Narendra Modi

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia


  

Narendra Damodardas Modi wavutse ku ya 17 Nzeri 1950 ni umunyepolitike wabaye minisitiri w'intebe wa 14 kuva muri 2014 kandi yari minisitiri w’intebe wa Gajeti kuva 2001 kugeza 2014 kandi ni umudepite mu nteko ishinga amategeko aturuka muri Varanasi . Ni umunyamuryango w’ishyaka rya Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ndetse n’umuryango wa Rashtriya Swayamsevak (RSS), umuryango w’abakorerabushake b’abaparakomando b’abahindu. Ni minisitiri w’intebe umaze igihe kinini aturutse hanze ya Kongere y’Ubuhinde .

Modi yavukiye kandi akurira i Vadnagar mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba bwa Gajereti, ari naho yarangirije amashuri yisumbuye. Yamenyekanye na RSS afite imyaka umunani. Yagaragaye mu gukora nk'umwana mu iduka ry'icyayi cya se muri gari ya moshi ya Vadnagar, ariko bikaba bitaremezwa neza. Ku myaka 18, Modi yashakanye na Jashodaben Chimanlal Modi, uwo yatanukanye bidatinze. Yabanje kumwemera kumugaragaro ko ari umugore we nyuma yimyaka irenga ine ubwo yabisabwaga n’amategeko y’Ubuhinde, ariko kuva icyo gihe nta mubonano yigeze agirana na we. Modi yemeje ko yari amaze imyaka ibiri akora ingendo mu majyaruguru y’Ubuhinde nyuma yo kuva mu rugo rw’ababyeyi, asura ibigo byinshi by’amadini, ariko hagaragaye amakuru make y’urugendo rwe. Amaze gusubira muri Gajeti mu 1971, yabaye umukozi w'igihe cyose muri RSS. Nyuma y’uko ibintu byihutirwa byatangajwe na minisitiri w’intebe Indira Gandhi mu 1975, Modi yagiye kwihisha. RSS yamushyize mu ishyaka rya BJP mu 1985 kandi akora imyanya myinshi mu nzego z’ishyaka kugeza mu 2001, azamuka ku ntera aba umunyamabanga mukuru.

Modi yagizwe Minisitiri w’intebe wa Gajereti mu 2001 kubera ubuzima bwa Keshubhai Patel butameze neza ndetse n’ishusho mbi ya rubanda nyuma y’umutingito wabereye i Bhuj . Bidatinze, Modi yatorewe kuba mu inteko ishinga amategeko. Ubuyobozi bwe bwafatwaga nk’uruhare mu myivumbagatanyo yo muri Gajereti yo mu 2002 yahitanye abantu 1044, bitatu bya kane muri bo bakaba bari Abayisilamu, cyangwa ubundi bakanengwa ko ari yo yakemuye ikibazo. Itsinda ry’iperereza ryashyizweho n’Urukiko rw’ikirenga rw’Ubuhinde ryasanze nta kimenyetso cyatangije ubushinjacyaha ku giti cye. Mu gihe politiki ye yo kuba minisitiri w’intebe - ishimwe mu kuzamura ubukungu - yashimiwe, ubuyobozi bwe bwanenzwe kuba butarateje imbere cyane ibipimo by’ubuzima, ubukene n’uburezi muri Leta.

Mu 1978, Modi yabonye impamyabumenyi ihanitse y’ubuhanzi mu bumenyi bwa politiki yakuye mu Ishuri Rikuru ryigisha (SOL) muri kaminuza ya Delhi, arangiza icyiciro cya gatatu . Nyuma yimyaka itanu, mu 1983, yabonye impamyabumenyi ihanitse y’ubuhanzi muri siyanse ya politiki yakuye muri kaminuza ya Gajereti, arangiza icyiciro cya mbere nk'umunyeshuri wiga kure . Hano hari impaka zijyanye n'ubushobozi bwe bwo kwiga. Asubiza ikibazo cya RTI, SOL yavuze ko idafite amakuru y’abanyeshuri bahawe impamyabumenyi ya BA mu 1978. [1] Jayantibhai Patel wahoze ari umwarimu w’ubumenyi mu bya politiki muri kaminuza ya Gajereti, yavuze ko amasomo yatanzwe mu cyiciro cya MA atatanzwe na kaminuza igihe Modi yigaga.

