Jump to content

IKORANABUHANGA (ubusobanuro)

Kubijyanye na Wikipedia
technology
window 10

Ikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

("siyanse yubukorikori" mu ndimi za mahanga zikoreshwa cyane n'abenshi mu isi arizo Icyongereza ndetse n'igifaransa (French) Ikoranabuhanga muri izondimi uko ari ebyeri risobanura Technology bikaba ryarakomotse mu kigereki τέχνη, techne, risobanura"ubuhanzi, ubuhanga, amayeri y'intoki"; na -λογία, -logiya [2]) ni igiteranyo cya tekinike, ubuhanga, uburyo, n'inzira zikoreshwa mu musaruro y'ibicuruzwa cyangwa serivisi cyangwa mu kugera ku ntego, nk'iperereza ry'ubumenyi. Ikoranabuhanga rishobora kuba ubumenyi bwubuhanga, inzira, nibindi bisa, cyangwa bishobora gushyirwa mumashini kugirango yemere gukora nta bumenyi burambuye kubikorwa byabo. Sisitemu (urugero: imashini) ikoresha ikoranabuhanga ifata iyinjiza, ikayihindura ukurikije imikoreshereze ya sisitemu, hanyuma igatanga ibisubizo byitwa sisitemu yikoranabuhanga[1].

Uburyo bworoshye bwikoranabuhanga niterambere no gukoresha ibikoresho byibanze. Ubuvumbuzi bwa kera bwuburyo bwo kugenzura umuriro na Revolution ya Neolithic nyuma byongereye isoko ibiryo, kandi kuvumbura uruziga byafashaga abantu gutembera no kugenzura ibidukikije. Iterambere mu bihe byamateka, harimo imashini icapa, terefone, na interineti, byagabanije inzitizi z’umubiri ku itumanaho kandi bituma abantu basabana mu bwisanzure ku isi yose.

Inzobere mu ikoranabuhanga
Mudasobwa,Telefoni n'ibikoresho byifashishwa n'abenshi ku isi kugirango bakoreshe ikoranabuhanga mu bucuruzi cyangwa mu manama

Ikoranabuhanga rifite ingaruka nziza ndetse nimbi kubizima bwa bantu, Ku bukungu bwisi ndetse no muri politike. Impaka za filozofiya zavutse ku ikoreshwa ry'ikoranabuhanga, hamwe no kutumvikana niba ikoranabuhanga ryongera imibereho y'umuntu cyangwa rikarushaho kuba bibi. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, hamwe n’ibikorwa bisa n’ibitekerezo byerekana kunenga ikwirakwizwa ry’ikoranabuhanga, bavuga ko byangiza ibidukikije kandi bitandukanya abantu; abashyigikiye ingengabitekerezo nka transhumanism na techno-progressivism babona ko iterambere ryikoranabuhanga rikomeje kugirira akamaro.muntu.[2]


Ikoranabuhanga ni ugukoresha ubumenyi kugirango ugere ku ntego zifatika muburyo bwororoka. Ijambo ikoranabuhanga rishobora kandi gusobanura ibicuruzwa biva muri izo mbaraga, [2]: 117 [3] harimo ibikoresho bifatika nkibikoresho cyangwa imashini, nibindi bitagaragara nka software. Ikoranabuhanga rifite uruhare runini muri siyansi, mu buhanga, no mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

Iterambere ry'ikoranabuhanga ryatumye habaho impinduka zikomeye muri sosiyete. Ikoranabuhanga rya mbere rizwi cyane ni igikoresho cyamabuye, cyakoreshejwe mugihe cyabanjirije amateka, gikurikirwa no kugenzura umuriro, wagize uruhare mu mikurire yubwonko bwabantu no guteza imbere ururimi mugihe cyibarafu. Guhimba ibiziga mugihe cya Bronze byatumye ingendo nini no gukora imashini zigoye. Ibintu bishya byavumbuwe mu ikoranabuhanga, harimo icapiro, terefone, na interineti, byagabanije inzitizi zitumanaho kandi bitangiza ubukungu bw’ubumenyi.

Nubwo ikoranabuhanga rigira uruhare mu iterambere ry’ubukungu no kuzamura iterambere ry’abantu, rishobora kandi kugira ingaruka mbi nko guhumana cyangwa kugabanuka kw’umutungo, cyangwa rishobora guteza ingaruka mbi ku mibereho nk’ubushomeri bw’ikoranabuhanga buturuka ku kwikora. Kubera iyo mpamvu, hakomeje kubaho ibiganiro mpaka bya filozofiya na politiki bijyanye n'uruhare n'ikoreshwa ry'ikoranabuhanga, imyitwarire y'ikoranabuhanga, n'inzira zo kugabanya ingaruka mbi zishobora kubaho.

Ikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

ni ijambo ryatangiye mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 17 risobanura 'kuvura buri gihe' (kuva mu kigereki Τεχνολογία, kuva τέχνη 'ubuhanzi, ubukorikori' na -λογία, 'kwiga, ubumenyi'). [4] [5] Byateganijwe gukoreshwa n’ikigereki cya kera τέχνη, gikoreshwa mu gusobanura 'ubumenyi bwo gukora ibintu', bikubiyemo ibikorwa nkubwubatsi. [6]

Guhera mu kinyejana cya 19, Abanyaburayi bo ku mugabane wa Afurika batangiye gukoresha ijambo Technik (Ikidage) cyangwa tekinike (Igifaransa) bashaka kuvuga 'inzira yo gukora', ikubiyemo ibihangano byose bya tekiniki, nko kubyina, kugenda, cyangwa gucapa, niba atari byo ibikoresho cyangwa ibikoresho bisabwa. y'ubuhanzi n'ubukorikori. "[2]: 117 Kubera ko itandukaniro riri hagati ya Technik na Technologie ridahari mu Cyongereza, byombi byahinduwe nk'ikoranabuhanga. Iri jambo mbere ntiryari risanzwe mu Cyongereza kandi ahanini ryerekezaga ku myigire y'amasomo, nko mu Ishuri Rikuru ry'ikoranabuhanga rya Massachusetts.

