Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti

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Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti, Riyo do Janeyiro 2007

Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) ni urubuga ruhurirwamo n'abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye bafite aho bahurira n'ibikorwa bya IG baganira cyane ku bibazo by'ingamba za politiki y'Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti[1]. Ishyirwaho rya IGF ryatangajwe ku mugaragaro n'Umunyamabanga Mukuru w'umuryango w'Abibumbye muri Nyakanga 2006 nyuma ritangira gukora mu Ukwakira/Ugushyingo 2006.

Imiterere n'Imikorere[edit | edit source]

Ishyirwaho ry'Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti was first recommended in the report of the Itsinda Rikurikirana iby'Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti following a series of open consultations. This report was one of the inputs to the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis in 2005, which formally called for the creation of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) and set out its mandate.[2]

Nyuma y'inama yari igamije kwegera uwo ariwe wese ufite icyo yamara muri iki gikorwa yahamagajwe muri Gashyantare 2006, Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa ONU yashyizeho Itsindangishwanama, MAG mu magambo ahinnye, n'Ubunyamabanga buhoraho n'inkingishingiro za IGF.

These organizational divisions should not be considered concrete since the organizational structures will continue to be adjusted and to be changed until they fit into the needs of the members.

Itsindangishwanama rigizwe n'abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye bashishikajwe n'iki kibazo - MAG[edit | edit source]

Itsindangishwanama, now referred to as the MAG (Itsindangishwanama rigizwe n'abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye bashishikajwe n'iki kibazo) was set up by the former Umunyamabanga Mukuru of the United Nations, Mr Kofi Annan on Gicurasi 17, 2006[3]. The MAG was originally made up of 46 Members from international governments, the commercial private sector and public civil society, including academic and technical communities, and was chaired by Nitin Desai, the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser for the World Summit on the Information Society. All stakeholders participate as equals. The purpose for which the MAG was set up was to assist the Umunyamabanga Mukuru in convening the Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti. On August 20, 2007 the mandate of the MAG was renewed[4] with a new structure of 47 members, and a Co-Chairmanship by Nitin Desai[5], and Burezili (Brazil)ian diplomat Hadil da Rocha Vianna[5].The mandate of the MAG was further extended in Mata 30, 2008[6] with a renewed one third of its members within each stakeholder group and Nitin Desai serving as the sole Chairman[5]. MAG iterana inshuro eshatu buri mwaka - muri Gashyantare, Gicurasi no muri Nzeri. All three meetings take place in Jeneve kuri Paledenasiyo (Palais des Nations) and they are preceded by open consultations meeting.

Amakuru arambuye ku mahame y'imikorere ya MAG n'ibishingirwaho mu gutoranya abayigize bikubiye muri the summary report of its Gashyantare meeting available at [1][7]

Ivugururwa ry'ubunyamuryango bwa MAG Ibiro by'Umuryango w'Abibumbye biri i Jeneve mu Busuwisi, ku wa 22 Kanama 2008, byavuguruye ubunyamuryango bwa MAG mu rwego rwo gutegura inama ku Rubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti izabera Hiderabadi (Hyderabad) mu Buhindi (India). A total of 50 members, 17 among them new have been appointed, which represents 1/3 of its membership. Nitin Desai continues to be the Chairman for Itsindangishwanama. (Source: UN Department of Public Information, United Nations Office in Jeneve. Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access)ed online at:[2][8]

Ubunyamabanga[edit | edit source]

Ubunyamabanga, bufite icyicaro ku biro by'Umuryango w'Abibumbye biri i Jeneve mu Busuwisi, assists and coordinates the work of the MAG, Itsindangishwanama rigizwe n'abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye bashishikajwe n'iki kibazo. The Ubunyamabanga is headed by Markus Kummer with the designation of Executive Coordinator and Chengetai Masango is Programme and Technology Manager. The Ubunyamabanga also hosts fellowships.[9], Markus Kummer has also been involved with the WGIG as its Executive Coordinator of the Ubunyamabanga[10].

