Mansa Musa

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Musa I ( c. 1280 - c. 1337 ), cyangwa Mansa Musa, yari Mansa wa cumi (bisobanurwa ngo "sultan", "umutsinzi" [1] cyangwa "umwami w' abami" ) w'Ubwami bwa Mali, igihugu cya kisilamu cyo muri Afrika yuburengerazuba. bivugwa ko ariwe muntu wari ukize kurusha abandimuri iyo myaka.

Igihe Musa yima ingoma,Igice kinini cya Mali cyari kigizwe n'ubutaka bw'icyahoze ari ubwami bwa Gana, Mali yari yarigaruriye. Ingoma ya Mali yari igizwe n'ubutaka ubu bugize igice cya Mauritania na leta ya Mali yubu. Ku ngoma ye, Musa yajyize amazina atandukanye y' icyubahiroi, nka "Emir wa Melle", "Nyir'ibirombe bya Wangara", na "Uwigaruriye Ghanata".

Musa yigaruriye imigi 24, hamwe n'uturere tuyikikije. Ku ngoma ya Musa, Mali ishobora kuba ari yo yari ifite zahabu nyinshi kwisi, kandi Musa yafatwaga nk'umwe mu bantu babayeho bakize mu mateka . Ariko, abanyamakuru bubu nka Time magazine bemeje ko nta gipimo cya nyacyo cyo kubara ubutunzi bwa Musa.

Muri rusange Musa azwi nka "Mansa Musa" mu nyandiko n'ibitabobyanditswe nabo muburengerazuba bwisi. Izina rye kandi rigaragara nka "Kankou Musa", "Kankan Musa", na "Kanku Musa". Andi mazina yakoreshejwe kuri Musa arimo "Mali-Koy Kankan Musa", "Gonga Musa", na "the lion of Mali". Yari umurinzi wa siyansi, ubuhanzi, ubuvanganzo n'ubwubatsi kandi ubwami bwateye imbere mu muco ku ngoma ye.

Ibisekuruza no gusimburana ku ngoma[edit | edit source]

Ibisekuru by'abami b'ingoma ya Mali bishingiye ku nyandiko za Ibin Khaldun [15]

Ibizwi ku bami b'ingoma ya Mali byakuwe mu nyandiko z'intiti z'Abarabu, barimo Al-Umari, Abu-sa'id Uthman ad-Dukkali, Ibin Khaldun, na Ibin Battuta .Kubwa Ibin-Khaldun amateka yumvikana yabami ba Mali, sekuru wa Mansa Musa yari Abu-Bakr Keita (bihwanye na Bakari cyangwa Bogari mu cyarabu, ntabwo ari sahabiyy Abu Bakr ), mwishywa wa Sundiata Keita, washinze Ingoma ya Mali nkuko byaherekanwe mumateka nyemvugo. Abu-Bakr ntabwo yimye ingoma, kandi umuhungu we, se wa Musa, Faga Laye, nta kintu kinini yakoze mu mateka ya Mali .

Mansa Musa yaje ku ntebe y'ubwami binyuze mu nzira yo gushyiraho uhagararira umwami yagiye mu rugendo rutagatifu i Maka cyangwa mu kindi gikorwa runaka,nyuma aza kujyirwa uzasimbura umwami. Kubw' amakuru amwe , Musa yagizwe uhagararira Abubakari Keita II, umwami yasimbuye, bivugwa ko yari yatangiye urugendo rwo gushakisha impera z’inyanja ya Atalantika, kandi ntiyigeze agaruka. Intiti y'Abarabu y' umunyamisiri Al-Umari [2] yasubiyemo Mansa Musa mu buryo bukurikira:

Umutegetsi wambanjirije ntabwo yizeraga ko bidashoboka kugera ku nyanja ikikije isi (bisobanura Atlantike), kandi yashakaga kugera ku mpera zayo kandi akomeza gutsimbarara ku gishushanyo mbonera. Yujuje rero amato magana abiri abantu, andi ayuzuza zahabu, amazi n ibiryo bihagije mumyaka myinshi. Yategetse umutware (admiral) kutazagaruka kugeza bageze ku mpera z' inyanja, cyangwa bamaze ibyokurya n'amazi. Barajyiye. Bamaze igihe kirekire barabuze, nyuma, ubwato bumwe gusa nibwo bwagarutse. Ku kibazo twabajije, kapiteni yagize ati: 'Gikomangoma, twagenze igihe kirekire, kugeza igihe twabonye hagati munyanja nk'aho uruzi runini rutemba bikabije. Ubwato bwanjye bwari ubwa nyuma; abandi bari imbere yanjye. Uwabaga akigera aho hantu wese , yararohamye ubutagaruka. Nafashe ubwato nsubira inyuma kugira ngo mpunge uyu muhengeri. ' Ariko Sultan ntiyamwizeye. Yategetse amato ibihumbi bibiri kugira ngo amukorere hamwe n'abantu be, n'ibindi byinshi biriomo amazi n'ibiryo. Hanyuma ansigira ububasha igihe adahari, maze ajyana n'abantu be mu rugendo rw'inyanja, ubutagaruka cyangwa ngo atange ikimenyetso cy'ubuzima.