Mu kinyejana cya 20, biturutse ku majyambere ya siyansi no mu mpinduramatwara ya kabiri mu nganda, ikoranabuhanga ryaretse gufatwa nk'isomo ryihariye ry’amasomo kandi rifata ibisobanuro byaryo muri iki gihe: gukoresha ubumenyi buri gihe mu bikorwa bifatika. [2]: 119

Amateka[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rya kera[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ibikoresho byabanje gukorwa na hominide binyuze mu kwitegereza no kugerageza no kwibeshya. Hafi ya 2 Mya (mu myaka miriyoni ishize), bamenye gukora ibikoresho byambere byamabuye bakoresheje inyundo zometse ku ibuye, bakora ishoka y'intoki ityaye. Iyi myitozo yatunganijwe kya 75 (imyaka ibihumbi ishize) kugirango ihindagurika, ituma akazi keza cyane.

Ivumburwa ry'umuriro Charles Darwin yavuze ko "bishoboka ko ari ikintu gikomeye kuruta ibindi byose byakozwe n'umuntu". Ibyataburuwe mu matongo, imirire, n'imibereho byerekana "gukoresha umuriro-muntu" byibuze 1.5 Mya. Umuriro, ushyizwemo ibiti n'amakara, watumaga abantu bo hambere bateka ibiryo byabo kugira ngo bongere igogorwa ryabyo, bongere agaciro kintungamubiri ndetse no kwagura ibiryo byashoboraga kuribwa. Igitekerezo cyo guteka kivuga ko ubushobozi bwo guteka bwateje ubwiyongere bw'ubwonko bwa hominid, nubwo abashakashatsi bamwe basanga ibimenyetso bidafite ishingiro. Ibimenyetso byubucukuzi bwamatara byanditswe kuri 790 kya; abashakashatsi bemeza ko ibyo bishoboka ko byakajije umurego mu mibanire y'abantu kandi bishobora kuba byaragize uruhare mu kuvuka kw'ururimi. [15]

Izindi terambere ryikoranabuhanga ryakozwe mugihe cya paleolithique zirimo imyenda nuburaro. Nta bwumvikane bubaho mugihe cyagereranijwe cyo kwifashisha ikoranabuhanga, ariko abahanga mu bucukumbuzi bw'ibyataburuwe mu matongo bavumbuye ibimenyetso bya kera byerekana imyambaro 90-120 kya [18] hamwe n’ubuhungiro 450 kya. Mugihe ibihe bya Paleolithique byagendaga bitera imbere, amazu yarushijeho kuba meza kandi arambuye; nko muri 380 kya, abantu bubakaga utuzu twibiti byigihe gito. [19] Imyambarire, yakuwe mu bwoya no guhisha inyamaswa zahigwaga, zafashaga ikiremwamuntu kwaguka mu turere dukonje; abantu batangiye kwimuka bava muri Afrika hafi 200 kya, babanza kwimukira muri Aziya. [21] [22] [23]

Neolithic[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ibikoresho byinshi bya Neolithic, harimo ibikomo, imitwe, ishoka, nibikoresho byo gusya

Impinduramatwara ya Neolithic (cyangwa Impinduramatwara ya mbere y’ubuhinzi) yazanye umuvuduko wo guhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga, ndetse no kwiyongera kw’imibereho. Uwitekaguhimba ishoka yamabuye isennye yari intambwe ikomeye yemerera gutema amashyamba manini no guhinga. Uku gukoresha amashoka yamabuye yashegeshwe byiyongereye cyane muri Neolithique ariko mu ntangiriro byakoreshwaga muri Mesolithique yabanjirije mu bice bimwe na bimwe nka Irilande. Ubuhinzi bwagaburiye abaturage benshi, kandi kwimukira mu bwigunge byatumaga kurera icyarimwe abana benshi, kubera ko impinja zitagikenewe gutwarwa ninzererezi. Byongeye kandi, abana bashoboraga gutanga umusanzu mu guhinga ibihingwa byoroshye kuruta uko bashobora kwitabira ibikorwa byo guhiga abahigi. [27]

Hamwe n'ubwiyongere bw'abaturage no kuboneka kw'abakozi byaje kwiyongera mu bijyanye n'umurimo. Icyateye iterambere kuva mu midugudu ya Neolithic yo hambere kugera mu mijyi ya mbere, nka Uruk, hamwe n’umuco wa mbere, nka Sumeri, ntabwo bizwi neza; icyakora, havutse inzego z’imibereho n’inzego z’imirimo yihariye, y’ubucuruzi n’intambara hagati y’imico yegeranye, kandi hakenewe ingamba rusange zo gukemura ibibazo by’ibidukikije nko kuhira imyaka, byose bikekwa ko byagize uruhare.

Gukomeza kunonosora byatumye itanura n'inzogera kandi bitanga, ku nshuro ya mbere, ubushobozi bwo gushonga no guhimba zahabu, umuringa, ifeza, na sisitemu - ibyuma kavukire biboneka mu buryo busa neza muri kamere. [31] Ibyiza by'ibikoresho by'umuringa kuruta amabuye, amagufwa n'ibiti byagaragaye vuba ku bantu bo hambere, kandi umuringa kavukire ushobora kuba warakoreshejwe kuva mu ntangiriro z'ibihe bya Neolithic (hafi 10 ka). Umuringa kavukire ntusanzwe ubaho kubwinshi, ariko amabuye yumuringa arasanzwe kandi amwe murimwe atanga ibyuma byoroshye mugihe yatwitswe mubiti cyangwa mumakara. Amaherezo, gukora ibyuma byatumye havumburwa ibivangwa nk'umuringa n'umuringa (ahagana mu 4000 BGC). Gukoresha bwa mbere ibivangwa n'ibyuma nk'ibyuma byatangiye nko mu 1.800 MIC. [33]

Ikoranabuhanga rya kera[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Uruziga rwavumbuwe ahagana mu 4000 MIC.

Nyuma yo gukoresha umuriro, abantu bavumbuye ubundi buryo bw'ingufu. Ikoreshwa rya mbere ryimbaraga zumuyaga nubwato bugenda; amateka ya mbere yubwato munsi yubwato ni ubw'ubwato bwa Nili bwanditswe nko mu 7000 MIC. Kuva mu bihe byabanjirije amateka, Abanyamisiri birashoboka ko bakoresheje imbaraga z’umwuzure w’umwaka wa Nili mu kuhira ubutaka bwabo, buhoro buhoro biga kugenzura byinshi muri byo binyuze mu nzira zo kuhira nkana no "gufata". Abasumeriya ba kera muri Mezopotamiya bakoresheje uburyo bugoye bw'imiyoboro n'imigezi kugira ngo bavomye amazi mu ruzi rwa Tigiri na Efurate kugira ngo bavomere.