Amateka n'ishyirwaho ry'Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti[edit | edit source]

Gukurikirana imyanzuro yavuye muri WSIS[edit | edit source]

Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) is considered an important development of the Inama mpuzamahanga kubyerekeye Umuryango Ukungahaye ku Makuru (WSIS). This important outcome was reaffirmed by paragraphs 37 and 38 of the Tunis 2005 Commitment. Paragraph 37 states that “…goals can be accomplished through the involvement, cooperation and partnership of governments and other stakeholders, i.e. the private sector, civil society and international organizations, and that international cooperation and solidarity at all levels are indispensable if the fruits of the Information Society are to benefit all.”[11] Corollary to this commitment, paragraph 38 states, too, that all efforts from here on “should not stop with the conclusion of the Summit…emergence of the global Information Society to which we all contribute provides increasing opportunities for all our peoples and for an inclusive global community…we must harness these opportunities today and support their further development and progress.”[12]

Inama Mpuzamahanga y'i Tunisi yo mu mwaka w'2005 made significant headway when the mandate of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) was formulated. In paragraph 72 of the Tunis Agenda, the UN Secretary-General was asked to convene a meeting hagamijwe ku the new multi-stakeholder Urubuga, otherwise known as the IGF. In this mandate, different stakeholders are encouraged to strengthen engagement, particularly those from developing countries. In paragraph 72(h), the mandate focused on capacity-building for developing countries and the drawing out of local resources.[13] This particular effort, for instance, has been reinforced through Diplo Foundation’s Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti Kongerera Ubushobozi Abakoresha Interinet (Capacity Building) Programme (IGCBP) that allowed participants from different regions to benefit from valuable resources with the help of regional experts in IG. [14]

The involvement of different stakeholders in the policy framework of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) is a re-affirmation of commitment as per paragraph 39 of the Tunis Commitment. In this particular context, there is a deep resolve to “…develop and implement an effective and sustainable response to the challenges and opportunities of building a truly global Information Society that benefits all our peoples.” [11] During the OECD Civil Society-Organized Labour Urubuga held last Kamena 16, 2008, in Seoul, Korea, Ambassador David A. Gross of the US Department of State talked about the transformation of the Internet in the social lives of people. He believed that this transformation made an impact in the free flow of information that politically drives challenges. Ambassador Gross commented on the 2005 WSIS because of the powerful language used on paragraph 4 of the Tunis agenda that reiterated on Kuba buri wese ashobora kuyagiraho uruhare (Openness). [15]

Ishyirwaho rya IGF[edit | edit source]

A multi-stakeholder’s approach was reiterated in ubuhuzabikorwa bwa international activities for the IGF. This adaptation was set from paragraphs 29 to 35 of the Tunis agenda. These stakeholders were defined as coming from governments, the private technical and economic sector, civil society, intergovernmental organizations, and international organizations. In paragraph 32, the UN Secretary-General was commended for his efforts in establishing the Itsinda Rikurikirana iby' Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti (WGIG).

The suggested need of an organization like Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) was first pointed out in the WGIG Report. After reaching a clear consensus among its members the WGIG proposed in paragraph 40 of the Report that :

"(t)he WGIG identified a vacuum within the context of existing structures, since there is no global multi-stakeholder Urubuga to address Internet-related public policy issues. It came to the conclusion that there would be merit in creating such a space for dialogue among all stakeholders. This space could address these issues, as well as emerging issues, that are cross-cutting and multidimensional and that either affect more than one institution, are not dealt with by any institution or are not addressed in a coordinated manner”.

Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) was one of four proposals made in the report.

