Gapfura

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Gapfura
Classification and external resources
Ikizamini cyagaragaje uburwayi bwa anjine izanye n'amashyira ku maraka y'umuntu ufite ikigero cy'imyaka 16.
Ikizamini cyagaragaje uburwayi bwa anjine izanye n'amashyira ku maraka y'umuntu ufite ikigero cy'imyaka 16.
ICD/CIM-10 J02 J02
ICD/CIM-9 034.0 034.0
DiseasesDB 12507
MedlinePlus 000639

Gapfura cyangwa anjine ni indwara iterwa na bagiteri yitwa “sitereputokusi y’itsinda A ”.[1] Anjine yibasira umuhogo n'amaraka. Amaraka ni udusoko tubiri two mu muhogo duherereye ahagana inyuma h' umunwa . Anjine ishobora nanone gufata agasanduku k'ijwi (inkanka ). Ibimenyetso rusange biyiranga birimo umuriro , ububabare bwo mu mihogo (bituma bayita uburwayi mu mihogo), n'ukubyimba k'udusoko (twitwa inturugunyu nyamagege ) zo mu ijosi. Anjine itera 37% by' uburwayi bwo mu mihogo mu bana .[2]

Anjine ikwirakwira binyuze kwegerana n' abantu barwaye iyo indwara. Kugira ngo hamenywe neza ko umuntu arwaye anjine, hakenerwa ko hakorwa ikizamini cyitwa igenzura ry'uburwayi bw'umuhogo. Nubwo iki kizamini cyaba kidakozwe, ikekwa ry'uko umuntu yaba arwaye anjine rishobora kumenywa biturutse ku bimenyetso.

Imiti ya antibiyotiki ishobora gufasha umuntu urwaye anjine. Antibiyotiki ni imiti yica bagiteri. Ikunda gukoreshwa mu kwirinda ugukomerezwa nk'ukw’ ibicurane bikaze kurusha kugabanya iminsi y'uburwayi.[3]

Ibimenyetso n' ibirangandwara[edit | edit source]

Ibirangandwara bimenyerewe by' anjine ni ukurwara mu mihogo, umuriro urenza dogere 38°C (100.4°F), amashyira (ururenda rw'umuhondo cyangwa icyatsi ( rugizwe na bagiteri zapfuye, n' udusoro tw'amaraso twera) ku maraka, n' ibyimba ry'inturugunyu nyamagege.[3]

Hashobora kubaho ibindi birangandwara nk':

Umuntu urwaye anjine agaragarwaho n'ibirangandwara kuva ku munsi umwe kugera kuri itatu nyuma y'uko ahuye n' umuntu uyirwaye.[3]

Ikiyitera[edit | edit source]

Anjine iterwa n' ubwoko bwa bagiteri yitwa sitereputokusi beta-hemolitiki yo mu itsinda rya A (GAS).[6]Izindi bagiteri cyangwa virusi bishobora na byo gutera ububabare bwo mu mihogo.[3][5] Abantu bafatwa na anjine mu buryo butaziguye, begeranye n' umurwayi. Indwara ishobora gukwirakwira ku buryo bworoshye igihe abantu bateraniye hamwe.[5][7] Ingero z'amakoraniro zirimo abantu bari mu igisirikari cyangwa mu mashuri . Bagiteri ya GAS ishobora kumiranira mu mukungugu , ariko muri icyo gihe ntishobora kurwaza abantu. Iyo bagiteri ziri mu bidukikije zikomeje ubuhehere zishobora kurwaza abantu mu gihe kigera ku minsi 15.[5] Bagiteri zihehereye zisangwa ku bintu nk' uburoso bw'amenyo Izi bagiteri zishobora kuba mu biribwa, ariko ibi ntibikunda kubaho cyane. Abantu barya ibiribwa bashobora kurwara.[5] Cumi na kabiri ku ijana by' abana badafite ibirangandwara bya anjine bafite GAS mu mihogo yabo ubusanzwe.[2]

Uko isuzumwa[edit | edit source]

Igipimo cya Centor kivuguruye
Amanota Ikigero anjine ishobora kubonekeraho Uburyo ivurwa
1 cyangwa mu nsi <10% Nta antibiyotiki cyangwa ikizamini bikenewe
2 11–17% Antibiyotiki ishingiye ku kizamini cyangwa RADT
3 28–35%
4 cyangwa 5 52% Antibiyotiki nta gukora ikizamini

