyo bumwe n’itangazamakuru (urugero, filime, ibitabo, imbyino n’ibindi bitaramo) mu iterambere, kwamamaza no kugurisha ibicuruzwa by’imibonano mpuzabitsina ku bucuruzi.


Pariki kwidagadurira bafise kwishyura abashyitsi na yicayeho, nko coasters igihini, ridable ntoya moshi, baragendera amazi, kandi umwijima yicayeho, ndetse n'ibindi n'amareshyo isano. Parike zubatswe ahantu hanini hagabanijwemo insanganyamatsiko yitwa "ubutaka". Rimwe ryose ho kwidagadurira ishingiye ku nsanganyamatsiko imwe, nko bitandukanye SeaWorld pariki ko kwibanda ku nsanganyamatsiko ubuzima nyanja.

Imwe mu ngaruka ziterambere ryinganda zimyidagaduro ni uguhanga ubwoko bushya bwakazi. Mugihe imirimo nkumwanditsi, umucuranzi nuwayihimbye ibaho nkuko bisanzwe, abantu bakora uyu murimo birashoboka ko bazakoreshwa nisosiyete aho kuba patron nkuko byahoze. Imirimo mishya yagaragaye, nka gaffer cyangwa umugenzuzi udasanzwe ushinzwe ibikorwa bya firime, hamwe nabakozi muri parike yimyidagaduro.


Ibihembo byicyubahiro bitangwa ninganda kubera kuba indashyikirwa muburyo butandukanye bwo kwidagadura. Kurugero, hari ibihembo byumuziki, Imikino (harimo imikino ya videwo), Urwenya, Urwenya, Ikinamico, Televiziyo, Filime, Imbyino na Magic. Ibihembo bya siporo bikozwe kubisubizo n'ubuhanga, aho kuba agaciro k'imyidagaduro.

The entertainment industry

Imyidagaduro yuzuye 35mm ya firime yerekana mumasanduku


Guhitamo umuziki mububiko bwafashwe amajwi (Ubudage, 1988)


Tike yerekana kode ya elegitoronike (Valencia, 2005) Ubwubatsi[edit | edit source] Ubwubatsi bwo kwidagadura[edit | edit source] Inzu zubatswe nintego nkibibuga by'imyidagaduro yakira abayirebye byatanze inyubako nyinshi zizwi kandi zigezweho, mubyamenyekanye cyane muri byo ni inzu yimikino. Ku Bagereki ba kera, "akamaro k'ubwubatsi bw'ikinamico ni ukugaragaza akamaro kabo ku baturage, byagaragaye mu rwibutso rwabo, mu mbaraga zashyizwe mu gishushanyo cyabo, no mu bwitonzi bwashyizwe mu magambo yabo." Nyuma Abanyaroma bateje imbere stade muburyo bwa oval izwi nka sirusi. Mu bihe bya none, zimwe mu nyubako nini zo kwidagadura zazanye imidugudu mu mijyi kimwe n'abayishushanyije. Urugero, Opera Inzu ya Sydney, ni Umurage w’isi kandi O and i Londres ni ikibuga cy’imyidagaduro kirimo ikibuga cyo mu nzu, club yumuziki, sinema n’ahantu ho kumurikwa. Bayreuth Festspielhaus mu Budage ni ikinamico yateguwe kandi yubatswe mu kwerekana ibihangano bimwe bya muzika


Babiri mubyingenzi byubatswe muburyo bwo gushushanya ibibuga byabantu benshi ni umuvuduko wa egress n'umutekano. Umuvuduko aho ikibanza kirimo ubusa ni ngombwa haba mu mutekano no mu mutekano, kubera ko imbaga nyamwinshi ifata igihe kirekire kugira ngo itatanye ahantu hateganijwe nabi, biteza umutekano muke. Ibiza bya Hillsborough ni urugero rwukuntu ibintu bibi byubatswe bishobora kugira uruhare mu rupfu rwabumva. Sightlines na acoustics nazo zingenzi zitekerezwaho mubishushanyo mbonera.


Mu kinyejana cya 21, ibibuga by'imyidagaduro, cyane cyane stadia, "birashoboka ko bizagaragara mu bwoko bw’imyubakire". Ariko, barasaba "uburyo bushya" bwo gushushanya, kuko bakeneye kuba "ibigo by'imyidagaduro bihanitse, ibibuga byuburambe, bishobora kwishimira muburyo butandukanye". Niyo mpamvu, abubatsi bagomba noneho gushushanya "bafite imirimo ibiri itandukanye mu mutwe, nka siporo n’imyidagaduro ikinira abayireba imbonankubone, ndetse na sitidiyo ya siporo n’imyidagaduro ikora ibisabwa byo kureba no gutega amatwi abumva kure".

Architecture for entertainment

Kolosayi, Roma (70-80 AD), ikibanza cy'Abaroma cyo kwidagadura


Grand Foyer muri Palais Garnier, Paris (1875), yagize uruhare mubwubatsi kwisi yose.


Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, mu muhango wo gutangiza (1950) stade nini ku isi kubushobozi

Inzu y'imyidagaduro ya O₂, London (2007)


Ikigo cy'imyidagaduro cya Flamingo, Vantaa (2008), gikubiyemo ibikorwa bitandukanye by'imyidagaduro (urugero: inzu yerekana sinema, spa, gukubita, imikino ya laser, uburambe busanzwe), amaduka 40 atandukanye na hoteri Ubwubatsi nk'imyidagaduro[edit | edit source]

Inzu idafite ishingiro muri parike yimyidagaduro ya Disneyland Abubatsi basunika imbibi zubushushanyo cyangwa ubwubatsi rimwe na rimwe barema inyubako zishimishije kuko zirenze ibyifuzo byabaturage ndetse nabakiriya kandi nibyiza cyane. Inyubako nka Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, yateguwe na Frank Gehry, ni ubu bwoko, ihinduka ubukerarugendo kimwe n’ingoro ndangamurage mpuzamahanga. Izindi nyubako zigaragara zikoreshwa rwose ni ibicucu, byubatswe nkana bigamije gushushanya kandi ntabwo bigamije kuba ingirakamaro.


Kurundi ruhande, rimwe na rimwe ubwubatsi ni imyidagaduro, mugihe wigira nkibikorwa. Inganda zubukerarugendo, nkurugero, zirema cyangwa zivugurura inyubako nk "ibintu bikurura" bitigeze bikoreshwa cyangwa bidashobora gukoreshwa kubwintego zabo zigaragara. Ahubwo bongeye gutegurwa gushimisha abashyitsi kenshi bigana uburambe bwumuco. Inyubako, amateka nu mwanya wera rero bikozwe mubicuruzwa byo kugura. Ubukerarugendo nkana nkana bukurura inyubako zubutane kuva kera kugirango "itandukaniro riri hagati yukuri kwamateka n’ahantu ho kwidagadurira muri iki gihe / parike y’insanganyamatsiko biragoye kubisobanura". Ingero zirimo "kubungabunga Alcázar ya Toledo, hamwe n’amateka mabi y’intambara y’abenegihugu, guhindura imbohe z’abacakara mu bukerarugendo bukorerwa muri Gana, [urugero, Ikibuga cya Cape Coast] no kwerekana umuco w’abasangwabutaka muri Libiya". Inyubako zubatswe zidasanzwe muri parike zo kwidagadura zerekana insanganyamatsiko ya parike kandi mubisanzwe ntabwo ari ukuri cyangwa gukora rwose.

Ingaruka ziterambere mubitangazamakuru bya elegitoroniki[edit | edit source] Kuba isi ihinduka[edit | edit source] Mugice cya kabiri cyikinyejana cya 20, iterambere mubitangazamakuru bya elegitoronike ryatumye bishoboka kohereza ibicuruzwa byimyidagaduro kubantu benshi ku isi. Ikoranabuhanga ryafashaga abantu kubona, kumva no kugira uruhare muburyo bwose bumenyerewe - inkuru, ikinamico, umuziki, imbyino - aho batuye hose. Iterambere ryihuse ryikoranabuhanga ryimyidagaduro ryafashijwe no kunoza ibikoresho bibika amakuru nka kaseti kaseti cyangwa disiki zoroheje, hamwe no kongera miniaturizasi. Gukoresha mudasobwa no guteza imbere barcode nabyo byatumye itike yoroshye, byihuse kandi kwisi yose.

Ubusaza (Absolescence)[edit | edit source]

Kwamamaza ikinyamakuru kuri radiyo ya kirisiti (1922)

