Katana

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Katana (刀 cyangwa か た な?) Ni saber (icyuma kigoramye gifite impande imwe) ya cm zirenga 60. Mu kwaguka, ijambo katana rikoreshwa kenshi mugushaka inkota zose zabayapani (tachi, uchigatana, nibindi).

Ikimenyetso cyubwoko bwa samurai, katana nintwaro yubunini (murimwe umuntu akoresha inkombe) hamwe no gusunika (murimwe umuntu akoresha ingingo). Yambarwa kunyerera mu rukenyerero, inkombe yerekeza hejuru ku rukenyerero rw'ibumoso (hepfo nanone niba uwambaye ari umukinnyi). Igice cya wakizashi-katana cyitwa daishō.

Mubihe bimwe bituje byamateka yu Buyapani, katana yari intwaro yimihango kuruta intwaro nyayo. Umusaruro wacyo urenze uwitwa tachi mugihe cya Muromachi (nyuma ya 1392).

Ibisobanuro[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Katana ni nihonto yagoramye (inkota y'Abayapani) inyerera muri obi (umukandara) yegereye hejuru, bitandukanye na tachi, inkota y'abanyamafarasi.

Katana ifite ubunini burenze shaku ebyiri (inshuro ebyiri 30.2 cm) cyangwa cm 60 ariko ubu burebure bushobora gutandukana ukurikije ibihe nubuhanga bwintambara. Ubusanzwe ikoreshwa n'amaboko abiri, ariko tekinike zimwe na zimwe, nka tekinike ya Miyamoto Musashi, cyangwa tekiniki zijyanye no gukoresha igisebe, zirimo gukoresha ukuboko kumwe. Ifata (tsuka), bitewe nikirere cya politiki, yari itandukanye hagati yubugari bwamaboko abiri cyangwa atatu. Tsuka itangirana numuzamu (tsuba) urinda ikiganza, ikarangirana nimpera ikoreshwa mugukubita (tsuka-gashira cyangwa kashira). Uburemere bwa katana busanzwe buva kuri garama 800 kugeza kuri garama 1,300.

Gukora[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Byarangiye muri beveri, icyuma cya katana gisanzwe gihimbano kiva mubyuma bibisi byitwa tamahagane, bihinduka ibyuma byinshi. Birakomeye ku ibahasha, kandi byoroshye guhinduka kumutima, buriwese yandujwe inshuro nyinshi, hanyuma akazunguruka cyane muri forge. Hanyuma, mu gupfukirana uruvange rwibumba rwiziritse inyuma n’impande, icyuma gikorerwa "kuzimya gutoranya", bizaha intwaro imiterere ihuriweho n’ubukomere bw’imipaka ndetse no kurwanya ingaruka kuri bose. . Inzira igoye yo gukora katana iterwa nubwiza buke bwamabuye aboneka mubuyapani mbere yiki gihe.

Intambwe ikurikiraho ni ugusya, bikozwe na togishi ukarisha icyuma kigaragaza imiterere ya kristaline ukoresheje amabuye y'ibirunga agabanya ingano.

Mu buhanzi bw'intambara[eindura | hindura inkomoko]

Amahugurwa ya katana, ubwoko butanu bwamahugurwa saber akoreshwa:

iaitō (大 合 刀), icyuma kidakaze (umusemburo wa aluminium na zinc) kopi ya katana; uku gutandukana kwinkota yabayapani nigikoresho cyatoranijwe cyo gutoza iaidō (↑ 合 道);

bokken (木 剣), inkota ikomeye mu giti; ni intwaro ubwayo (samurai uzwi cyane Miyamoto Musashi yatsindiye duel izwi cyane na Sasaki Kojirō hamwe na bokken yakozwe mu gutema inkono mu bwato bwamujyanye aho duel). Ikoreshwa nabimenyereza iaidō kurwana, hamwe na aikido na kendo bakora imyitozo muri kata;

suburitō, inkota ikomeye kandi iremereye yimbaho ​​igenewe imyitozo mugukata vacuum (suburi) mukubaka imitsi;

shinai (竹刀), ikozwe n'imigano y'imigano ifashwe mu kibanza cy'uruhu; iyi saber ituma bishoboka gutwara imyigaragambyo nyayo nta kaga, hakoreshejwe uburyo bwo kurinda umubiri, kandi ikoreshwa nabakora kendo (剣 道);

shinken, ni ukuri kandi gukomeye katana; ikoreshwa cyane mugukata, nko muri batto do na tame shigiri, kurwanya intego zikoze muri matati ya tatami cyangwa matelo yazunguye. Abayobozi bakuru (dan 5 cyangwa hejuru) muri kenjutsu na iaidō ubakoreshe gukora ibizamini cyangwa gukora kata runaka.

Hano hari na katana mubikoresho bigezweho, byoroshye kandi byoroshye, byemerera gutwara ibitero byinshi kandi bitagira ingaruka, bikoreshwa muri chanbara.

Katana yahise irusha intwaro intwaro z’i Burayi nk’uwasambanyije ku gahato, ubuziranenge bwazo kandi butagereranywa igihe bwatangizwaga mu Buyapani.

amahuza yo hanze[eindura | hindura inkomoko]