Abacukuzi b'ibyataburuwe mu matongo bavuga ko uruziga rwavumbuwe mu bwigenge kandi icyarimwe muri Mezopotamiya (muri Iraki y'ubu), Caucase y'Amajyaruguru (umuco wa Maykop), n'Uburayi bwo hagati. [38] Ikigereranyo cyigihe kiri hagati ya 5.500 na 3000 BGC hamwe nabahanga benshi babishyira hafi 4000 MIC. Ibicuruzwa bya kera cyane bishushanyije bishushanya amakarito y’ibiziga byatangiye ahagana mu 3.500 MIC. Vuba aha, ibiziga bya kera bizwi cyane ku isi byabonetse mu gishanga cya Ljubljana cyo muri Siloveniya.

Ivumburwa ryibiziga ryahinduye ubucuruzi nintambara. Ntibyatinze kubona ko amagare afite ibiziga ashobora gukoreshwa mu gutwara imitwaro iremereye. Abasumeriya ba kera bakoreshaga uruziga rw'umubumbyi kandi bashobora kuba barabihimbye. Uruziga rw'ibumba rwabonetse mu mujyi-wa Ur rwatangiye ahagana mu 3,429 MIC, [43] ndetse n'ibice bishaje by'ibibumbano byajugunywe ibiziga byavumbuwe mu gace kamwe. Ibiziga byihuta (bizunguruka) byafashaga kubyara hakiri kare ububumbyi, ariko ni ugukoresha uruziga nka transformateur yingufu (binyuze mumuzinga wamazi, imashini yumuyaga, ndetse no gukandagira) byahinduye ikoreshwa ryamashanyarazi adafite ubumuntu. Amagare ya mbere y’ibiziga bibiri yakomotse kuri travois [44] kandi yakoreshejwe bwa mbere muri Mezopotamiya na Irani ahagana mu 3.000 MIC.

Umuhanda wa kera uzwi cyane wubatswe ni umuhanda wubatswe namabuye yumujyi wa leta yumujyi wa Ur, guhera nko mu 4000 MIC, [45] hamwe n’imihanda y'ibiti inyura mu bishanga bya Glastonbury, mu Bwongereza, guhera mu gihe kimwe. Umuhanda wa mbere muremure, watangiye gukoreshwa ahagana mu 3.500 MIC, [45] wanyuze mu birometero 2,400 uvuye mu kigobe cy'Ubuperesi kugera ku nyanja ya Mediterane, [45] ariko ntiwubatswe kandi washyizweho igice gusa. [45] Ahagana mu mwaka wa 2000 MIC, Abamino ku kirwa cya Kirete cy'Ubugereki bubatse umuhanda wa kilometero 50 uva ku ngoro ya Gortyn mu majyepfo y'icyo kirwa, unyuze ku misozi, ugana ku ngoro ya Knossos mu majyaruguru y'icyo kirwa. 45] Bitandukanye n'umuhanda wambere, umuhanda wa Minoan washyizweho kaburimbo.

Amazu ya kera ya Minoan yari afite amazi atemba. Ubwiherero busa nubwa kijyambere bwavumbuwe mu ngoro ya Knoss. [47] Amazu menshi yigenga ya Minoan nayo yari afite ubwiherero, bwashoboraga gutwarwa no gusuka amazi kumugezi. Abanyaroma ba kera bari bafite ubwiherero rusange bwogejwe, [48] busohoka muri sisitemu yimyanda ihebuje. Umuyoboro wibanze i Roma ni Cloaca Maxima; kubaka byatangiye kuri yo mu kinyejana cya gatandatu MIC kandi n'ubu biracyakoreshwa.

Abanyaroma ba kera na bo bari bafite gahunda igoye y'amazi, [46] yakoreshwaga mu gutwara amazi mu ntera ndende. Umuyoboro wa mbere w’Abaroma wubatswe mu 312 MIC. Umuyoboro wa cumi na rimwe kandi wanyuma wubatswe n’Abaroma wubatswe mu 226 IC. Dushyize hamwe, imiyoboro y'Abaroma yaguye hejuru ya kilometero 450, [46] ariko munsi ya kilometero 70 zibi byari hejuru yubutaka kandi ishyigikiwe ninkuta.

Ikoranabuhanga ryo mu gihe cyo hagati hamwe n'ikoranabuhanga rya Renaissance[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Udushya twakomeje mu gihe cyo hagati hamwe no gutangiza umusaruro w'ubudodo (muri Aziya no mu Burayi nyuma), umukufi w'amafarashi, hamwe n'amafarashi. Imashini zoroshye (nka lever, screw, na pulley) zahujwe mubikoresho bigoye cyane, nka gare yimodoka, imashini yumuyaga, nisaha. Sisitemu ya kaminuza yateje imbere kandi ikwirakwiza ibitekerezo n'ibikorwa bya siyansi, harimo Oxford na Cambridge.

Igihe cya Renaissance cyatanze udushya twinshi, harimo no kwinjiza imashini yimashini yimuka i Burayi, byorohereza itumanaho ry'ubumenyi. Ikoranabuhanga ryarushijeho guterwa na siyanse, ritangira uruziga rwo gutera imbere.

Impinduramatwara mu nganda[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Guhera mu Bwongereza mu kinyejana cya 18, kuvumbura ingufu z'amashanyarazi byatangije impinduramatwara mu nganda, aho byagaragaye ko hari ibintu byinshi byavumbuwe mu ikoranabuhanga, cyane cyane mu bijyanye n'ubuhinzi, inganda, ubucukuzi bw'amabuye y'agaciro, metallurgie, n'ubwikorezi, ndetse no gukoreshwa cyane. sisitemu y'uruganda. Ibyo byakurikijwe nyuma yikinyejana na Revolution ya kabiri yinganda zatumye habaho kuvumbura siyanse byihuse, kubisanzwe, no kubyara umusaruro. Hakozwe ikoranabuhanga rishya, harimo sisitemu y’imyanda, amashanyarazi, amatara, moteri y’amashanyarazi, gari ya moshi, imodoka, n’indege. Iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ryatumye habaho iterambere rikomeye mu buvuzi, ubutabire, ubugenge, n’ubuhanga. Baherekejwe n’imihindagurikire y’imibereho, hashyizweho ibishushanyo mbonera biherekejwe n’imijyi yihuse. Itumanaho ryateye imbere hifashishijwe telegraph, terefone, radiyo na televiziyo.