Umunara wa tereviziyo muri Almaty, Kazakisitani (wubatswe 1983) Mu myaka ya za 40, radio yari uburyo bwa elegitoronike bwo kwidagadura mu muryango no mu makuru. Mu myaka ya za 1950, televiziyo niyo yari igikoresho gishya kandi ihita ihinduka isi yose, izana imyidagaduro igaragara, ubanza umukara n'umweru, hanyuma ibara, ku isi. Kugeza mu myaka ya za 70, imikino yashoboraga gukinwa hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga, hanyuma ibikoresho bikoreshwa n'intoki bitanga imyidagaduro igendanwa, ndetse no mu myaka icumi ishize yikinyejana cya 20, binyuze mu gukina urusobe. Hamwe nibicuruzwa biva mu myidagaduro, uburyo bwa gakondo bwo kwidagadura bwabonetse ku giti cyanjye. Abantu ntibashoboraga guhitamo ibicuruzwa byimyidagaduro gusa nkigice cyumuziki, firime cyangwa umukino, bashoboraga guhitamo umwanya n ahantu ho kubikoresha. "Ikwirakwizwa ry'abakinnyi b'ibitangazamakuru byikurura no kwibanda kuri mudasobwa nk'urubuga rwo gukoresha firime" hamwe byahinduye cyane uburyo abumva bahura na firime. Imwe mu ngaruka zigaragara ziterwa no kuzamuka kwimyidagaduro ya elegitoronike ni igihe cyashaje cyihuse cyuburyo butandukanye bwo gufata amajwi no kubika. Nkurugero rwumuvuduko wimpinduka ziyobowe nibitangazamakuru bya elegitoronike, mugihe cyibisekuru kimwe, tereviziyo nkigikoresho cyo kwakira ibicuruzwa bisanzwe byimyidagaduro byavuye mubitazwi, bijya mu gitabo, bijya hose kandi amaherezo byasimbuwe. Ikigereranyo kimwe ni uko mu 2011 ingo zirenga 30 ku ijana muri Amerika zaba zifite konsole ya Wii, "hafi ijanisha rimwe ryari rifite televiziyo mu 1953". Bamwe bari biteze ko hagati yimyaka icumi ya kabiri yikinyejana cya 21, imyidagaduro yo kuri interineti yari gusimbuza televiziyo rwose - bitabaye. Icyiswe "impinduramatwara ya digitale" cyabyaye isoko mpuzamahanga igenda itera ibibazo byateje ibibazo leta, ubucuruzi, inganda, nabantu ku giti cyabo, kuko bose bagerageza kubikomeza. Ndetse na stade y'imikino y'ejo hazaza izarushaho guhatana no kureba televiziyo "... mu rwego rwo guhumurizwa, umutekano ndetse no guhora mu makuru n'amajwi n'amashusho n'imyidagaduro bihari." Ibindi bigenda ku ngaruka ziterwa nihinduka rishobora kuba ririmo ibyubatswe rusange nk'ibitaro n'inzu zita ku bageze mu za bukuru, aho televiziyo, ifatwa nka serivisi y'imyidagaduro y'ingenzi ku barwayi ndetse n'abaturage, izakenera gusimburwa no kubona interineti. Muri icyo gihe, ibikenewe bikomeje kwidagadura nka "abashoramari babigize umwuga" byerekana gukomeza imyidagaduro gakondo

Guhuriza hamwe[edit | edit source] Mu myaka icumi ya kabiri yikinyejana cya 21, gufata amajwi ya analogue byasimbuwe no gufata amajwi kandi uburyo bwose bwo kwidagadura bwa elegitoronike bwatangiye guhura. Kurugero, guhuza ni ingorabahizi mubikorwa bisanzwe mubikorwa bya firime: mugihe "gutsinda cyangwa gutsindwa byahoze bigenwa nicyumweru cya mbere cyatangiye. Uyu munsi, ... urukurikirane rwerekana 'Windows', nka DVD, kwishyura-kuri -kureba, na fibre-optique ya videwo-ku-bisabwa ikoreshwa mu kongera inyungu. " Bimwe mubyahinduwe ninganda nugusohora ibicuruzwa bishya byubucuruzi binyuze muri serivise zo kwakira amashusho. Guhuza itangazamakuru bivugwa ko birenze ikoranabuhanga: guhuza ni umuco kimwe. Nibindi "ni ibisubizo byimbaraga nkana zo kurengera inyungu zinzego zubucuruzi, ibigo bya politiki nandi matsinda". Kuba isi ihinduka hamwe na imperialism yumuco ningaruka ebyiri zumuco wo guhuza. Abandi barimo kuvuga inkuru zidasanzwe kandi zungurana ibitekerezo kimwe nuburyo francises imwe itangwa binyuze kandi bigira ingaruka muburyo butandukanye bwo gutanga. "Ubwinshi butandukanye muburyo ibimenyetso bishobora kwakirwa no gupakirwa kubareba, binyuze kuri tereviziyo yo ku isi, icyogajuru cyangwa insinga, kandi birumvikana ko binyuze kuri interineti" bigira ingaruka no ku myidagaduro, nka stade ya siporo, ubu ikaba igomba gutegurwa. kugirango abumva bose baba kure kandi ba kure bashobore gukorana muburyo bugezweho - urugero, abumva bashobora "kureba ibintu byingenzi, guhamagara imibare", "gutumiza amatike nibicuruzwa" kandi muri rusange "gukanda mumitungo ya stade igihe icyo aricyo cyose cyumunsi cyangwa nijoro. ".


Itangizwa rya tereviziyo ryahinduye kuboneka, igiciro, ubwoko nubwiza bwibicuruzwa byimyidagaduro kubaturage kandi guhuza imyidagaduro kumurongo bigira ingaruka nkizo. Kurugero, ibishoboka no gukundwa kubikoresha byakozwe nabakoresha, nkuko bitandukanye nibicuruzwa byubucuruzi, birema "imiyoboro yabateze amatwi [ituma porogaramu itangira". Umuntu ku giti cye hamwe n’amasosiyete bakoresha serivise zo kwakira amashusho kugirango bamenyekanishe ibintu byemewe na rubanda nkimyidagaduro yemewe.


Mugihe ikoranabuhanga ryongera ibicuruzwa byimyidagaduro kandi ritanga umuvuduko mwinshi wo gutanga, impapuro zigizwe nibirimo ubwazo, birahagaze neza. Kuvuga inkuru, umuziki, ikinamico, imbyino n'imikino biramenyekana kimwe no mu binyejana byahise.

Reba kandi[edit | edit source] Amategeko yimyidagaduro Ikigo cyimyidagaduro yumuryango Urutonde rwimyidagaduro Urucacagu rw'imyidagaduro Gukora ubuhanzi