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Ikirayi

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia

Umurima w'ibirayi

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Ikirayi
Ibirayi
ikirayi kidatonoye

Umurima w’ibirayi utegurwa mu buryo bukurikira:

  • Guhinga bwa mbere (kurima) mu gihe ahantu harajwe
  • Iyo utaraje umurima hinga neza ukuramo ibyatsi bibi
  • Guhinga bwa kabiri (gutabira) bagiye gutera
  • Nyuma yo guhinga, ringaniza umurima wawe mbere yo guca imirongo cyangwa imyobo yo guteramo..
  • Cukura imyobo cyangwa uce imirongo ifite hagati ya santimetero 5 na santimetero 10 z’ubujyakuzimu.[1][2]

Gutera imbuto

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Imbuto y’ibirayi

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  • Igomba kuba itarwaye,
  • Kuba idafite inenge iyo ariyo yose,
  • Ifite ubunini buringaniye buri hagati ya mirime­tero 25 na mirimetero 55 z’umurambararo,
  • Kuba yarameze neza, ifite imimero ihagije (kuva kuri 3 kugera kuri 4 ).

Ifoto igaragaza imbuto yameze neza ishobora guterwa

  • Igomba kuba yaratoranyijwe kandi yemewe.[3]
  • Wayigura ku mutubuzi cyangwa umucuruzi ubyemerewe mu karere cyangwa umurenge wawe.

Icyitonderwa :Ugomba gusimbura imbuto byibura nyuma y’inshuro 4 ukoresha imbuto yakomotse ku ya mbere.[4]

  • Igihe cyiza cyo gutera ibirayi: ibirayi biterwa mu kwezi kwa Nzeli mu gihembwe cy’ihinga cya mbere (A)  no mu gice cya kabiri cy'ukwezi kwa Gashyantare n'ibyumweru bibiri bya mbere bya Werurwe mu gihembwe cy’ihinga cya kabiri (B) bitewe n’uko imvura igwa.[5]

Uburyo bwo gutera

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  • Batera hagati ya toni 2 na toni 2,5 z’imbuto kuri hegitari imwe .[6]
  • Batera ku ntera ya santimetero 80 hagati   y’imirongo (uva ku murongo umwe ujya ku wundi) no ku ntera ya santimetero 30 ku mirongo (uva kukobo uteramo ikirayi kimwe ujya ku kandi).

Bashyira ikirayi kimwe mu mwobo bashyizemo ifumbire y'imborera, NPK 17-17-17 n’agataka gake ku bujyakuzimu twavuze ruguru, imimero ireba hejuru maze bakarenza itaka hejuru y’ikirayi. kuko ikirayi cyerera mu butaka nk’ibijumba, imyumbati,[7]

Kwita ku gihingwa

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umurima w'ibirayi
  • Mu murima w’ibirayi hakoreshwa ifumbire iboze neza kandi yumutse.
  • Ifumbire ishyirwa mu mirongo cyangwa mu myobo.;
  • Bashyiramo kuva kuri Toni 20 kugeza kuri Toni 30 z’ifumbire y’imborera kuri hegitari imwe.
  • Bongeramo ifumbire mvaruganda ya NPK17.17.17 ingana n'ibiro 300 kuri hegitari imwe,

cyangwa bagakoresha ibiro 150 mu gihebagiye gutera n'ibiro 150 mu gihe cy’isukira.

  • Mu butaka busharira (Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru, n’ahandi), babanza gushyiramo ishwagara (ibyumweru 2 mbere yo gutera) hagati ya toni 2,5 na toni5 kuri hegitari imwe, ikamaramo ibihembwe 4 by’ihinga.[1]

Kubagara ( Kumenera) :

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  • Bikorwa  nyuma y’ibyumweru 2 kugeza kuri 3 ibirayi bimaze kumera bifite nka santimetero 10 z’uburebure ugereranije.
  • Kubagara bituma ibirayi bidacuranwa imyunyungungu, amazi, urumuri kuko byoroshya ubutaka kandi i byatsi bibi biri mu murima bigakurwamo.
Ibirayi by'akinyarwanda

Icyitonderwa: Igihe ubagara wirinda gukomeretsa imizi y'ibirayi.[2]

Gusukira (Kuhira)

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  • Bikorwa ibirayi bifite nka santimetero 20 z’uburebure. Umuhinzi asukira akurura igitaka akacyegereza ikirayi ariko akirinda gutaba amababi yacyo
  • Gusukira neza bifasha ibirayi gukura neza, birinda ikirayi kiri mu butaka kugira ibara ry’icyatsi no gufatwa n’indwara y’imvura (milidiyu).[3]

indwara n’ibyonnyi ku burayi

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  • Indwara n’ibyonnyi ndetse n’ibyatsi bibini bimwe mu bigabanya ku buryo bugaragara umusaruro w’ibirayi.
  • Ni ngombwa kubirwanya kuko bishobora kugabanya umusaruro kugeza aho umuhinzi nta kintu na kimwe asarura.[4]

Indwara zirimo amoko menshi, n'ibizitera biratandukanye. Muri byo twavuga indwara n'ibyonnyi bikurikira:

Indwara y’imvura

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Ifoto igaragaza indwara y’imvura

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  • Ikiyitera: indwara y’ imvura ni indwara iter­wa n’agahumyo .Ikunze kugaragazwa mu bihe by’imvura n’ubuhehere bwinshi.
  • Aho ifata: amababi, uduti (imigozi) n’ikirayi
  • ifiriti y'ibirayi
    Ibimenyetso: amababi n’uruti birababuka bigahinduka ikigina bikabora cyangwa bikuma.[4]