Ikinyejana cya 20 cyazanye udushya twinshi. Muri fiziki, kuvumbura ibice bya kirimbuzi mugihe cya Atome byatumye haba intwaro za kirimbuzi ndetse nimbaraga za kirimbuzi. Mudasobwa zavumbuwe hanyuma zihindurwa ziva mubigereranyo zijya kuri digitale muri Digital Revolution. Ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho, cyane cyane fibre optique hamwe na optique ya optique yatumye havuka interineti, yatangije mugihe cyamakuru. Ikirere cyo mu kirere cyatangiranye no gutangiza Sputnik 1 mu 1957, nyuma haza gutangizwa ubutumwa bw’abakozi ku kwezi mu myaka ya za 1960. Imbaraga zateguwe zo gushakisha ubwenge bw’isi bwakoresheje telesikopi ya radiyo kugira ngo imenye ibimenyetso byo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga, cyangwa tekinoroji, itangwa n’abanyamahanga. Mu buvuzi, hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga rishya mu gusuzuma (CT, PET, na MRI scanning), kuvura (nka mashini ya dialyse, defibrillator, pacemaker, hamwe n’imiti myinshi y’imiti mishya y’imiti), n’ubushakashatsi (nka clon ya interferon na microarray ya ADN) . [56]

Inganda zinganda n’ubwubatsi n’amashyirahamwe birakenewe kugirango dukore kandi tubungabunge ikoranabuhanga rigezweho, kandi inganda zose zaravutse kugirango zitezimbere ibisekuruza bizaza byibikoresho bigoye cyane. Ikoranabuhanga rigezweho rigenda ryishingikiriza ku mahugurwa n’uburezi - ababishushanya, abubatsi, ababungabunga, n’abakoresha akenshi bakeneye amahugurwa akomeye kandi yihariye. Byongeye kandi, tekinoroji imaze kuba ingorabahizi kuburyo imirima yose yateye imbere kugirango ibashyigikire, harimo ubwubatsi, ubuvuzi, na siyanse ya mudasobwa; n'indi mirima imaze kuba ingorabahizi, nk'ubwubatsi, ubwikorezi, n'ubwubatsi.

Akamaro k'ikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga na societe[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Guhindura ikoranabuhanga nimpamvu nyamukuru itera ubukungu bwigihe kirekire. [58] Mu mateka ya muntu, umusaruro w’ingufu nizo mbogamizi nyamukuru mu iterambere ry’ubukungu, kandi ikoranabuhanga rishya ryemereye abantu kongera cyane ingufu ziboneka. Ubwa mbere haje umuriro, watumaga ibiryo byinshi byokurya bitandukanye, kandi bigatuma bidasaba umubiri kubisya. Umuriro kandi watumaga gushonga, no gukoresha amabati, umuringa, nicyuma, bikoreshwa muguhiga cyangwa gucuruza. Nyuma haje kubaho impinduramatwara mu buhinzi: abantu ntibagikeneye guhiga cyangwa guterana ngo babeho, maze batangira gutura mu mijyi no mu migi, bashinga imiryango igoye, ifite ingabo ndetse n’amadini atunganijwe neza.

Ikoranabuhanga ryagize uruhare mu mibereho ya muntu binyuze mu gutera imbere, kuzamura ihumure nubuzima bwiza, niterambere ryubuvuzi, ariko birashobora kandi guhungabanya urwego rwimibereho isanzweho, bigatera umwanda, kandi bikangiza abantu cyangwa amatsinda.

Imyaka yashize yazanye imbuga nkoranyambaga mu muco, hamwe n'ingaruka zishobora kubaho kuri demokarasi, ndetse n'ubukungu n'imibereho myiza. Kera, interineti yabonwaga nk "" ikoranabuhanga ryo kwibohora "ryahindura ubumenyi bwa demokarasi, guteza imbere uburezi, no guteza imbere demokarasi. Ubushakashatsi bugezweho bwahinduye gukora iperereza ku mbogamizi za interineti, zirimo disinformation, polarisation, imvugo yanga, na poropagande.

Kuva mu myaka ya za 70, ingaruka z'ikoranabuhanga ku bidukikije zaranenzwe, bituma ishoramari ryiyongera mu zuba, umuyaga, n'ubundi buryo bw'ingufu zisukuye.

Imodoka y'amashanyarazi ya Volkswagen irimo kubakwa na tekinoroji ya Siemens[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Kuva havumburwa uruziga, tekinoroji yafashije kongera umusaruro wubukungu bwabantu. Automatisation yashize yasimbuye kandi yuzuza imirimo; imashini zasimbuye abantu ku mirimo imwe ihembwa make (urugero nko mu buhinzi), ariko ibi byishyuwe no guhanga imirimo mishya, ihembwa menshi. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko mudasobwa zitakoze ubushomeri bukomeye mu ikoranabuhanga. [63] Bitewe nubwenge bwubuhanga bushoboye cyane kuruta mudasobwa, kandi bikiri mu ntangiriro, ntibizwi niba bizakurikiza inzira imwe; ikibazo cyagiye impaka ndende mubukungu nabafata ibyemezo. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2017 bwerekanye ko nta bwumvikane busobanutse mu bahanga mu bijyanye n’ubukungu niba AI yakongera ubushomeri burambye. Nk’uko bigaragazwa n’ihuriro ry’ubukungu ku isi "Kazoza k’akazi ka Raporo 2020", AI biteganijwe ko izasimbura imirimo miliyoni 85 ku isi hose, ikazatanga imirimo mishya miliyoni 97 mu 2025. [65] [66] Kuva mu 1990 kugeza 2007, ubushakashatsi bwakorewe muri Amerika bwakozwe n’umuhanga mu bukungu wa MIT, Daron Acemoglu, bwerekanye ko kwiyongera kwa robo imwe ku bakozi 1.000 byagabanije umubare w’abakozi ku baturage 0.2%, cyangwa abakozi bagera kuri 3.3, kandi umushahara wagabanutseho 0.42%. [67] [68] Impungenge zijyanye n'ikoranabuhanga risimbuza imirimo y'abantu ariko ziraramba. Nkuko perezida wa Amerika, Lyndon Johnson yabivuze mu 1964, “Ikoranabuhanga ririmo gutanga amahirwe mashya n'inshingano nshya kuri twe, amahirwe yo kongera umusaruro no gutera imbere; inshingano yo kumenya neza ko nta mukozi, nta muryango ugomba kwishyura ikiguzi kidakwiye kugira ngo utere imbere. ” amaze gushyira umukono kuri komisiyo y'igihugu ishinzwe ikoranabuhanga, Automation, n’iterambere ry’ubukungu. [69] [70] [71] [72] [73]

