Ishyirahamwe ry'Abaganga kw'Isi

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Ishyirahamwe ry'Abaganga kw'Isi (WMA) ni inkusanyamashyirahamwe ry'igenga kandi mpuzamahanga y'imiryango y'abaganga b'umwuga mu bihugu bitandukanye, bityo rihagarariye abaganga ku isi yose.  ryatangijwe kuwa 18 Nzeri 1947[1] ,rirakura  kugeza ku banyamuryango b'ingaga z'abaganga mu bihugu bitandukanye 114 muri 2017[2] [3] ndetse n'Abaganga barenga miliyoni 10.

Irishyirahamwe (WMA) ritanga urubuga kubanyamuryango baryo rwo kuvugana bisanzuye, bagakorana, kugirango bagere kumikorere inoze kandi y'ubunyamwuga no kongera ubunyamwuga bw'isanzuye ku baganga ku isi yose. imikoranire, WMA afite intego yo koroshya imikoranire, kwita kubarwayi ndetse ahantu hafite ubuzima, bongera imibereho myiza y'abantu bose ku isi.

Intego[edit | edit source]

Intego ya WMA ni ugukorera inyokumuntu mu guharanira kugera ku rwego rwo hejuru mu myigishirize y'ibijyanye n'ubuvuzi , ubumenyi buhagije kubuvuzi, ubuvuzi bunoze  no guhabwa serivisi z'ubuvuzi nziza ku bantu bose ku isi[4]

Amateka[edit | edit source]

Irishyirahamwe cg umuryango (WMA) washinzwe ku wa 18 Nzeri 1947, Ubwo abaganga bo mu bihugu 27 bitandukanye bahuye bwa mbere mu nama rusange y'iri shyirahamwe i Paris. uy' umuryango wubatswe hagendeye ku gitekerezo cy'umuryango w'abaganga w'abongereza mu 1945 , mu nama yabereye i London kugirango hatangizwe umuryango mpuzamahanga w'abaganga wazaga gusimbura ishyirahamwe ry'abanyamwuga mpuzamahanga b'abaganga ryari ryahagaritse imirimo yaryo bitewe n'intambara y'isi yose II.

Mu buryo bwo koroshya ubufasha bw'amafaranga buturuka mu b'anyamuryango , mu 1948 , inteko nyobozi yatangije ubunyamabanga bwa WMA mu mujyi wa New York mu buryo bwo koroshya imikoranire n'umuryango wabibumbye ndetse n'ibindi bigo b'iwushamikiyeho. ubunyamabanga bw'iri shyirahamwe WMA bwagumye New york kugeza mu 1974 igihe ku mpamvu z'umutungo no kugirango bakorere hafi ya Geneve nk'umujyi uzwiho kugira imiryango mpuzamahanga myinshi yigenga (WHO,ILO,ICN,ISSA,etc.) bwavuye aho bwari bujyanwa mu bufaransa ahitwa Ferney-voltaire. Abanyamuryango  bahuraga mu nama y'umwaka ariyo yaje kwitwa "World Medical Assembly" Inama Rusange 1962. 

Kuva Muntangiriro WMA yagaragaje kwita cyane k'ubuvuzi bunoze  muri rusange ndetse no ku isi yose , ikaba nyambere mugushyiraho amabwiriza anoze ku baganga bose bo ku isi. n'isesengura ry'amagambo ari mu ndahiro ya Hippocrates ryaje kwemerwa mu nama rusange ya II mu 1948 i Geneva . inteko rusange yemeje iyo ndahiro ivuguruye bayita "inyandiko y'i Geneve."

Nanone mu nama rusange ya II raporo ku "ibyaha by'intamabara n'ubuvuzi" yarakiriwe. ibi byateye inteko gushyiraho akanama kiga kandi kagategura amabwiriza y'ubuvuzi mpuzamahanga ngenderwaho  akaba yaraje kwemerwa nyuma yo kuyemeranyaho mu nama rusange III mu 1949.

Na Nyuma yo kwemeza izi nyandiko ebyiri , WMA yakomeje guhabwa amakuru yo kutubahiriza amabwiriza agenga ubuvuzi, ibyaha byakozwe n'abaganga mu bihe by'intambara,   kwigira cg gukorera ubushakashatsi ku bantu mu buryo butemewe n'ibindi bibazo bijyanye no kutubahiriza amabwiriza ndetse n;'amategeko agenga umwuga w'ubuvuzi. ibi byateye inteko gushyiraho akanama gahoraho ku bijyanye n'amabwiriza agenga ubuvuzi mu 1952, akanama ariko kakomeje no gukora kuva icyo gihe nkuko ushobora kubibona mu nyandiko z'ishyirahamwe WMA n'amakuru yayo agezweho.