Uburyo bwo kuyirwanya:

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  • Gutera amoko y’ ibirayi yihanganira iyo ndwara
  • Ibirayi byose bigomba kuvanwa mu murima mu gihe cy’isarura
  • Kurandura ibirayi byose byimejeje,
  • Gusukira neza ibirayi .[5]

Mu bihe by’imvura nyinshi ndetse n’ubuhehere:

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  • Ibirayi bikimera, tera umuti nka Ridomili (Ridomil) ku mababi hose, gr 50 zivanze muri litilo 20 z’amazi ibirayi bikiri bitoya.[7]              

Nyuma y’ibyumweru bibiri

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  • Rimwe mu cyumwer, Tera  umuti wa ditane cyangwa Mancozeb ku mababi hose ku rugero rwa gr 50 zivanze na litiro 20 z’amazi.
  • Gusimburanya ibirayi n’ibindi bihingwa bitari mu muryango umwe.[6]

Indwara ya kirabiranya

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Ifoto igaragaza indwara ya kirabiranya y'ibirayi

  • Ikiyitera :Kirabiranya y'ibirayi iterwa n’agakoko ko mu bwoko bwa bagiteri bita pseudomonas solanacearum. Iboneka mu butaka no mu mbuto byanduye ako gakoko.
  • Aho ifata: ku mababi n'ibirayi.[8]

Ibimenyetso:

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  • Kurabirana kw’amababi agahinduka icyatsi cyeruruka.
  • Mu maso y’ibirayi birwaye cyane haturukamo amatembabuzi y’umweru wabitema ugasanga imbere hari uruziga rw’umuhondo.[1]

Uburyo bwo kuyirwanya:

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  • Gukoresha amoko y’ imbuto y’ibirayi yihanganira iyo indwara,
  • Gusimburanya ibirayi n’ibindi bihingwa bitari mu muryango umwe;
  • Kurandura no kuvana mu murima ibirayi byose bigaragaraho ibimenyetso by’iyi ndwara;
  • Gusimburanya ibihingwa  ku buryo ibirayi bigaruka nyuma y'ibihe bine by'ihinga.[2]
  • Inanda iterwa n'agakoko ko mu bwoko bw'ibinyugunyugu bita “Phthorimaea operculella”;
  • Udushorobwa twabyo ducukura imyobo mu mitsi y'amababi agahinduka ikigina;
  • Utu tukoko twangiza ibirayi;
  • Ibyo bigaragazwa n'imyobo ducukura mu kirayi n'amabyi yatwo agaragara mu kirayi;
  • Ubwone bw'utu dukoko mu murima bushobora gukomereza no mu buhunikiro.[4]

Uburyo bwo kuyirwanya:  

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  • Umuhinzi agirwa inama yo gutera indwara nzima itarwaye no gukoresha umuti witwa Deltamethrine cyangwa Cypemethrine mu rwego rwo kuyikumira.[1]

Gusarura ibirayi

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  • Ibirayi byera hashize iminsi 100 kugeza ku 120 bitewe n’ubwoko bwatewe;

Iyo ibirayi byeze amababi ahinduka umuhondo n’imigozi yabyo iragwa maze ikuma.[2]

Mbere yo gusarura banyomora ibirayi:

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  • Babanza kurandura imigozi y’ibirayi bakandagiye ku butaka ku buryo nta kirayi kizamukana n’umugozi, ibirayi bikaguma mu butaka bikumuka, uruhu rwabyo rugakomera ku buryo iyo basaruye nka nyuma y ’ibyumweru 2 nta kirayi gishobora gukoboka mu buryo bworoshye,
  • Gusarura bikorwa humutse,
  • Basarura bakoresheje intoki iyo obutaka bworoshe, isuka ariko bigengesereye birinda gukomerersa ibirayi  cyangwa se imashini zabugenewe,
  • Irinde gukomeretsa ibirayi mu gihe usarura kandi ubimare mu murima,
  • Vana ibirayi byose bifite inenge mu musaruro.
  • Ibirayi bisigaye mu murima bishobora kuba indiri yihuse y’udukoko n’indwara mu ihinga rikurikiraho mu gihe imiterere y’ikirere itishe utwo dukoko.[8]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-26. Retrieved 2023-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 https://www.rba.co.rw/post/Rubavu-Ubuhinzi-bwIbirayi-bwahinduye-ubuzima-bwa-benshi
  3. 3.0 3.1 https://www.isangostar.rw/abaturage-bamwe-bo-mu-turere-twa-musanze-na-burera-bahagaritse-guhinga-ibirayi
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 https://www.teradignews.rw/sobanukirwa-nakamaro-gakomeye-ko-kurya-ibirayi-mu-buzima-bwacu/
  5. 5.0 5.1 https://www.kigalitoday.com/ubukungu/ubucuruzi/article/musanze-bwa-mbere-ikilo-cy-ibirayi-cyageze-ku-mafaranga-500
  6. 6.0 6.1 https://umuryango.rw/opinion/article/reba-ibyiza-byo-kunywa-umutobe-w-ibirayi
  7. 7.0 7.1 https://www.kigalitoday.com/amakuru/amakuru-mu-rwanda/article/abakunzi-b-ibirayi-barizerwa-kongera-kubibona-ku-bwinshi
  8. 8.0 8.1 https://bwiza.com/?Nyaruguru-Umugabo-yiciwe-mu-murima-we-w-ibirayi