Urutonde rwitwa igipimo gihinduye cya Centor gifasha abaganga gufata icemezo cy'uko tbashobora kuvura abantu barwaye uburwayi bwo mu mihogo. Igipimo cya Centor gifite ibipimo cyangwa amagenzura y'ubuvuzi atanu. Cyerekana uburyo bishoboka ko umuntu arwaye anjine.[3]

Inota rimwe ritangwa kuri kimwe muri ibi bishingirwaho:[3]

  • Nta nkorora
  • Ukubyimba kw' inturugunyu nyamagege cyangwa inturugunyu nyamagege zibabaza iyo umuntu azikozeho
  • Ubushyuhe buri hejuru ya dogere 38°C (100.4°F)
  • Amashyira cyangwa ukubyimba kw' amaraka
  • Mu kigero kiri munsi y'imyaka (inota rimwe rikurwaho iyo umuntu ari hejuri y'imyaka 44)

Ikizamini cyo muri laboratwari[edit | edit source]

Ikizamini cyitwa igenzura ry'uburwayi bw'umuhogo] ni uburyo bw'igenzi[8] kugira ngo hamenyekane niba umuntu arwaye anjine. Iki kizamini gitanga icyizere kuva kuri 90 kugeza kuri 95 ku ijana y' igihe.[3] Habaho ikindi kizamini twitwa ikizamini cya anjine cyihuse, cyangwa RADT . Ikizamini cya anjine cyihuse kibangutse kurusha igenzurandwara zo mu mihogo ariko kivumbura indwara ku buryo bwizewe kukigero cya 70 ku ijana gusa by' igihe cyagenwe. Ibizamini byombi bishobora kwerekana igihe umuntu atarwaye anjine. Bishobora kwerekana ibi ku kigero cyizewe cya 98 ku ijana by' igihe.[3]

Mu gihe umuntu arwaye igenzurandwara zo mu mihogo cyangwa ikizamini cya anjine cyihuse bishobora kuranga niba umuntu arwaye anjine.[9] Abantu batagaragaza ibirangandwara ntibakwiye gupimwa indwara zo mu mihogo cyangwa ikizamini cya anjine cyihuse kuko abantu bamwe bafite bagiteri zitera anjine mu mihogo yabo ubusanzwe nta ngaruka izo arizo zose bibateye. Aba bantu kandi ntibakenewe kuvurwa.[9]

Impamvu zitera ibiterandwara nk'ibi[edit | edit source]

Anjine ifite bimwe mu birangandwara nk'iby'izindi ndwara. Kubera iyo mpamvu, birakomeye kumenya niba umuntu arwaye anjine nta igenzurandwara zo mu mihogo cyangwa igenzura ryihuse rya anjine rikozwe.[3] Iyo umuntu afite umuriro n' uburibwe bwo mu mihogo biherekejwe n' inkorora , ibimyira byindi mu mazuru , impiswi , n' ugutukura no kumva ububabare mu maso , biba bishoboka ko yaba arwaye ukurwara mu mihogo guterwa na virusi .[3] Iyandura ukubyimba mu mihogo ishobora gutera ububyimbe bw'inturugunyu ziri mu umuhogo na ukurwara mu mihogo, umuriro, ndetse ikaba yatuma amaraka aba manini.[10] Iri genzura rishobora kwemezwa na igenzura ry'amaraso. Nti habaho ariko ivura ryihariye bwa uburwayi bwo mu mihogo bwandura.

Uko yirindwa[edit | edit source]

Abantu bamwe bafatwa na anjine kurusha abandi. Gukuramo amaraka ni bumwe mu buryo bwo kurinda aba abantu gufatwa na anjine.[11][12] Gufatwa na anjine inshuro eshatu cyangwa nyinshi mu mwaka umwe bishobora kuba impamvu nyayo mu gukuraho amaraka.[13] Gusa ariko nanone gutegereza biba byiza aho kwihutira kuyakata.[11]

Uko ivurwa[edit | edit source]

Anjine akenshi imara iminsi mike nta kuvurwa .[3] Kuyivurisha indwanyamikorobi bituma ibirangandwara bizimira byihuse mu gihe cy'amasaha 16.[3] Impamvu y'ingenzi ituma ivurishwa indwanyamikorobi ni uko bigabanya ingorane zo kuba umuntu yagira uburwayi bukaze. Urugero ni, indwara y'umutima izwi nka ibicurane bikaze cyangwa urukorakorane rw'amashyira mu muhogo ruzwi nka ikibyimba cyo mu mihogo .[3] Indwanyamikorobi zikora neza iyo zitanzwe m nyuma yo kugaragara kw'ibirangandwara.[6]