Umwuga wa politiki[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Muri Kamena 1975, Minisitiri w’intebe Indira Gandhi yatangaje ko ibintu byihutirwa mu Buhinde byakomeje kugeza mu 1977. Muri kiriya gihe kizwi ku izina rya "The Emergency", benshi mu bamurwanyaga politiki barafunzwe kandi imitwe itavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi irabuzwa. [76] [77] Modi yagizwe umunyamabanga mukuru wa "Gujarat Lok Sangharsh Samiti", komite ya RSS ihuza abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwihutirwa muri Gajeti. Nyuma yaho gato, RSS yarahagaritswe. [78] Modi yahatiwe kujya mu nsi ya Gajereti kandi yakundaga kugenda yiyoberanya kugira ngo adafatwa. Yagize uruhare mu gucapa udutabo turwanya guverinoma, kubohereza i Delhi no gutegura imyigaragambyo. [79] [80] Modi yagize kandi uruhare mu gushyiraho urusobe rw’amazu y’umutekano ku bantu bashakishwa na guverinoma, no gukusanya inkunga y’impunzi za politiki n’abarwanashyaka. [81] Muri kiriya gihe, Modi yanditse igitabo muri Gujarati, Sangharsh Ma Gujarat ( Mu rugamba rwo muri Gajeti ), asobanura ibyabaye mu bihe byihutirwa. Mu bantu yahuye muri iki gihe harimo ihuriro ry’abakozi n’abaharanira inyungu z’abasosiyalisiti George Fernandes, ndetse n’abandi banyapolitiki benshi bo mu gihugu. [84] rugendo rwe mu bihe byihutirwa, Modi yakunze guhatirwa kwimuka, rimwe yambara nk'abihaye Imana, rimwe na rimwe akaba ari Sikh . [85]

Modi yabaye RSS <i id="mwATw">sambhag pracharak</i> (umuyobozi mu karere) mu 1978, akurikirana ibikorwa bya RSS mu bice bya Surat na Vadodara, maze mu 1979 ajya gukorera RSS i Delhi, aho yashyizwe mu bushakashatsi no kwandika verisiyo ya RSS ya amateka yihutirwa. Yagarutse muri Gajereti nyuma yigihe gito, ahabwa na RSS muri BJP mu 1985. Mu 1987, Modi yafashije gutegura ubukangurambaga bw’ishyaka ry’amatora y’amakomine ya Ahmedabad, ayo matsinda akaba yaratsinze neza; Igenamigambi rya Modi ryasobanuwe nkimpanvu yicyo gisubizo naba biografiya. [87] Nyuma yuko LK Advani abaye perezida w’ishyaka mu 1986, RSS yafashe icyemezo cyo gushyira abayoboke bayo mu myanya ikomeye muri BJP; Ibikorwa bya Kagame mu gihe cy’amatora ya Ahmedabad byatumye ahitamo uyu mwanya, maze Modi atorerwa kuba umunyamabanga utegura ishami ry’umutwe wa Gujarat nyuma ya 1987. [88]