Ubuyobozi[edit | edit source]

Inteko rusange[edit | edit source]

Ni rwo rwego rukuru rufata ibyemezo muri iri shyirahamwe WMA ruhura buri mwaka rugizwe n'abanyamuryango baturutse mu bihugu binyamuryango nabagize ururgaga, abofosiye n'abahagarariye abanyamuryango bigenga (associate members).

Urugaga[edit | edit source]

Inteko nkuru itora buri mwaya ibiri abagie urugaga baturutse mu turere dutandatu tugize umuryango ku isi ari twoː Afurika, Asiya, Uburayi, Amerika y'abalatino, Amerika y'amajyaruguru na Pasifika. iteko rusange kandi itora umuyobozi (President) buri mwaka, ari we uhagararira umuryango mu nama n'ibirori. Umuyobozi utowe nuvuyeho bakora kuburyo ubonetse ariwe uhagararira umuryango.

Buri myaka ibiri, ururgaga rwa WMA, ukuyemo abayobozi(Presidents) batora uhagararira umuryango mu buryo bwa politiki. nkuhagarariye ibikorwa by'umuryango, umunyamabanga mukuru ari we mukozi uhoraho mu bunyamabanga utorwa n'urugaga.

Ubunyamabanga[edit | edit source]

Ubunyamabanga bw'ishyirahamwe buherereye in Ferney-Voltaire, France, iruhande n'umujyi wa Geneva.

Indimi zikoreshwa[edit | edit source]

icyongereza, Igifaransa, n'icyesipanyol  Unizo mdimi zikoreshwa n'ishyirahamwe kava ryatangira gukora.

Ubunyamuryango[edit | edit source]

ishusho igaragaza abanyamuryango 114

WMA ifite ibyiciro by'abanyamuryango bikurikira

  • Abanyamuryango shingiroː ahanini bashingiye kubanyamuryango bamashyirahamwe y'abaganga mu bihugu bitandukanye ku isi
  • Abanyamuryango bigengaː aba ni abaganga baba abanyamuryango ba WMA bitanyuze mu mashyirahamwe y'abaganga mu bihugu byabo , bafite uburenganzira bwo gutora ndetse no kuba mu nama y'inteko rusange binyuze bu bo ubwabo bitoraniriza ngo babahagararire.

Andi makuru y'abanyamuryango ushobora kuyabona ukanzehano (WMA Membership):

Imishinga[edit | edit source]

WMA ikora ku bintu bitandukanye,[5] Ibyigenzi ni:

  • Ubuvugizi
  • Ubugenzuzi bw'umwuga
  • Inzego z'ubuzima
  • Uburenganzira bwa muntu
  • Ubuzima rusange

Mu bijyanye no kunoza imikorere ,WMA Ifite inyandiko nyinshi n'imyanzuro yemejwe n'inteko rusange byose bigerageza kuha umurongo amashyirahamwe y'abaganga mu bihugu imbere, leta zitandukanye ndetse n'imiryango ku isi yose. ingingo nyinshi zizweho nk'uburenganzira bw'abarwayi, ubushakashatsi ku bantu , kwita kubarwayi n'inkomere mu bihe by'amakimbirane, itotezwa ry'imfungwa, gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge, kubomeza urubyaro no guhumana kw'ikirere.[6]

WMA ikora no kuri ibi bikurikira:

  • Uburezi bujyanye n'ubuvuzi
  • Gutegura abazakora mu bijyanye na serivisi z'ubuzima
  • Ubwirinzi bw'abarwayi
  • Imiyoborere no guteza imbere umwuga
  • Ubuvugizi ku baganga n'uburenganzira bw'abarwayi
  • Ubuzima n'ubwirinzi mu kazi
  • Demokarasi mu mashyirahamwe mashya y'abaganga
  • Amabwiriza y'ubuzima bw'abaturange 
  • Imishinga nk'iyo kugabanya itabi n'y'inkingo

WMA ukora kandi kuri gahunda z'uburezi nka "prison medicine course"(kwigisha abagororwa kubijyanye nimiti), amasomo kubijyanye n'igituntu kigikatu, ethics course on microbial resistance bafatanyije na kaminuza ya George Mason na International Society for Microbial Resistance

Ibyashyizwe ahagaragara[edit | edit source]

Zimwe munyandiko z'amategeko n'ibyashyizwe ahagaragara n'ishyirahamwe ry'abaganga ku isi WMA (zimwe ziri mu ndimi zitandukanye)[7] ushobora kuzibona ukanazibika uzikuye ku rubuga website. Murizo harimo:

  • The World Medical Journal
  • The WMA Medical Ethics Manual
  • The World Medical and Health Policy Journal
  • Caring Physicians of the World
  • Toolkits
  • Background Documents

Imibanire izwi[edit | edit source]

Ishyirahamwe ry'abaganga ku isi riri mu miryango yihuje kuva kumasosiyete y'ubuvuzi n'amashyirahamwe nindi miryango y'ubucuruzi. nubwo byose bitarimo, uru rubuga rutanaga ishusho y'ishyirahamwe rya WMA ndetse n'imikoranire. 