Imiti igabanya ububabare[edit | edit source]

Imiti igamije koroshya ububabare ishobora gufasha ku bubabare buterwa na anjine.[14] Iyi miti akenshi ibamoitari siteroyidali cyangwa isanzwe izwi nka asetaminofene . Ingirabuzimafatizo na zo ni ingenzi[6][15], nka lidokayine ikoreshwa mu gutanga ikinya mu myorohera .[16] Asipirine ishobora gukoreshwa ku bantu bakuze. Si byiza guha asipirine abana kubera ko ishobora gutuma barwara indwara ifite ibimeneyetso bigaragara ko byica ya Reye .[6]

Imiti izitira mikorobe[edit | edit source]

Penesiline V ni inzitiramikorobi ikoreshwa cyane muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu kuvura anjine. Irakoreshwa cyane kubera ko nta ngorane iteza, ikora neza kandi ntigura amafaranga menshi] .[3] Amogisiline ikoreshwa kenshi mu Uburayi .[17] Mu Ubuhinde , birashoboka ko abantu bandura ibicurane bikaze. Kubera iyo mpamvu, umuti uterwa mu rushinge witwa penesiline benzatine G ni wo ukoreshwa buri gihe.[6] Antibiyotiki igabanya igihe ibimenyetso byagombaga kumara. Impuzandengo iri hagati y'iminsi itatu n'itanu. Antibiyotiki igabanya ubu burebure ho hafi umunsi umwe. Iyi miti igabanya kandi ikwirakwira ry'iyi ndwara.[9] Imiti ikoreshwa kenshi mu kugerageza kugabanya ubukare budakunda kugaragara. Burimo ibicurane bikaze , gusesa ubuheri ku mubiri cyangwaubwandure bw'umubiri .[18] Ibyiza bya indwanyamikorobi bikwiye kuringanizwa n' izindi ngaruka zishobora gutera.[5] Kuvurwa hakoreshejwe indwanyamikorobi/antibiyotiki ntibikwiye gukoreshwa ku bantu basanzwe bafite ubuzima buzira umuze bagizweho ingaruka zo kuba bafashe imiti.[18] Indwanyamikorobi/antibiyotiki zikoreshwa kuri anjine kurusha uko hitezwe biturutse k'uko anjine iteye n' umuvuduko ikwirakwiriraho.[19] Imiti ya eritoromisine (n' indi miti, yitwa makorolide) ikwiye gukoreshwa ku abantu bafite ubwivumbure bw'umubiri bukaze aho gukoresha penesilini .[3]Sefalosiporini zishobora gukoreshwa ku bantu batagira ubwivumbure bukabije bw'umubiri.[3] Ubwandu bw'umubiri butewe n'agakoko ka siterebutokoki bushobora nanone gutera ukubyimba kw' impyiko (uburwayi bw'impyiko bworoheje). Indwanyamikorobi/antibiyotiki ntizigabanya amahirwe y' iyi miterere.[6]

Icyo gushimangira[edit | edit source]

Ibirangandwara bya anjine akenshi bikira, bivuwe cyangwa bitavuwe, mu gihe kiri hagati y'iminsi itatu n'itanu.[9]Ukuvura hifashishijwe abtibiyotiki bigabanya ingorane zo gutuma indwara ikara. Bishobora nanone gutuma bitorohera ikwirakwira ry' indwara. Abana bashobora gusubira ku ishuri mu masaha 24 nyuma gufata antibiyotiki za mbere.[3]

Ibi bibazo bikaze bishobora guterwa na anjine:

Ibishobora kubaho[edit | edit source]

Anjine ishyirwa mu itsinda ryagutse ry' uburibwe bwo mu mihogo cyangwa gapfura. Abantu bagera kuri miliyoni 11 bafatwa n' uburwayi bwo mu mihogo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika buri mwaka.[3] Inyinshi mu ndwara z' uburibwe bwo mu mihogo buterwa na virusi. Bagiteri yo mu bwoko bwa sitereputokusi beta-hemolitiki yo mu itsinda rya A itera kuva 15 kugeza kuri ku ijana by' uburwayi bwo mu mihogo mu bana. Itera kuva kuri 5 kugeza kuri 20 ku ijana by' uburwayi bwo mu mihogo mu bantu bakuze.[3] Ubu burwayi akenshi bugaragara mu igihe cy'ibukonje kigiye kurangira no mu ntangiriro z'igihe kimeze nk'umuhindo.[3]