Umutekano[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Hamwe no kwishingikiriza ku ikoranabuhanga, habaye ibibazo by’umutekano n’ibanga hamwe na byo. Abantu babarirwa muri za miriyari bakoresha uburyo butandukanye bwo kwishyura kuri interineti, nka WeChat Pay, PayPal, Alipay, nibindi byinshi kugirango bafashe kohereza amafaranga. Nubwo hashyizweho ingamba z'umutekano, abagizi ba nabi bamwe na bamwe barashobora kubarenga. Muri Werurwe 2022, Koreya ya Ruguru yakoresheje Blender.io, ivanga ryabafashaga guhisha ivunjisha ryabo, kugira ngo binjize amadolari arenga miliyoni 20.5 y’amadolari, muri Axie Infinity, kandi bibye nyir'imikino amafaranga arenga miliyoni 600. Kubera iyo mpamvu, Ishami ry’imari ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika ryemereye Blender.io, bikaba bibaye ku nshuro ya mbere ifata ingamba zo kuvanga imvange, kugira ngo igerageze no guhashya ba hackers bo muri Koreya ya Ruguru. [75] [76] Ibanga ryibanga ryibanga ryaganiriweho. Nubwo abakiriya benshi bakunda ubuzima bwite bwibanga, benshi bavuga kandi ko bikeneye gukorera mu mucyo no gushikama.

Ibidukikije[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga ryagize ingaruka ku isi n'ingaruka mbi kandi nziza ku bidukikije, ubusanzwe bikaba bihindura ibyangiritse byambere, nka; ishyirwaho ry’umwanda no kugerageza gukuraho umwanda wavuzwe, [77] gutema amashyamba no guhindura amashyamba, [78] n’amavuta yamenetse. Ibi byose byagize ingaruka zikomeye kubidukikije byisi. Nkuko ikoranabuhanga ryateye imbere, ni nako bigira ingaruka mbi ku bidukikije, hamwe no kurekura imyuka ihumanya ikirere, nka metani na dioxyde de carbone, mu kirere, bigatera ingaruka za pariki, bigashyushya isi buhoro buhoro kandi bigatera ubushyuhe ku isi. Ibi byose byarushijeho kuba bibi hamwe n’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga.

Umwanda[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Umwanda, kuba hari umwanda mubidukikije bitera ingaruka mbi, washoboraga kuboneka hakiri kare ingoma ya Inca. Bakoresheje amasasu ya sulfide ayobora mu gucukura amabuye y'agaciro, hamwe no gukoresha itanura ry'ibumba ryakozwe n'umuyaga, ryarekuraga mu kirere no mu migezi y'inzuzi.

Filozofiya[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Filozofiya yikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Filozofiya y’ikoranabuhanga ni ishami rya filozofiya yiga "imyitozo yo gushushanya no gukora ibihangano", n "" imiterere yibintu byaremwe. "[81] Yagaragaye nka disipuline mu binyejana bibiri bishize, kandi ikura" ku buryo bugaragara "kuva mu myaka ya za 70. [82] Filozofiya y’ikiremwamuntu yita ku "busobanuro bw'ikoranabuhanga, n'ingaruka zabyo kuri sosiyete n'umuco".

Ku ikubitiro, ikoranabuhanga ryagaragaye nko kwagura ibinyabuzima byabantu byigana cyangwa byongereye umubiri n'ubushobozi bwo mu mutwe. Marx yayigize nk'igikoresho cyakoreshejwe n'abashoramari mu gukandamiza proletariat, ariko yizeraga ko ikoranabuhanga ryaba imbaraga zibohoza mu buryo bwuzuye "nibimara gukurwa mu mibereho y'abaturage". Abafilozofe bo mu cyiciro cya kabiri nka Ortega nyuma bahinduye ibitekerezo byabo mu bukungu na politiki bajya mu "buzima bwa buri munsi no kubaho mu muco wa tekinoloji," bavuga ko ikoranabuhanga rishobora gukandamiza "ndetse n'abayoboke ba burugumesitiri bari ba shebuja kandi bafite ba nyirawo." Abafilozofe bo mu cyiciro cya gatatu nka Don Ihde na Albert Borgmann bagereranya impinduka iganisha kuri rusange no kwishyira ukizana, kandi bagatekereza uburyo abantu bashobora kwiga kubana n'ikoranabuhanga. [82] [Urupapuro rukenewe]

Bourse yo hambere kubijyanye n'ikoranabuhanga yagabanijwemo ingingo ebyiri: kugena ikoranabuhanga, no kubaka imibereho. Kugena ikoranabuhanga ni igitekerezo cy'uko ikoranabuhanga ritera impinduka mu mibereho idashobora kwirindwa. Abubaka imibereho [ninde?] Bavuga ko ikoranabuhanga ridakurikiza iterambere risanzwe, kandi rishingiye ku ndangagaciro z'umuco, amategeko, politiki, no gushimangira ubukungu. Bourse ya kijyambere yagiye yerekeza ku isesengura rya sisitemu ya tekiniki, "guteranya ibintu, abantu, imikorere, nubusobanuro", urebye imanza zagaciro zerekana ikoranabuhanga. [84] [urupapuro rukenewe]

Umunenga w’umuco Neil Postman yatandukanije societe zikoresha ibikoresho n’imiryango y’ikoranabuhanga ndetse n’icyo yise "technopolies", sosiyete yiganjemo ingengabitekerezo y’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga na siyansi byangiza indi mico, indangagaciro, ndetse n’ibitekerezo by’isi. [86] Herbert Marcuse na John Zerzan bavuga ko byanze bikunze sosiyete y’ikoranabuhanga izatubuza umudendezo n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe.