The idea of the Urubuga was also proposed by Argentina, as stated in its proposal [16] made during the last Prepcom 3 in Tunis:

"(t)In order to strengthen the global multistakeholder interaction and cooperation on public policy issues and developmental aspects relating to Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti we propose a Urubuga. This Urubuga should not replace existing mechanisms or institutions but should build on the existing structures on Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti, should contribute to the sustainability, stability and robustness of the Internet by addressing appropriately public policy issues that are not otherwise being adequately addressed excluding any involvement in the day to day operation of the Internet. It should be constituted as a neutral, non-duplicative and non-binding process to facilitate the exchange of information and best practices and to identify issues and make known its findings, to enhance awareness and build consensus and engagement. Recognizing the rapid development of technology and institutions, we propose thkuri Urubuga mechanism periodically be reviewed to determine the need for its continuation.”

The convening of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) was announced on 18 Nyakanga 2006, with the inaugural meeting of the Urubuga being held in Athens, Greece from 30 October to 2 Ugushyingo 2006.

Kwegerana no kujya inama[edit | edit source]

HAbayeho amanama abiri yo kwegerana no kujya inama hagamijwe gutumiza IGF bwa mbere:

[1] Kuva ku wa 16 – 17 Gashyantare 2006 – Inama ya mbere yo kwegerana no kujya inama yabereye i Jeneve. The transcripts of the two-day consultations are available in Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) site. [17] [18]

[2] Ku wa 19 Gicurasi 2006 – Inama ya kabiri yo kwegerana no kujya inama was open to all stakeholders and was coordinated for the preparations of the inaugural IGF meeting. The meeting chairman was Nitin Desai who is the Umuryango w'abibumbye Secretary-General's Special Adviser for Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti. [19]

Inama ya kabiri ya IGF

Consultations held in Jeneve last Gicurasi 23, 2007 were open to all stakeholders. This consultation was part of a cluster of related events of the WSIS that took place last 15-25 of Gicurasi 2007. [20] An Itsindangishwanama was also facilitated for Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) meeting in Riyo do Janeyiro, Burezili (Brazil). Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) open Consultations held last 3 September 2007 was held in Jeneve. [21]

For further information, a summary of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) consultations and meetings can be found below:


Date Event
16 - 18 Ugushyingo 2005 Second Phase of the WSIS in Tunis
16 – 17 Gashyantare 2006 First Round of Consultations
2 Werurwe 2006 Ishingwa ry'Ubunyamabanga bwa IGF
19 Gicurasi 2006 Second Round of Consultations
22 – 23 Gicurasi 2006 Establishment and First Meeting of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) Itsindangishwanama
18 Nyakanga 2006 Convening of the IGF
7 – 8 Nzeri 2006 Inama ya Kabiri of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) Itsindangishwanama
30 Ukwakira – 2 Ugushyingo 2006 Inaugural Meeting of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) in Athens
12 - 15 Ugushyingo 2007 Inama ya Kabiri of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) in Riyo do Janeyiro, Burezili (Brazil)
13 Gicurasi 2008 Open Consultations
14-15 Gicurasi 2008 Inama y'Itsindangishwanama rya IGF rigizwe n'abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye bashishikajwe n'iki kibazo(MAG)

Inama ya gatatu ya IGF izabera i Hiderabadi, mu Buhinde kuva ku wa 3-6 Ukuboza 2008.

Guverinoma ya Misiri yemeye kuzategura inama ya IGF yo mu 2009, mu gihe Guverinima ya Lituwaniya na Azerubayija zikiri gupiganirwa gutegura no kwakira inama yo mu 2010.

Inshingano n'Ibyitezwe kuvamo[edit | edit source]

The mandate of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) is principally that of a discussion Urubuga for facilitating dialogue between the participants. Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) Gicurasi "identify emerging issues, bring them to the attention of the relevant bodies and the general public, and, where appropriate, make recommendations", but does not have any direct decision-making authority[22].

Ibikorwa kuri IGF[edit | edit source]

The following activities take place kuri IGF: inama nyunguranabitekerezo, Best Practice Urubugas, Open Urubugas and meetings of the Dynamic Coalitions.

The main themes of IGF are: Kuba buri wese ashobora kuyagiraho uruhare (Openness), Umutekano w'amakuru yo kuri Interineti (Security), Kuhasanga amakuru anyuranye (Diversity) and Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access). A new theme was introduced in IGF Burezili (Brazil): critical Internet resources being one of the most debatable topics in the IG field kuri moment.

