Indwara y’umusinziro nyafurika

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Indwara y'umusinziro nyafurika
Classification and external resources
Amasura indwara y'umusinziro igira ikizinga cy'amaraso
Amasura indwara y'umusinziro igira ikizinga cy'amaraso
ICD/CIM-10 B56 B56
ICD/CIM-9 086.5 086.5
DiseasesDB 29277, 13400
MedlinePlus 001362
MeSH D014353

Indwara y’umusinziro nyafurika cyangwa Indwara yo guhondobera [1] ni indwara indwara ifata abantu n’amatungo. Iterwa n’umugera uva mu dukoko twitwa Trypanosoma brucei.[2] Umuntu ashobora kwandura ubwoko bubiri bwayo, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b.g) na Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.).[1] T.b.g niyo ifata abarwayi 98 ku ijana bayandura.[1] Ayo moko abiri aterwa akenshi no kurumwa n’ isazi ya tsetse irwaye ikaba yiganje mu bice by’ibyaro.[1]

Mu mizo ya mbere, iyo indwara ikigaragaza bwa mbere, umurwayi ahinda umuriro, akarwara umutwe, akumva uburyaryate n’ububabare mu ngingo.[1] Indwara yigaragaza nyuma y’ibyumweru bitatu umuntu arumwe n’isazi ya tsetse.[3] Mu byumweru bikurikiyeho cyangwa nyuma y’amezi ibimenyetso byo ku ntera ya kabiri byigaragaza mu buryo umuntu asa n’udasobanukiwe n’uko yiyumva, ingingo ze ntabashe kuziyobora, akagira ibinya ntasinzire neza.[1][3] Mu kuyisuzuma bapima agakoko mu kazinga k’amaraso cyangwa mu mashyira ava mu ntobo.[3] amatembabuzi yo mu ruti rw'umugongo ni yo bapima akenshi ngo babashe gutandukanya niba indwara ikiri ku ntera ya mbere cyangwa igeze ku ntera ya kabiri.[3]


Kwirinda ko yahinduka igikatu bisaba ko abaturage yugarije bakorerwa ibizami by’amaraso bagapimwa T.b.g.[1] Iyi indwara ivurwa bitagoranye iyo igaragaye mu maraso hakiri kare mbere y’uko igaragaza ibimenyetso by’uko yaba yarakwirakwiriye mu mitsi.[1] Imiti bayivuza ikiri ku ntera ya mbere ni pentamidine cyangwa suramin.[1] Ku ntera ya kabiri bitabaza eflornithine cyangwa bakungikanya nifurtimox na eflornithine iyo ari T.b.g.[3] Naho melarsoprol yo ikoreshwa mu kuyivura ku ntera yaba igezeho iyo ari yo yose ikaba ariko by’umwihariko yitabazwa mu kuvura T.b.r iyo itangiye gutera izindi ngaruka ziremereye.[1]

Iyi ndwara yiganje cyane cyane mu turere tumwe twa Afurika yo mu majyepfo ya Sahara, ikaba yugarije abaturage bakabakaba miliyoni 70 mu bihugu 36.[4] Mu mwaka wa 2010 yahitanye abantu bagera ku 9000 umubare ukaba wari wagabanutse ugereranyije n’a bantu 34000 yahitanye muri 1990.[5] Abantu babarirwa kuri 30000 nibo bayanduye kuri ubu muri bo 7000 bayanduye mu mwaka wa 2012.[1] Muri abo bayanduye abarenga 80 ku ijana ubasanga muri repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Kongo.[1] Ahantu hatatu h’ingezi yigeze kuba icyorezo mu mateka ya vuba ubwa mbere ni kuva mu mwaka 1896 kugeza 1906 ni muri Uganda no mu Kibaya cya Kongo ubwa kabiri ni hagati ya 1920 na 1970 mu bihugu byinshi by’ Afurika.[1] Amatungo na yo, urugero ni nk’inka, ashobora gusanganwa iyi ndwara yarayanduye.[1]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 WHO Media centre (June 2013). Fact sheet N°259: Trypanosomiasis, Human African (sleeping sickness). 
  2. MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Sleeping sickness
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Kennedy, PG (2013 Feb). "Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).". Lancet neurology 12 (2): 186–94. PMID 23260189. 
  4. Simarro PP, Cecchi G, Franco JR, Paone M, Diarra A, Ruiz-Postigo JA, Fèvre EM, Mattioli RC, Jannin JG (2012). "Estimating and Mapping the Population at Risk of Sleeping Sickness". PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6 (10): e1859. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001859. 
  5. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.