Imyitwarire[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Imyitwarire yikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Imyitwarire yikoranabuhanga nisoko rinyuranye ryimyitwarire isesengura ingaruka zikoranabuhanga kandi ikanashakisha uburyo bwo kugabanya ingaruka mbi ziterwa nikoranabuhanga rishya. Hariho ibibazo byinshi by'imyitwarire ishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga, uhereye ku bice bimwe byibandwaho byibanda ku banyamwuga bakorana n'ikoranabuhanga kugeza ku mibereho migari, imyitwarire, n'amategeko mu bijyanye n'uruhare rw'ikoranabuhanga muri sosiyete no mu buzima bwa buri munsi. [88]

Impaka zikomeye zazengurutse ibinyabuzima byahinduwe mu buryo bwa geneti, gukoresha abasirikari ba robo, kubogama kwa algorithmic, n'ikibazo cyo guhuza imyitwarire ya AI n'indangagaciro z'umuntu [89]

Imyitwarire yikoranabuhanga ikubiyemo ibice byinshi byingenzi. Bioethics ireba ibibazo byimyitwarire ikikije ibinyabuzima nubuvuzi bugezweho, harimo gukoroniza, ubwubatsi bwabantu, hamwe nubushakashatsi bwingirabuzimafatizo. Imyitwarire ya mudasobwa yibanda kubibazo bijyanye na mudasobwa. Cyberethics ishakisha ibibazo bijyanye na interineti nkuburenganzira bwumutungo wubwenge, ubuzima bwite, no kugenzura. Nanoethics isuzuma ibibazo bijyanye no guhindura ibintu kurwego rwa atome na molekile mubyiciro bitandukanye birimo siyanse ya mudasobwa, ubwubatsi, na biyolojiya. Imyitwarire yubuhanga ireba amahame yumwuga ya ba injeniyeri, harimo ba injeniyeri ba software ndetse n’inshingano zabo ku baturage.

Ishami rinini ryimyitwarire yikoranabuhanga ryita kumyitwarire yubwenge bwubuhanga: rikubiyemo imyitwarire ya robo, ikemura ibibazo byimyitwarire igira uruhare mugushushanya, kubaka, gukoresha, no kuvura robo, [91] kimwe nubwitonzi bwimashini, aribyo ashishikajwe no kumenya imyitwarire yimyitwarire yubukorikori. Mu rwego rwimyitwarire ya AI, ibibazo byingenzi byubushakashatsi ariko bitarakemuka harimo guhuza AI (kwemeza ko imyitwarire ya AI ihujwe nintego zabo n’inyungu zabo) hamwe no kugabanya kubogama kwa algorithmic. Bamwe mu bashakashatsi baburiye kwirinda ingaruka ziterwa no gufata AI, banasaba ko hakoreshwa uburyo bwo kugenzura ubushobozi bwa AI hiyongereyeho uburyo bwo guhuza AI.

Izindi nzego zerekeye imyitwarire zagombaga guhangana n’ibibazo bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga, harimo imyitwarire ya gisirikare, imyitwarire y’itangazamakuru, n’imyitwarire y’uburezi.

Inyigisho z'ejo hazaza[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Inyigisho z'ejo hazaza[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Inyigisho z'ejo hazaza ni gahunda itunganijwe kandi itandukanye yiterambere ryimibereho nikoranabuhanga. Ifite intego yo gucukumbura mu buryo bwuzuye kandi yujuje ubuziranenge bw'ejo hazaza hashoboka no kwinjiza indangagaciro z'umuntu mu iterambere ry'ikoranabuhanga rishya. [93]: 54 Muri rusange, abashakashatsi b'ejo hazaza bashishikajwe no kuzamura "umudendezo n'imibereho myiza y'abantu". . Ubuhanga bwa siyanse bukoreshwa nkisoko yibitekerezo.kwigana. [93]: 187

Ingaruka zishobora kubaho[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ibyago byibiza ku isi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Abashakashatsi bahari bashobora gusesengura ingaruka zishobora gutuma abantu barimbuka cyangwa gusenyuka kw'abaturage, bagashaka uburyo bwo kubarwanya. [94] Ibigo by’ubushakashatsi birimo ikigo cya Cambridge cyo Kwiga Ibyago Bihari, hamwe na Stanford Existential Risk Initiative. [96] Ikoranabuhanga ry'ejo hazaza rishobora kugira uruhare mu ngaruka z’ubwenge rusange bw’ubukorikori, intambara y’ibinyabuzima, intambara za kirimbuzi, nanotehnologiya, imihindagurikire y’ikirere ya antropogene, ubushyuhe bw’isi, cyangwa isi yose ihamye, nubwo ikoranabuhanga rishobora kudufasha kugabanya ingaruka ziterwa na asteroide no guturika kwa gamma-ray. [97] Mu mwaka wa 2019, umuhanga mu bya filozofiya Nick Bostrom yerekanye igitekerezo cy’isi itishoboye, "aho usanga hari urwego runaka rw’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga aho usanga umuco wangiritse byanze bikunze", avuga ko ingaruka z’icyorezo cyatewe n’iterabwoba ry’ibinyabuzima, cyangwa ubwoko bw’intwaro bwatewe hifashishijwe iterambere ryintwaro nshyashya no gutakaza kurimbuka kwizerwa. Yahamagariye abafata ibyemezo kubaza igitekerezo kivuga ko iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga rihora ari ingirakamaro, ko gufungura ubumenyi buri gihe ari byiza, cyangwa ko bashobora kwihanganira gutegereza kugeza igihe havumbuwe ikoranabuhanga riteye akaga mbere yo gutegura mituweli.