Inyandiko zifashishijwe[edit | edit source]

  1. Template:DorlandsDict
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM (September 2010). "Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics 126 (3): e557–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2648. PMID 20696723. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 Choby BA (March 2009). [http: www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p383.html "Diagnosis n' treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis"]. Am Fam Physician 79 (5): 383–90. PMID 19275067. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Brook I, Dohar JE (December 2006). "Management of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children". J Fam Pract 55 (12): S1–11; quiz S12. PMID 17137534. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Hayes CS, Williamson H (April 2001). [http: www.aafp.org/afp/20010415/1557.html "Management of Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis"]. Am Fam Physician 63 (8): 1557–64. PMID 11327431. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Baltimore RS (February 2010). "Re-evaluation of antibiotic treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis". Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 22 (1): 77–82. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833502e7. PMID 19996970. 
  7. Lindbaek M, Høiby EA, Lermark G, Steinsholt IM, Hjortdahl P (2004). "Predictors for spread of clinical group A streptococcal tonsillitis within the household". Scand J Prim Health Care 22 (4): 239–43. doi:10.1080/02813430410006729. PMID 15765640. 
  8. Smith, Ellen Reid; Kahan, Scott; Miller, Redonda G. (2008). In A Page Signs & Symptoms. In a Page Series. Hagerstown, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 312. ISBN 0-7817-7043-2. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Bisno AL, Gerber MA, Gwaltney JM, Kaplan EL, Schwartz RH (July 2002). "Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clin. Infect. Dis. 35 (2): 113–25. doi:10.1086/340949. PMID 12087516. 
  10. Ebell MH (2004). [http:www.aafp.org/afp/20041001/1279.html "Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis"]. Am Fam Physician 70 (7): 1279–87. PMID 15508538. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Paradise JL, Bluestone CD, Bachman RZ, et al. (March 1984). "Efficacy of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children. Results of parallel randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials". N. Engl. J. Med. 310 (11): 674–83. doi:10.1056/NEJM198403153101102. PMID 6700642. 
  12. Alho OP, Koivunen P, Penna T, Teppo H, Koskela M, Luotonen J (May 2007). "Tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting in recurrent streptococcal pharyngitis in adults: randomised controlled trial". BMJ 334 (7600): 939. doi:10.1136/bmj.39140.632604.55. PMC 1865439. PMID 17347187. 
  13. Johnson BC, Alvi A (March 2003). "Cost-effective workup for tonsillitis. Testing, treatment, and potential complications". Postgrad Med 113 (3): 115–8, 121. PMID 12647478. 
  14. Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P (October 2000). "How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?". Br J Gen Pract 50 (459): 817–20. PMC 1313826. PMID 11127175. 
  15. [http:www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123372200/abstract "Effectiveness of Corticosteroid Treatment in Acute Pharyngitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature."]. Andrew Wing. 2010; Academic Emergency Medicine. 
  16. [http:www.medicinenet.com/lidocaine_viscous/article.htm "Generic Name: Lidocaine Viscous (Xylocaine Viscous) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions"]. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  17. Bonsignori F, Chiappini E, De Martino M (2010). "The infections of the upper respiratory tract in children". Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23 (1 Suppl): 16–9. PMID 20152073. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Snow V, Mottur-Pilson C, Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR (March 2001). [http: www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/134/6/506.pdf "Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults"]. Ann Intern Med 134 (6): 506–8. PMID 11255529. 
  19. Linder JA, Bates DW, Lee GM, Finkelstein JA (November 2005). [http:jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/294/18/2315 "Antibiotic treatment of children with sore throat"]. J Am Med Assoc 294 (18): 2315–22. doi:10.1001/jama.294.18.2315. PMID 16278359. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 [http:www.utdol.com/online/content/topic.do?topicKey=upp_resp/4610 "UpToDate Inc."]. 
  21. Stevens DL, Tanner MH, Winship J, et al. (July 1989). "Severe group A streptococcal infections associated n' toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A". N. Engl. J. Med. 321 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM198907063210101. PMID 2659990. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Hahn RG, Knox LM, Forman TA (May 2005). "Evaluation of poststreptococcal illness". Am Fam Physician 71 (10): 1949–54. PMID 15926411.