Amatsinda y'abibumbiye hamwe[edit | edit source]

The most tangible results of the first IGF in Athens are a number of so-called Dynamic Coalitions[23]. These coalitions are relatively informal, issue-specific groups consisting of stakeholders that are interested in the particular issue.

Most coalitions allow participation of anyone interested in contributing. Thus, these groups gather not only academics and representatives of governments, but also members of the civil society interested in participating on the debates and engaged in the coalition's works.

Kugeza ubu, Amatsinda y'abibumbiye hamwe akurikira yamenyeshejwe kandi azwi n'Ubunyamabanga bwa IGF:

  • Abibumbiye guhagarika ubutumwarwivanga [3]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye gusuzuma iby'Ubushimusinkoranabuhanga [4]
  • Itsinda rya IGF ry'abibumbiye kwiga ku Mahame ngengabwisanzure (IGF DCOS) [5]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye guteza imbere ukugera ku ikoranabuhanga no gufungurira amarembo ibice biherereye kure y'imijyi, ibyaro n'imiryango ituye itatanye [6]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye gusuzuma iby'itike y'uburenganzira kuri Interineti [7]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye kwiga kurunyurane rw'indimi [8]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye gukurikirana ibya A2K@IGF [9]
  • Uburenganzira bwo kwisanzura mu kuvuga ibyo utekereza n'Ubwisanzure bw'Itangazamakuru kuri Interineti (FOEonline) [10]
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye kureba ibyo gukorera hamwe igikorwa runaka hakoreshejwe interineti [11]
  • Gender and Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti (GIG)
  • Umurongo w'amahame ngenderwaho kuri interineti
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye ku mutekano w'abana bakoresha interineti
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye ku "Kugera ku isoko y'amakuru n'Ubumuga" ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access)ibility/DC
  • Itsinda ry'abibumbiye gusuzuma ibyo kwiga hakoreshejwe interineti

Inama nyunguranabitekerezo[edit | edit source]

Mu 2007, IGF yakoresheje amanama nyunguranabitekerezo [12] which attracted great interest of the public. In particular, the theme of child protection was one of the topics that raised much participation.

Ku bireba umwaka w'2008 Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) page stipulates that inama nyunguranabitekerezo[13] can be proposed on the draft main session headings:

  * Universalization of the Internet - How to reach the next billion (Expanding the Internet)
  * Ibiciro bito bituma umuntu agira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru yifuza
  * Ikoreshandimi zitandukanye
  * Implications for development policy
  * Imicungire ya Interineti (Ugukoresha Interineti)
  * Critical Internet resources
  * Arrangements for Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti
  * Global cooperation for Internet Umutekano w'amakuru yo kuri Interineti (Security) and stability
  * Taking stock and the way forward
  * Ibibazo bishya bivuka

The following inama nyunguranabitekerezo have been proposed as of 15 Gicurasi 2008, according to the Workshop pagenyunguranabitekerezo_08/wrkshplist.php. These proposals will be reviewed, an attempt will be made to merge propositions into a manageable number of inama nyunguranabitekerezo.

Number Proposed Workshop Theme
15
Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access)
9
Kuhasanga amakuru anyuranye (Diversity)
15
Kuba buri wese ashobora kuyagiraho uruhare (Openness)
21
Umutekano w'amakuru yo kuri Interineti (Security)
13
Critical Internet Resources
9
Development
6
Kongerera Ubushobozi Abakoresha Interinet (Capacity Building)
17
Ibindi

A revision of the Process and programme of the Hyderabad meeting is available at www.intgovforum.org.