Ikoranabuhanga rishya[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rishya[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Igeragezwa rya 3D ryerekana imitsi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rishya ni tekinoroji yubuhanga iterambere cyangwa ibikorwa bifatika biracyashoboka. Harimo nanotehnologiya, ibinyabuzima, ibinyabuzima, icapiro rya 3D, ibibujijwe, n'ubwenge bw'ubukorikori.

Mu 2005, futuriste Ray Kurzweil yavuze ko impinduramatwara itaha izashingira ku iterambere ry’irondakoko, nanotehnologiya, na robo, kandi ko robot ari zo zagize uruhare runini muri batatu. Ubwubatsi bwa geneti buzafasha cyane kugenzura ibinyabuzima byabantu binyuze mubikorwa byitwa ubwihindurize. Bamwe mu batekereza bemeza ko ibyo bishobora guhungabanya imyumvire yacu, kandi bagasaba ko hajyaho impaka rusange ziga kuri iki kibazo mu buryo bunonosoye; Nanotehnologiya izaduha ubushobozi bwo gukoresha ibintu "ku gipimo cya molekile na atome", [101] gishobora kudufasha guhindura imiterere n'ibidukikije mu buryo bw'ibanze. [102] Nanobots irashobora gukoreshwa mu mubiri w'umuntu mu kurimbura kanseri cyangwa gukora ibice bishya by'umubiri, bigahindura umurongo uri hagati y'ibinyabuzima n'ikoranabuhanga. Imashini za robo zigenga zateye imbere byihuse, kandi biteganijwe ko zizasimbura abantu mu mirimo myinshi iteje akaga, harimo gushakisha no gutabara, guta ibisasu, kuzimya umuriro, n’intambara.

Ikigereranyo kijyanye no kuza k'ubwenge rusange bw’ubukorikori kiratandukanye, ariko kimwe cya kabiri cy’inzobere mu kwiga imashini zabajijwe mu mwaka wa 2018 zemeza ko AI "izakora imirimo yose neza kandi ihendutse" kurusha abantu mu 2063, kandi igahindura imirimo yose y’abantu mu 2140. [105] Ubu bushomeri buteganijwe mu ikoranabuhanga bwatumye abantu basaba ko hibandwa cyane ku bumenyi bwa mudasobwa n'impaka zerekeye UBI. Impuguke mu bya politiki za politiki zivuga ko ibyo bishobora gutuma intagondwa ziyongera, mu gihe abandi bo babona ko ari amahirwe yo gutangiza ubukungu nyuma y’ubuke.

Ingendo[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rikwiye[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rikwiye[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ibice bimwe byo mu myaka ya za 1960 hippie y’umuco wa hippie byakuze bikunda gutura mu mijyi kandi biteza imbere ikoranabuhanga ryigenga, rirambye, kandi ryegerejwe abaturage, ryitwa ikoranabuhanga rikwiye. Ibi byaje guhindura umuco wa hacker na technopaganism.

Ikoranabuhanga rya utopianism[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Utopianism yikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Ikoranabuhanga rya utopianism ryerekeza ku myizerere ivuga ko iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ari ryiza mu mico, rishobora kandi kuzana utopiya, ni ukuvuga umuryango aho amategeko, guverinoma, n'imibereho myiza y’abaturage bose bakeneye ibyo bakeneye. [106] Ingero zintego za techno-utopian zirimo ubukungu nyuma yubuke, kwagura ubuzima, kohereza ibitekerezo, cryonics, no gukora superintelligence artificiel. Ibikorwa byingenzi bya tekinike-utopian birimo transhumanism na singleularitarism.

Umuryango uhindura abantu ubumuntu ushingiye ku "gukomeza kwihinduranya kw'ubuzima bwa muntu kurenza uko abantu bameze ubu" binyuze mu bumenyi n'ikoranabuhanga, bimenyeshwa "amahame n'indangagaciro biteza imbere ubuzima." [107] Uyu mutwe wamamaye cyane mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 21. 108]

Abaseribateri bemeza ko superintelligence ya mashini "izihutisha iterambere mu ikoranabuhanga" hakurikijwe ubunini kandi "ikarema ndetse n’ibintu bifite ubwenge byihuta cyane", ibyo bikaba bishobora gutuma habaho umuvuduko w’impinduka z’imibereho n’ikoranabuhanga "bitumvikana" kuri twe. Ibi birori bizwi nkubuhanga bwikoranabuhanga.

Imibare nyamukuru ya techno-utopianism harimo Ray Kurzweil na Nick Bostrom. Techno-utopianism yakunze gushimwa no kunengwa nabatekereza bateye imbere, abanyamadini, ndetse naba conservateurs.

Kurwanya ikoranabuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

ludite, Neo-Luddism, na Bioconservatism[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Luddite bamenagura icyuma cyamashanyarazi muri 1812

Uruhare rw'ikoranabuhanga mu mibereho yacu rwakuruye impungenge no gusubira inyuma. Kwamagana ikoranabuhanga ntabwo ari urugendo rumwe kandi rukubiyemo ibitekerezo byinshi bitandukanye.

Imyigaragambyo ya mbere izwi kurwanya ikoranabuhanga ni Luddism, gusubiza inyuma kwikora hakiri kare mu gukora imyenda. Automation yari yatumye hakenerwa abakozi bake, inzira izwi nkubushomeri bwikoranabuhanga.

Hagati ya za 1970 na 1990, umunyamerika w’iterabwoba Ted Kaczynski yagabye ibitero byinshi muri Amerika maze asohora Manabesto ya Unabomber yamagana ingaruka mbi z’ikoranabuhanga ku bidukikije no ku bwisanzure bwa muntu. Inyandiko yumvikanye igice kinini cyabaturage ba Amerika. Byatewe inkunga na sosiyete ya tekinoloji ya Jacques Ellul. [113]

Imico imwe n'imwe, kimwe na gride ya gride, ishyigikira kuva mu ikoranabuhanga no gusubira muri kamere. Urugendo rwa ecovillage rushaka kugarura ubwumvikane hagati yikoranabuhanga na kamere. [114]

Isano na siyanse nubuhanga[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Antoine Lavoisier agerageza gutwikwa biterwa nizuba ryinshi