Aho Bigishiriza (WMA Cooperating Centers)[edit | edit source]

  • Center for Global Health and Medical Diplomacy, University of North Florida on Medical leadership and Medical Diplomacy
  • Center for the Study of International Medical Policies and Practices - CSIMPP, George-Mason-University, Fairfax, Virginia on Microbial resistance and development of public (health) policy
  • Institute of Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Tübingen
  • Institut de droit de la santé, Université de Neuchâtel, Suisse
  • Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, University of the Wiltwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Abafatanya Bikorwa[edit | edit source]

  • Bayer Pharmaceuticals
  • Eli Lilly and Company
  • GlaxoSmithKline
  • Pfizer, Inc.

Imyigishirize[edit | edit source]

  • Health Sciences Online HSO
  • Health InterNetwork (HINARI)

Imiryango Mpuzamahanga[edit | edit source]

  • Amnesty International - AI
  • International Federation of Associations of Pharmaceutical Physicians - IFAPP
  • International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations IFPMA
  • International Hospital Federation - IHF
  • International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims - IRCT
  • Physicians for Human Rights - PHR
  • International Society for Health and Human Rights - ISHHR
  • World Health Editors’ Network - WHEN
  • Public Service International - PSI
  • World Self-Medication Industry - WSMI

Abanyeshuri biga ubuganga[edit | edit source]

  • International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations - IFMSA

Umuryango w'abarwayi[edit | edit source]

  • International Alliance of Patients’ Organizations - IAPO

Imiryango y'umwuga[edit | edit source]

  • World Health Professions Alliance - WHPA
  • World Dental Federation - FDI
  • International Pharmaceutical Federation - FIP
  • International Council of Nurses - ICN
  • Guidelines International Network - G-I-N
  • International Confederation of Midwives - ICM
  • International Council of Medical Scientific Organizations CIOMS
  • International Federation of Physiotherapists - WCPT
  • Medical Women’s International Association - MWIA
  • World Federation for Medical Education - WFME
  • World Psychiatric Association - WPA
  • World Veterinary Association - WVA (MOU mutually signed by the WVA and WMA on 12 October 2012)
  • One Health Initiative
  • Red Cross/Red Crescent
  • International Committee of the Red Cross - ICRC
  • The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies - IFRC

Imiryango y'uturere[edit | edit source]

  • African Medical Association - AfMA
  • Confederation of Medical Associations of Asia and Oceania - CMAAO
  • Conference of the Central and East European Chambers
  • European Forum of Medical Associations and EFMA/WHO
  • Forum of Ibero-American Medical Associations - FIEME
  • Medical Association of South East Asian Nations - MASEAN
  • Medical Confederation of Latin-America and the Caribbean - CONFEMEL
  • Standing Committee of European Physicians - CPME

WMA aft umubkano  n'umuryango mpuzamahanga with kubuzima World Health Organization (WHO), n'umuryango mpuzamahanga ubwawo United Nations nets n'udushami two dutandukanye twita k'ubuzima.

IOther examples of relationships are the Joint United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the International Organization for Migration (IMO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).

Kubindi wareba[edit | edit source]

  • Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS)
  • Declaration of Geneva
  • Declaration of Helsinki
  • Declaration of Tokyo. Guidelines for Physicians Concerning Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in Relation to Detention and Imprisonment
  • International Code of Medical Ethics
  • Standing Committee of European Doctors
  • World Health Professions Alliance (WHPA)
  • World Health Organization (WHO)

Inkomoko[edit | edit source]

  1. "History". wma.net. 4 May 2017. 
  2. "Members' List". wma.net. 4 May 2017. 
  3. https://www.wma.net/news-post/wma-general-assembly-6
  4. "About the WMA". wma.net. 4 May 2017. 
  5. https://www.wma.net/what-we-do/
  6. "Medical Ethics". wma.net. 4 May 2017. 
  7. "Publications". wma.net. 4 May 2017. 

Izindi Mbuga[edit | edit source]