IGF ya I yabereye Atene (Athens) mu 2006[edit | edit source]

Urubuga rwa interineti ruduha amakuru ashimishije arebana n'uburyo inama ya mbere ya IGF yateguwe kugeza ibaye.[24]

Inama ya II ya IGF yabereye i Riyo do Janeyiro mu 2007[edit | edit source]

Icyo gihe hari ibikorwa 84 byaberaga igihe kimwe n'amasesiyo y'ingenzi, organized under the 5 main themes: (i) critical internet resources; (ii) Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access); (iii) Kuhasanga amakuru anyuranye (Diversity); (iv) Kuba buri wese ashobora kuyagiraho uruhare (Openness) and (v) Umutekano w'amakuru yo kuri Interineti (Security). There were 36 inama nyunguranabitekerezo, 23 best practices Urubugas, 11 dynamic coalitions meetings, 8 Urubuga rwaguye n'ibikorwa 6 byigaga ku bindi bibazo (nk'Inama ya Giganetithe (Giganet Symposium)[25]) [26]

The host webpage keeps video and audio records from main sessions and some parallel events such as inama nyunguranabitekerezo, best practices and open Urubugas, as well as the tool for translation into Arabic.[27]

Regarding the participation by region, around 35% of the attendees came from the Latin America and Caribbean of which 29% were from the host country (Burezili (Brazil)).

There are also some interesting statistics such as[28]:

Region Participation
Latin America and Caribbean
35%
Western Europe
20%
North America
13%
Asia
13%
Africa
10%
Eastern Europe
7%
Oceania
2%

Amanama y'ingenzi[edit | edit source]

The main sessions were developed according the 5 themes chosen for this year: Critical Internet Resources, Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access), Kuhasanga amakuru anyuranye (Diversity), Kuba buri wese ashobora kuyagiraho uruhare (Openness) and Umutekano w'amakuru yo kuri Interineti (Security).

Please see below the summary of the main sessions:

Opening Ceremony/Opening Session[edit | edit source]

The multistakeholder approach were highlighted by many speakers and panelists during the Opening Session, including the message from the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, which was read by the UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, M. Sha Zukang.

M. Ban Ki-Moon assures that it is not a UN goal to take over Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti but only offers an opportunity to get together people with the same interest in a global reach. [29]

M. Sha Zukang concludes thkuri IGF was a unique experience because “it brings together people who normally do not meet under the same roof”. [30]

Development were also a key discussion in IGF-RIO, as the theme chosen for this meeting, including the breaking of digital divide, which becomes the theme for the next IGF: Internet for All.

The nature and prospective of Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF) were also discussed, as the Chairman properly summarizes[26]:

“Abantu benshi bitabiriye ubwo butumire bavuga ko IGF atari gusa urubuga rwo kuganira, ahubwo ari n'umuyoboro ushobora gutiza umurindi ihinduka ry'ingenzi ku rwego rw'ibanze mu rwego rwo kongerera abaturage ubushobozi, build capacity and skills enable the Internet`s expansion, thereby contributing to economic and social development."

Amakuru y'abasesenguzi b'ibya Interineti[edit | edit source]

Kugera ku makuru[edit | edit source]

Ibitekerezo binyuranye[edit | edit source]

Ubwisanzure[edit | edit source]

Umutekano[edit | edit source]

Taking Stock and the Way Forward[edit | edit source]

Ibibazo bishya byo kwigwaho[edit | edit source]

This session aims to identify key issues in Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti that should be addressed in the Urubuga. Ingorane ya mbere yabaye gutoranya zimwe mu ngingo zo kwigaho, bitewe n'uko hari ibitekerezo binyuranye bitashoboragwa kwigwaho ku buryo burambuye n'itsinda rimgana uko. There were four themes proposed:

(i) demand and supply side initiatives (by Robert Pepper). He brought into debate the economic concept of demand and supply applied to Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti. On the demand side, there were interesting proposals, such as the need for educating trough capacity-building Internet users, the ability of people controlling their web ID (part of educating the usage in Internet), local content in local languages (enforcing local community) and improving public policies (but not over regulating, such as prohibiting or limiting Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access) to VoIP, which can suppress the demand). On the supply side, there were the common concern of extending Internet users/Kugira ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru wifuza (Access), but also considering “the opportunities created by the release of spectrum through the switch to digital broadcasting were highlighted. Some speakers suggested that such spectrum could be used to support new broadband networks and support new investment and innovative services, while Ibindis held the view that this would not be a sustainable solution.” [26]