Ubwubatsi ninzira yiterambere ryikoranabuhanga. Bikunze gusaba gukemura ibibazo mu mbogamizi zikomeye. Iterambere ry'ikoranabuhanga "rishingiye ku bikorwa", mu gihe ubumenyi bwa siyansi busobanura mu buryo bw'ibanze. Umuhanga mu bya filozofiya wo muri Polonye, Henryk Skolimowski, yabigize atya: "siyanse ireba ibiriho, ikoranabuhanga n'ibigomba kuba." [117]: 375

Icyerekezo cya nyirabayazana hagati yubuvumbuzi bwa siyansi no guhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga cyaganiriweho n’abahanga, abahanga mu bya filozofiya n’abafata ibyemezo. Kuberako guhanga udushya akenshi bikorwa kurwego rwubumenyi bwa siyansi, tekinoroji nyinshi ntabwo ikomoka kubumenyi bwa siyansi, ahubwo ikomoka mubuhanga, gutobora n'amahirwe. gutwika cyangwa gutembera kwamazi byari bikiri bibi, moteri yindege yavumbuwe binyuze "gukoresha igikoresho kurimbuka, gusesengura icyacitse [...] no gusubiramo inzira". [115] Ibisobanuro bya siyansi akenshi bikurikirana iterambere ryikoranabuhanga aho kubibanjirije. Kuva mu myaka ya za 1960, gutekereza ko inkunga ya leta mu bushakashatsi bw'ibanze yatuma havumburwa ikoranabuhanga ku isoko ryatakaje icyizere. [121] Umunyembaraga Nassim Taleb avuga ko gahunda z’ubushakashatsi ku rwego rw’igihugu zishyira mu bikorwa imyumvire y’umutuzo n’ubwumvikane buke binyuze mu bigeragezo kenshi no mu makosa bishoboka cyane ko biganisha ku guhanga udushya kuruta ubushakashatsi bugamije kugera ku musaruro wihariye. [119] [123]

Nubwo bimeze gurtyo, tekinoroji igezweho iragenda yishingikiriza kubumenyi bwimbitse, bwihariye bwa siyanse. Mu 1979, impuzandengo ya patenti kuri eshatu zatanzwe muri Amerika zavuze ibitabo bya siyansi; kugeza mu 1989, ibi byiyongereye ku kigereranyo cya citation imwe kuri patenti. Ikigereranyo cyagereranijwe hejuru na patenti zijyanye n'inganda zikora imiti, chimie, na elegitoroniki. Isesengura ryakozwe mu 2021 ryerekana ko ipatanti ishingiye ku buvumbuzi bwa siyansi ifite impuzandengo ya 26% ifite agaciro kangana na patenti zishingiye kuri siyansi.

Andi moko yinyamaswa[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Iyi ngagi ikuze ikoresha ishami nkigiti kigenda kugirango ipime ubujyakuzimu bwamazi.

Gukoresha tekinoroji yibanze nayo iranga ubwoko bwinyamanswa zitari abantu. Gukoresha ibikoresho byigeze gufatwa nkibisobanuro biranga ubwoko bwa Homo. [126] Iki gitekerezo cyatanzwe nyuma yo kuvumbura ibimenyetso byerekana imikoreshereze yibikoresho muri chimpanzees nizindi primates, [127] dolphine, [128] nigikona. [129] [130] Kurugero, abashakashatsi babonye chimpanzees zo mwishyamba bakoresheje ibikoresho byibanze byo kurisha, udukoko, udusimba, bakoresheje amababi nka sponges, nigishishwa cyibiti cyangwa imizabibu nkibisubizo by’amafi. [131] Chimpanzees yo muri Afurika y'Iburengerazuba ikoresha inyundo n'amabuye mu gutobora imbuto, [132] kimwe n'inguge za capuchin zo muri Boa Vista, muri Burezili. [133] Gukoresha ibikoresho ntabwo aribwo buryo bwonyine bwo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga ryinyamaswa; nk'urugero, ingomero z'inzuki, zubakishijwe inkoni cyangwa amabuye manini, ni ikoranabuhanga rifite ingaruka "zikomeye" ku migezi no ku bidukikije. [134]

Umuco uzwi[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

Umubano w’ikiremwamuntu n’ikoranabuhanga wacukumbuwe mu buvanganzo bwa siyanse, urugero nko mu Isi Nshya Y’Intwari, Isaha ya Orange, Icyenda cumi n'umunani na kane, inyandiko za Isaac Asimov, na filime nka Raporo Ntoya, Twibuke, Gattaca, na Inception. Yabyaye injyana ya dystopiya na futuristic cyberpunk, ihuza ikoranabuhanga rya futuristic hamwe no gusenyuka kwabaturage, dystopiya cyangwa kubora. Ibikorwa byingenzi bya cyberpunk birimo igitabo cya Neuromancer cya William Gibson, na firime nka Blade Runner, na Matrix.

Ihuza[hindura | hindura inkomoko]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

  1. https://rw.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IKORANABUHANGA_(ubusobanuro)&veaction=edit
  2. https://rw.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IKORANABUHANGA_(ubusobanuro)&veaction=edit
  3. https://www.bbc.com/gahuza/topics/cnq68qdw70zt
  4. https://mobile.igihe.com/amakuru/u-rwanda/article/kigali-hatangiye-amahugurwa-ku-ikoranabuhanga-ryifashishwa-mu-nganda?var_mode=calcul
  5. https://www.kigalitoday.com/amakuru/amakuru-mu-rwanda/article/perezida-kagame-yatangije-ikigo-cy-ikoranabuhanga-cyihutisha-iterambere-ry-inganda
  6. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2023-02-09. Retrieved 2023-03-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. https://mobile.igihe.com/ikoranabuhanga/article/icyerekezo-cy-u-rwanda-mu-ikoranabuhanga-mu-byakururiye-hence-technologies-y
  8. https://www.kigalitoday.com/amakuru/amakuru-mu-rwanda/article/perezida-kagame-yagaragaje-akamaro-k-ikoranabuhanga-mu-kubaka-ubukungu-budaheza
  9. https://mobile.igihe.com/ubukungu/article/bwa-mbere-volkswagen-igiye-gukorera-mu-rwanda-imodoka-zifashishwa-mu-buhinzi
  10. https://flash.rw/2019/10/29/menya-e-golf-imodoka-ya-volkswagen-ya-mbere-ikoresha-amashanyarazi-mu-rwanda/