Modi hamwe na Atal Bihari Vajpayee muri 2001

Modi yahagurukiye mu ishyaka maze agirwa umwe mu bagize komite y’amatora y’igihugu y’ishyaka rya mu 1990, afasha mu gutegura Ram Rath Yatra yo mu 1990 LK Advani mu 1990 na Murli Manohar Joshi yo mu 1991–92 Ekta Yatra (Urugendo rw’ubumwe). [89] [90] Icyakora, yafashe akanya gato muri politiki mu 1992, ahubwo ashinga ishuri i Ahmedabad; guterana amagambo na Shankersinh Vaghela, umudepite w’ishyaka rya ukomoka muri Gajereti icyo gihe, na we yagize uruhare muri iki cyemezo. [90] Modi yagarutse muri politiki y’amatora mu 1994, igice abishimangira na Advani, kandi nk'umunyamabanga w’ishyaka, ingamba z’amatora za Modi zafatwaga nk’ibanze mu ntsinzi y’abayoboke mu matora y’inteko ishinga amategeko ya 1995. Mu Gushyingo muri uwo mwaka, Modi yagizwe umunyamabanga w’igihugu cya BJP, yimurirwa i New Delhi, ari naho yatangiye imirimo y’ibikorwa by’ishyaka muri Haryana na Himachal Pradesh . Umwaka ukurikira, Shankersinh Vaghela, umuyobozi ukomeye w’ishyaka ukomoka muri Gajereti, yagiye muri Kongere y’Ubuhinde (Kongere, INC) nyuma yo gutakaza umwanya w’inteko ishinga amategeko mu matora y’Abadepite. [2] Modi, muri komite ishinzwe gutoranya amatora y’Inteko yo mu 1998 yabereye muri Gajereti, yashyigikiye abashyigikiye umuyobozi w’ishyaka rya Keshubhai Patel ku bashyigikiye Vaghela guhagarika amacakubiri mu ishyaka. Ingamba ze zashimiwe ko ari urufunguzo rw’abatsinze amatora muri rusange mu matora yo mu 1998, maze Modi agirwa umunyamabanga mukuru (umuryango) muri Gicurasi muri uwo mwaka. [95]

Minisitiri w’intebe[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Gutangira imirimo[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Mu 2001, ubuzima bwa Keshubhai Patel bwari bwifashe nabi kandi ishyaka rya BJP ryatakaje imyanya mike y’inteko ishinga amategeko mu matora y’inzibacyuho . Ikirego cyo gukoresha nabi ubutegetsi, ruswa n’imiyoborere mibi cyatanzwe, kandi igihagararo cya Patel cyari cyangiritse kubera ubuyobozi bwe bwakoresheje umutingito wabereye i Bhuj mu 2001 . Ubuyobozi bwa BJP bwashatse umukandida mushya wa minisitiri w’intebe, maze Modi wagaragaje ko atumvikana ku buyobozi bwa Patel, atorwa nk'umusimbura. N'ubwo umuyobozi w’ishyaka, LK Advani, atifuzaga guha akato Patel kandi akaba yari ahangayikishijwe n’uburambe bwa Modi muri guverinoma, Modi yanze icyifuzo cyo kuba minisitiri w’intebe wungirije wa Patel, abwira Advani na Atal Bihari Vajpayee ko "agiye gushingwa byimazeyo muri Gajeti. cyangwa si na gato ". Ku ya 3 Ukwakira 2001, yasimbuye Patel aba Minisitiri w’intebe wa Gajeti, ashinzwe gutegura ishyaka ry’amatora yo mu Kuboza 2002. Ku ya 7 Ukwakira 2001, yarahiriye kuba Minisitiri w’intebe, yinjira mu nteko ishinga amategeko ya leta ya Gajereti ku ya 24 Gashyantare 2002 atsinda amatora y’inzibacyuho mu gace ka Rajkot - II, atsinda Ashwin Mehta wo muri INC.

2002 Imvururu[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ku ya 27 Gashyantare 2002, gari ya moshi yari irimo abagenzi magana yatwitse hafi ya Godhra, ihitana abantu bagera kuri 60.- 9 [3] Mu gutangaza ku mugaragaro nyuma y’ibyabaye, yatangaje ko ari igitero cy’iterabwoba cyateguwe kandi gitegurwa n’abayisilamu baho. [4] Iminsi yakurikiye, Paruwasi y'Abahindu ya Vishwa yahamagaye itsinda hirya no hino. Imvururu zatangiye mu gihe cy’agatsiko, kandi ihohoterwa rirwanya abayisilamu ryakwirakwiriye muri Gajeti. [4] [5] [6] Icyemezo cya guverinoma cyo kwimura imirambo y’abazize gari ya moshi i Godhra i Ahmedabad cyarushijeho gukaza umurego ihohoterwa. [4] Nyuma leta yavuze ko hishwe abayisilamu 790 n’Abahindu 254. [7] Amakuru yigenga avuga ko abapfuye barenga 2000, [4] [3] umubare munini w’abayisilamu [3] Abantu bagera ku 150.000 bajyanywe mu nkambi z’impunzi. Abagore benshi n’abana bari mu bahohotewe; ihohoterwa ryarimo gufata ku ngufu no gutema abagore.