(ii) ibibazo mbonezamubano, ibijyanye n'umuco na politiki bya Web 2.0 (bizakorwa na Andrew Keen);

(iii) kugera ku isoko y'amakuru (by'umwihariko muri Afurika, bizakorwa na Nii Quaynor) na

(iv) guhanga ibishya, ubushakashatsi n'amajyambere (bizakorwa Robert Kahn).

AnIbindi challenge was to discuss emerging issues in a global Urubuga with different perspectives, for example, developed and developing countries realities; democratic and non-democratic political regimes, etc.

Igice gisoza[edit | edit source]

Inama za IGF mu gihe kizaza[edit | edit source]

2008 Inama ya gatatu ya IGFizabera i Hiderabadi, mu Buhindi kuva ku wa 3-6 Ukuboza 2008. [14]
2009 Guverinoma ya Misiri yemeye kuzategura inama ya IGF yo mu 2009 IGF.
2010 Guverinima ya Lituwaniya na Azerubayija ziri gupiganirwa gutegura no kwakira inama yo mu 2010.

Inyandiko zifashishijwe[edit | edit source]

  1. Urubuga ku micungire n'imiyoborere ya Interineti (IGF)
  2. Tunis Agenda for the Information Society, para 72
  3. Press Release By the UN
  4. Press Release by the UN
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 List of Itsindangishwanama Members
  6. Press Release By The UN
  7. www.intgovforum.org
  8. Renewal of MAG
  9. About
  10. http://www.wgig.org/about.html
  11. 11.0 11.1 World Summit on the Information Society. [2005. The Tunis Commitment [online]. Available from: http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/7.html]
  12. Ibid.
  13. World Summit on the Information Society. [2005. Tunis Agenda for the Information Society [online]. Available from: http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/6rev1.pdf]
  14. Read further on Diplo's "Activities" on "Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti" available from: http://www.diplomacy.edu/ig
  15. Read further on the community blog of Diplo Foundation, specifically on OECD impressions: http://www.diplomacy.edu/ig/communityblog.asp
  16. Argentina´s Urubuga Proposal in WSIS
  17. 16 Gashyantare 2006 transcripts are available from: http://intgovUrubuga.org/contributions/IGF-1-0216.txt and http://intgovUrubuga.org/contributions/IGF-1-021606pm.txt
  18. 17 Gashyantare 2006 transcripts are available from: http://intgovUrubuga.org/contributions/UN-IGF-AM-2-17-06.txt and http://intgovUrubuga.org/contributions/UN-IGF-PM-2-17-06.txt
  19. A summary of contributions is available from http://intgovUrubuga.org/Summary%20of%20discussions.htm
  20. Read further on the WSIS related events available from: http://www.itu.int/wsis/follow-up/index.html
  21. Transcript for 3 September 2007 open consultations is available from: http://www.intgovforum.org/IGF-03Sept07Consultation.txt
  22. Mandate
  23. Dynamic Coalitions
  24. Twagusabaga kurusura aha hakurikira http://www.igfgreece2006.gr/
  25. GigaNet - Global Imicungire n'Imiyoborere ya Interineti Academic Network - IGLOO
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 http://www.intgovforum.org/Rio_Meeting/Chairman%20Summary.FINAL.16.11.2007.pdf
  27. Please see http://www.igfBurezili (Brazil)2007.br/
  28. Full information available at http://www.intgovforum.org/rio_stats.htm
  29. Available at: http://www.intgovforum.org/Rio_Meeting/IGF2-opening-12NOV07.txt (page 1)
  30. Available at: http://www.intgovforum.org/Rio_Meeting/IGF2-opening-12NOV07.txt (page 2)

Imiyoboro ikugeza kuyandi masite[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]