Umuhungu wa Musa n'umusimbura, Mansa Magha Keita, na we yagizwe umwungirije mu gihe cy'urugendo rwa Musa.

Islamu n' urugendo rutagat i Maka[edit | edit source]

Template:Quote boxMusa yari Umuyisilamu w' ukuri, kandi urugendo rwe i Maka rwamenyekanye cyane muri Afurika y'Amajyaruguru no mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati . Kuri Musa, Islamu yari "ukwinjira mu muco wo mu burasirazuba bwa Mediterane". Yamaraga umwanya munini ateza imbere idini mu bwami bwe.

Musa yakoze urugendo rwe hagati ya 1324 na 1325. Urugendo rwe ngo rwarimo abagabo 60.000, bose bambaye ikoze muri brocade nu budodo bwo muri perese, barimo abacakara 12.000, buri wese yatwaye 1.8 kg  cya zahabu, n'abashumba bambaye imyenda y' ubudodo, bitwaje inkoni za zahabu, amafarashi ari kuri gahunda n Ibikapu mu ntoki. Musa yatanze ibikenewe byose muri uwo mutambagiro, agaburira abantu bose ninyamaswa. Izo nyamaswa zarimo ingamiya 80 buri imwe yatwaraga 23–136 kg bya zahabu. Musa yahaye zahabu abakene yahuye nabo mu nzira. Musa ntabwo yahaye imijyi yanyuzemo mu nzira ijya i Maka gusa, harimo na Cairo na Madina, ahubwo yanagurishije zahabu nkurwibutso. Bivugwa ko buri wa gatanu yubakaga umusigiti .

Urugendo rwa Musa rwanditswe nababyiboneye benshi mu nzira yacagamo, batangajwe n' ubutunzi bwe n’umutambagiro muremure, kandi izi nyandiko zituruka ahantu hatandukanye, harimo ibinyamakuru, inkuru zo mu kanwa, n'amateka. Birazwi ko Musa yasuye sultan wa Mamluk wo muri Egiputa, Al-Nasir Muhammad, muri Nyakanga 1324. Kubera kamere ye yo gutanga, kubera gutagaguza cyane no kujyira ubuntu bwinshi kwa Musa byateje igwa ryagaciro ka zahabu mu jyihe cy' imyaka 10. Mu mijyi ya Cairo, Madina, na Maka, iyinjira rya zahabu ku bwinshi ritunguranye ryatumye ita agaciro cyane. Ibiciro byibicuruzwa nibicuruzwa byarazamutse cyane. Iri kosa Musa yararibonye maze agarutse avuye i Maka, yaka inguzanyo ya zahabu zose yashoboraga gutwara kubazitzngaga i Cairo ku nyungu yohejuru. Iki nicyo gihe cyonyine cyanditswe mumateka umugabo umwe yagenzuye igiciro cya zahabu muri Mediterane . Bamwe mu bahanga mu by'amateka  bizera ko Hija yakoze ahanini yari igamije kumenyekanisha igihugu cye cya Mali aho kuba yari ishingiye kukwemera cyane. Kurema ihungabana ry' ubukungu bene ako kajyeni bishobora kuba byarakozwe kubushake. N'ubundi kandi, Cairo niyo yari kwisonga mu gucuruza zahabuyari (aho abantu bajyaga kugurayo zahabu nyinshi). Kugirango bimurire ayo masoko muri Timbuktu cyangwa Gao, Musa yagombaga kubanza kwica isoko rya zahabu muri Cairo. Musa yatanze isomo rikomeye ubwo yerekanaga ubutunzi bwigihugu cye. Intego ye yari iyo guteza akajagari kandi yaratsinze cyane muri ibi, ku buryo yishyize hamwe na Mali kuri kwikarita ya catalan yo mu 1375.