Ubusanzwe leta ya Gajereti ubwayo ifatwa n’intiti zagize uruhare mu mvururu, (hamwe na bamwe bashinja minisitiri w’intebe Modi ku buryo bweruye [8] [3] gukemura ikibazo. Intiti nyinshi zasobanuye ko ihohoterwa ari pogrom, mu gihe abandi bo bavuze ko ari urugero rw’iterabwoba rya Leta . Mu magambo ahinnye yerekana ibitekerezo by’amasomo kuri iki kibazo, Martha Nussbaum yagize ati: "Kugeza ubu abantu benshi bemeranya ko ihohoterwa ry’i Gajereti ryari uburyo bwo guhanagura amoko, ko mu buryo bwinshi ryateganijwe, kandi ko ryakozwe n’ubufatanye bwa leta. guverinoma n'abayobozi b'amategeko. " [8] Guverinoma ya Modi yashyizeho isaha yo gutahiraho mu mijyi 26 minini, itanga amabwiriza yo kurasa kandi isaba ingabo kugenzura imihanda, ariko ntizashoboye gukumira ihohoterwa ryiyongera. Perezida w’ishami rya leta ry’ishyaka rya BJP yagaragaje ko ashyigikiye uyu mutwe, nubwo icyo gihe ibikorwa bitemewe. [9] Nyuma abayobozi ba leta babujije abahohotewe kuva mu nkambi z’impunzi, kandi akenshi inkambi ntizashoboye guhaza ibyo abahatuye bakeneye. Abayisilamu bazize iyo mvururu bakomeje kuvangura igihe guverinoma y’igihugu yatangazaga ko indishyi z’abahohotewe n’abayisilamu zizaba kimwe cya kabiri cy’abahawe Abahindu, nubwo iki cyemezo cyaje guhinduka nyuma y’iki kibazo kimaze gushyikirizwa urukiko. Mu gihe cy'imvururu, abapolisi akenshi ntibivanze mu bihe bashoboye. [8]

Modi ahura na Minisitiri w'intebe, Manmohan Singh muri 2004
Kwagura Urugomero rwa Sardar Sarovar muri 2006

Nka Minisitiri w'intebe, Modi yashyigikiye abikorera ku giti cyabo ndetse na guverinoma ye, ibyo bikaba binyuranyije na filozofiya ya RSS, ubusanzwe bivugwa ko ari ukwegurira abikorera ku giti cyabo ndetse no kurwanya isi. Politiki ye muri manda ye ya kabiri yashimiwe kugabanya ruswa muri leta. Yashizeho parike y'imari n'ikoranabuhanga muri Gajereti kandi mu nama ya Vibrant Gujarat yo mu 2007, hasinywe amasezerano y'ishoramari mu mutungo utimukanwa.

Modi speaking at flower-decked podium
Modi ageza ijambo ku barangije muri kaminuza nkuru y'amategeko ya Gajeti muri 2012
Narendra Modi yeguye ku mirimo ye yo kuba umuyobozi wa Maninagar Perezida w'Inteko ishinga amategeko ya Vidhan.
Modi yahuye na nyina nyuma yo gutsinda amatora yo muri 2014.
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SOL
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Jose Caravan
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Ghosh, Partha S. (Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi; formerly, ICSSR National Fellow, and Professor of South Asian Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University): OP-ED: South Asia's leaders have failed their region," opinion and historical analysis, 15 November 2021, Dhaka Tribune, retrieved 15 November 2021
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Communal Riots
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Curfew imposed in 26 cities
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BBC1
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named The Clash Within
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Shani