Ingoma yakurikiyeho[edit | edit source]

Template:Quote boxMu rugendo rurerure rwe rwo kugaruka avuye i Maka mu 1325, Musa yumvise amakuru avuga ko ingabo ze zafashe Gao . Sagmandia, umwe mu bajenerali be, yayoboye icyo gikorwa. Umujyi wa Gao wari mu bwami kuva mbere yingoma ya Sakura kandi wari uwagaciro ku bucuruzi bw' inyeshyamba. Musa yasubiye inyuma asura umujyi aho yacyiriye agafata bugwate, abahungu bombi b'umwami wa Gao, Ali Kolon na Suleiman Nar. Yagarutse i Niani ari kumwe n'abahungu bombi nyuma abigishiriza mu rukiko rwe. Mansa Musa agarutse, yagarukanye intiti nyinshi n’abarabu nabubatsi.

Ubwubatsi muri Mali[edit | edit source]

Musa yatangiye gahunda nini yo kubaka, azamura imisigiti na madrase muri Timbuktu na Gao. Izwi cyane, ikigo cya kera cyo kwiga Sankore Madrasah (cyangwa kaminuza ya Sankore) cyubatswe ku ngoma ye.

I Niani, Musa yubatse Inzu yo kwakiriramo abaturage be, inyubako yahuraga n'umuryango w'imbere ugana ibwami. Yari "Inyubak yagatangaza", yari fite agasongero kuruziga rutasteho imirongo ya cyarabu yamabara meza. Amadirishya yimbaho yamagorofa yo hejuru yashizwemo ifeza; iz'amagorofa yo hasi ashyirwaho zahabu. Kimwe n'umusigiti munini, inyubako igezweho kandi ikomeye muri Timbuktu, Inzu yubatswe n'amabuye.

Muri kiriya gihe, hari urwego rwateye imbere rwimijyi mu bice bikuru bya Mali. Sergio Domian, intiti mu byubujyeni n’ubwubatsi wumu Butaliyani, yanditse kuri icyo gihe: "Nguko uko hashyizweho urufatiro rw’umuco wo mu mijyi. Kugasongero kubuhangange bwayo, Mali yari ifite nibura imigi 400, kandi imbere muri Delta ya Nigeriya yari ituwe cyane. "

Umusigiti wa Djinguereber, washinzwe na Mansa Musa mu 1327

Ubukungu n'uburezi[edit | edit source]

Byanditswe ko Mansa Musa yazengurutse imigi ya Timbuktu na Gao yerekeza i Maka, maze abagira igice cy'ingoma ye ubwo yagarukaga ahagana mu 1325. Yazanye abubatsi baturutse muri Andalusiya, agace ko muri Espanye, na Cairo kugira ngo bubake ingoro ye nini i Timbuktu n'umusigiti ukomeye wa Djinguereber na n'ubu ujyihari. [3]

Timbuktu yahise ihinduka icyanya cy'ubucuruzi, umuco, n'ubuyisilamu; amasoko yazanye abacuruzi baturutse muri Hausaland, mu Misiri, no mu bundi bwami bwa Afurika, hashyizweho kaminuza muri uyu mujyi (ndetse no mu mijyi ya Djenné na Ségou ), kandi Islamu yakwirakwijwe mu masoko na kaminuza, byagize Timbuktu agace gashya kabahabwaga inkuga zo kwiga ubuyisilamu. [4] Amakuru y’umujyi w’ubutunzi bw’ingoma ya Mali yambutse inyanja ya Mediterane yerekeza mu majyepfo y’Uburayi, aho abacuruzi baturutse muri Venise, Granada, na Genoa bidatinze bongera Timbuktu ku ikarita yabo kugira ngo bacuruze ibikoresho mo zahabu. [5]

Kaminuza ya Sankore muri Timbuktu yagaruwe ku ngoma ya Musa hamwe n'abahanga mu by'amategeko, abahanga mu bumenyi bw'ikirere, n'imibare. Iyi kaminuza yabaye ikigo cy’imyigire n’umuco, ikurura intiti z’abayisilamu baturutse muri Afurika no mu burasirazuba bwo hagati i Timbuktu.

Mu 1330, ubwami bwa Mossi bwateye kandi bwigarurira umujyi wa Timbuktu. Gao yari yaraamaze gufatwa n'umujenerali wa Musa, maze Musa ahita agarura Timbuktu, yubaka urukuta rw'amabuye , maze ashyiraho ingabo zihagaze kugira ngo arinde umujyi abawutera. [6]

Mu gihe ingoro ya Musa yazimye, kaminuza n'umusigiti biracyahagaze i Timbuktu.

Ku mpera z' ingoma ya Mansa Musa, kaminuza ya Sankoré yari yarahindutse kaminuza ifite abakozi benshi, ifite ibitabo byinshi muri Afurika kuva kw' Isomero rya Alegizandiriya . Kaminuza ya Sankoré yari ifite ubushobozi bwo kwakira abanyeshuri 25.000 kandi ifite imwe mu masomero manini ku isi ifite inyandiko zandikishijwe intoki zigera ku 1.000.000. [7]

Urupfu[edit | edit source]

Ingoma ya Mali igihe Mansa Musa yapfaga.

Itariki y'urupfu rwa Mansa Musa iracyashidikanwaho cyane mu banyamateka ba none n'intiti z'Abarabu banditse amateka ya Mali. Ugereranije n'ingoma z'abamusimbuye, umuhungu we Mansa Maghan (amategeko yanditse ko yayoboye kuva mu 1337 kugeza mu wa 1341) na mukuru we Mansa Suleyman (wayoboye kuva mu 1341 kugeza mu wa 1360), nibyanditse mu myaka 25 y'ubutegetsi bwa Musa, itariki yabazwe y'urupfu ni 1337. Izindi nyandiko zivuga ko Musa yateguye kuva ku ngoma akayisigira umuhungu we Maghan, ariko apfa nyuma gato yo kuva i Maka mu 1325. Dukurikije inkuru yanditswe na Ibin-Khaldun, Mansa Musa yari muzima igihe umujyi wa Tlemcen muri Alijeriya watsindwaga mu 1337, kuko yohereje umuhagarariye muri Alijeriya gushimira abatsinze.

Aho byasomwwe[edit | edit source]

  1. Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd edn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 455.
  2. Al-Umari 1927, Masalik al Absar fi Mamalik el-Amsar, French translation by Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Paris, Paul Geuthner, 1927, pp. 59, 74–75. See also Qalqashandi, Subh al-A'sha, V, 294.
  3. De Villiers and Hirtle, p. 70.
  4. De Villiers and Hirtle, p. 74.
  5. De Villiers and Hirtle, pp. 87–88.
  6. De Villiers and Hirtle, pp. 80–81.
  7. See: Said Hamdun & Noël King (edds.), Ibn Battuta in Black Africa. London, 1975, pp. 52–53.

Ibitabo[edit | edit source]

  • Bell, Nawal Morcos (1972), "The age of Mansa Musa of Mali: Problems in succession and chronology", Ikinyamakuru mpuzamahanga cy’ubushakashatsi bw’amateka nyafurika, 5 (2): 221-24, doi : 10.2307 / 217515, JSTOR 217515ll, Nawal Morcos (1972), "The age of Mansa Musa of Mali: Problems in succession and chronology", Ikinyamakuru mpuzamahanga cy’ubushakashatsi bw’amateka nyafurika, 5 (2): 221-24, doi : 10.2307 / 217515, JSTOR 217515 .
  • De Villiers, Marq, na Sheila Hirtle. Timbuktu: Umujyi wa Zahabu wa Sahara . Kugenda na Sosiyete: New York. 2007.
  • Goodwin, A. J .H. (1957), "The Medieval Empire of Ghana", Amatangazo ya kera yo muri Afurika y'Epfo, 12 (47): 108–112, doi : 10.2307 / 3886971, JSTOR 3886971 .
  • Hunwick, John O. (1999), Timbuktu n'Ingoma ya Songhay: Tarikh al-Sudani ya Al-Sadi kugeza mu 1613 hamwe n'izindi nyandiko z'iki gihe, Leiden: Brill, ISBN Hunwick, John O. .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia (1963), "Abami bo mu kinyejana cya cumi na gatatu na cumi na kane bo muri Mali", Ikinyamakuru cy’amateka nyafurika, 4 (3): 341–353, doi : 10.1017 / s002185370000428x, JSTOR 180027 .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia (1973), Gana ya kera na Mali, London: Methuen, ISBN Levtzion, Nehemia (1973), .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia; John F. P. Hopkins, eds. (2000), Corpus ya kare Arabic Amakuru Afurika West, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN Levtzion, Nehemia; John F. P. Hopkins, eds. (2000), . Yatangajwe bwa mbere mu 1981.

Ihuza ryo hanze[edit | edit source]

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